Cyber Challenges in a Hierarchical Culture
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Cyber Challenges in a Hierarchical Culture

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Cyber Challenges in a Hierarchical Culture

Cyber Challenges in a Hierarchical Culture
Lt. Gen. Robert J. Elder, Jr. (Ret)

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  • Global Domain within information environment consisting of the interdependent network of IT infrastructures, including the internet, telecommunication networks, computer systems, and embedded processors and controllersOpen Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model:1. Physical Layer - The actual hardware. 2. Data Link Layer - Data transfer method (802x ethernet). Puts data in frames and ensures error free transmission. Also controls the timing of the network transmission. Adds frame type, address, and error control information. 3. Network Layer - IP network protocol. Routes messages using the best path available. 4. Transport Layer - TCP, UDP. Ensures properly sequenced and error free transmission. 5. Session Layer - The user's interface to the network. Determines when the session is begun or opened, how long it is used, and when it is closed. Controls the transmission of data during the session. Supports security and name lookup enabling computers to locate each other. 6. Presentation Layer - ASCII or EBCDEC data syntax. Makes the type of data transparent to the layers around it. Used to translate date to computer specific format such as byte ordering. It may include compression. It prepares the data, either for the network or the application depending on the direction it is going. 7. Application Layer - Provides services software applications need. Provides the ability for user applications to interact with the network.
  • Source: Global Commerce Initiative Report, “2016: Future Value Chain”
  • Global Domain within information environment consisting of the interdependent network of IT infrastructures, including the internet, telecommunication networks, computer systems, and embedded processors and controllersOpen Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model:1. Physical Layer - The actual hardware. 2. Data Link Layer - Data transfer method (802x ethernet). Puts data in frames and ensures error free transmission. Also controls the timing of the network transmission. Adds frame type, address, and error control information. 3. Network Layer - IP network protocol. Routes messages using the best path available. 4. Transport Layer - TCP, UDP. Ensures properly sequenced and error free transmission. 5. Session Layer - The user's interface to the network. Determines when the session is begun or opened, how long it is used, and when it is closed. Controls the transmission of data during the session. Supports security and name lookup enabling computers to locate each other. 6. Presentation Layer - ASCII or EBCDEC data syntax. Makes the type of data transparent to the layers around it. Used to translate date to computer specific format such as byte ordering. It may include compression. It prepares the data, either for the network or the application depending on the direction it is going. 7. Application Layer - Provides services software applications need. Provides the ability for user applications to interact with the network.

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