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- 1. Prims Algorithm on minimum spanning treeSubmitted by:Abdullah Al Mamun (Oronno)Department of Computer Science & Engineering,University of Dhaka.2nd Year, Session: 2006-07
- 2. What is Minimum Spanning Tree?• Given a connected, undirected graph, a spanning tree of that graph is a subgraph which is a tree and connects all the vertices together.• A single graph can have many different spanning trees.• A minimum spanning tree is then a spanning tree with weight less than or equal to the weight of every other spanning tree.
- 3. graph GSpanning Tree from Graph G2 2 4 3 4 51 1 1
- 4. Algorithm for finding Minimum Spanning Tree• The Prims Algorithm• Kruskals Algorithm• Baruvkas Algorithm
- 5. About Prim’s AlgorithmThe algorithm was discovered in 1930 bymathematician Vojtech Jarnik and later independentlyby computer scientist Robert C. Prim in 1957.The algorithm continuously increases the size of atree starting with a single vertex until it spans all thevertices. Prims algorithm is faster on densegraphs.Prims algorithm runs in O(n*n)But the running time can be reduceusing a simple binary heap data structureand an adjacency list representation
- 6. • Prims algorithm for finding a minimal spanning tree parallels closely the depth- and breadth-first traversal algorithms. Just as these algorithms maintained a closed list of nodes and the paths leading to them, Prims algorithm maintains a closed list of nodes and the edges that link them into the minimal spanning tree.• Whereas the depth-first algorithm used a stack as its data structure to maintain the list of open nodes and the breadth-first traversal used a queue, Prims uses a priority queue.
- 7. Let’s see an example to understand Prim’s Algorithm.
- 8. Lets…. At first we declare an array named: closed list. And consider the open list as a priority queue with min-heap. Adding a node and its edge to the closed list indicates that we have found an edge that links the node into the minimal spanning tree. As a node is added to the closed list, its successors (immediately adjacent nodes) are examined and added to a priority queue of open nodes.
- 9. Total Cost: 0Open List: dClose List:
- 10. Total Cost: 0Open List: a, f, e, bClose List: d
- 11. Total Cost: 5Open List: f, e, bClose List: d, a
- 12. Total Cost: 11Open List: b, e, gClose List: d, a, f
- 13. Total Cost: 18Open List: e, g, cClose List: d, a, f, b
- 14. Total Cost: 25Open List: c, gClose List: d, a, f, b, e
- 15. Total Cost: 30Open List: gClose List: d, a, f, b, e, c
- 16. Total Cost: 39Open List:Close List: d, a, f, b, e, c
- 17. PSEUDO-CODE FOR PRIMS ALGORITHM Designate one node as the start node Add the start node to the priority queue of open nodes. WHILE (there are still nodes to be added to the closed list) { Remove a node from priority queue of open nodes, designate it as current node. IF (the current node is not already in the closed list) { IF the node is not the first node removed from the priority queue, add the minimal edge connecting it with a closed node to the minimal spanning tree. Add the current node to the closed list. FOR each successor of current node IF (the successor is not already in the closed list OR the successor is now connected to a closed node by an edge of lesser weight than before) Add that successor to the priority queue of open nodes; } }
- 18. Sample C++ Implementation• void prim(graph &g, vert s) { • int minvertex(graph &g, int *d) { • int v;• int dist[g.num_nodes];• int vert[g.num_nodes]; • for (i = 0; i < g.num_nodes; i++) • if (g.is_marked(i, UNVISITED)) {• for (int i = 0; i < g.num_nodes; i++) { • v = i; break;• dist[i] = INFINITY; • }• dist[s.number()] = 0; • for (i = 0; i < g.num_nodes; i++) • if ((g.is_marked(i, UNVISITED)) && (dist[i] < dist[v])) v = i;• for (i = 0; i < g.num_nodes; i++) {• vert v = minvertex(g, dist); • return (v); • }• g.mark(v, VISITED);• if (v != s) add_edge_to_MST(vert[v], v);• if (dist[v] == INFINITY) return;• for (edge w = g.first_edge; g.is_edge(w), w = g.next_edge(w)) {• if (dist[g.first_vert(w)] = g.weight(w)) {• dist[g.second_vert(w)] = g.weight(w);• vert[g.second_vert(w)] = v;• }• }• }• }
- 19. Complexity Analysis Minimum edge weight data Time complexity (total) structureadjacency matrix, searching O(V*V)binary heap and adjacency O((V + E) log(V)) = O(Elist log(V))Fibonacci heap and O(E + V log(V))adjacency list
- 20. Application One practical application of a MST would be in the design of a network. For instance, a group of individuals, who are separated by varying distances, wish to be connected together in a telephone network. Because the cost between two terminal is different, if we want to reduce our expenses, Prims Algorithm is a way to solve it Connect all computers in a computer science building using least amount of cable. A less obvious application is that the minimum spanning tree can be used to approximately solve the traveling salesman problem. A convenient formal way of defining this problem is to find the shortest path that visits each point at least once. Another useful application of MST would be finding airline routes. The vertices of the graph would represent cities, and the edges would represent routes between the cities. Obviously, the further one has to travel, the more it will cost, so MST can be applied to optimize airline routes by finding the least costly paths with no cycles.
- 21. ReferenceBook: Introduction to Algorithm By: Thomas H. CormenWebsite:• mathworld.wolfram.com• www-b2.is.tokushima-u.ac.jp/suuri/Prim.shtml• www.cprogramming.com/tutorial/ computersciencetheory/mst.html• en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prims_algorithm• www.unf.edu/~wkloster/foundations/ PrimApplet/PrimApplet.htm
- 22. Thank you for being with me… Any question?????

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