Session 1 intro & rhythm 1

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First of 10 Music Theory sessions - unfortunately not interactive at this point.

This session covers a short music history and commences giving time values to musical notes.

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Session 1 intro & rhythm 1

  1. 1. The Destination<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> understand the “why” of music theory
  2. 2. instrument independent
  3. 3. apply theory in practical workshops
  4. 4. phased, comfortable approach
  5. 5. “play” not “work”
  6. 6. structured creativity
  7. 7. OK, let’s go....</li></ul> crabby comments to assist, confuse or distract....<br />23 August 2011 - 1<br />
  8. 8. The Process<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> building block approach
  9. 9. learning bites
  10. 10. discuss
  11. 11. apply (test where appropriate)
  12. 12. review
  13. 13. reinforce</li></ul>Get comfortable with a concept, then move on….<br />23 August 2011 - 2<br />
  14. 14. Music Elements<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> sounds
  15. 15. pitch
  16. 16. rhythm
  17. 17. melody
  18. 18. harmony
  19. 19. creativity
  20. 20. spirit</li></ul>Music theory is just like leaning another language….<br />23 August 2011 - 3<br />
  21. 21. Instrument Groups<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> strings
  22. 22. woodwinds
  23. 23. brass
  24. 24. percussion
  25. 25. electronic
  26. 26. voice</li></ul>Where does the piano accordion fit in?<br />23 August 2011 - 4<br />
  27. 27. Instrument Types<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> one note (pitch) only
  28. 28. one note at a time
  29. 29. multiple notes (one note = one location)
  30. 30. multiple notes (one note = multiple locations)
  31. 31. single tuning (multiple note locations)
  32. 32. multiple tuning (multiple note locations)
  33. 33. exotic instruments – quarter tones (steel & fretless guitars)</li></ul>Where does the pedal steel guitar fit in?<br />23 August 2011 - 5<br />
  34. 34. Music History for Drongos<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> early music linked with magic & shamanism
  35. 35. music had magical powers – it could change your emotions
  36. 36. music existed for a long time before it was written down
  37. 37. music was taught by rote
  38. 38. Hindus, Greeks, Persians & Chinese had traditions of written music before the birth of Christ
  39. 39. western music - 500 AD - Boethius – wrote a Latin paper on using a different Latin character to represent each note</li></ul>Earliest rave party – Jericho 2200 BC!!!<br />23 August 2011 - 6<br />
  40. 40. Music History for Drongos 2<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> middle ages – Catholic monks improved Boethius work
  41. 41. 700 AD – use of “neumes” above Latin letters to indicate note length, pitch & movement
  42. 42. neumes now written above or below a line, above the line was a higher pitch than below the line
  43. 43. 1000 AD – Guido di Arezzo – created a 4 line “staff” to denote pitch, supported writing of more than one note at once (polyphony)
  44. 44. 4 line staff extended to 5 lines – current system evolves</li></ul>All musical terms are Italian, e.g. Pizza!<br />23 August 2011 - 7<br />
  45. 45. Notes<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> represents the pitch & relative duration of a musical sound
  46. 46. pitch (wave frequency) – how high or low the note is
  47. 47. duration – period of time the note is played or held
  48. 48. identified by modern English alphabetical letters A, B, C, D, E, F & G as well as sharps (#) & flats (b) – black notes on keyboard
  49. 49. displayed on musical staffs or staves....</li></ul>Joke time – E, G & B go into a bar....<br />23 August 2011 - 8<br />
  50. 50. Notes – Science Time 1<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> each note has a “fundamental frequency”
  51. 51. this frequency (wavelength) is measured in Hz (hertz)
  52. 52. 1 Hz = 1 cycle wave per second
  53. 53. humans typically can hear notes between the ranges of 12 Hz to 20,000 Hz, dogs - 40 Hz to 60,000 Hz, & bats - 20 Hz to 120,000 Hz
  54. 54. standards required for instrument makers, sound engineers etc – a tuning system</li></ul> Don’t waste time playing bass solos to dogs!!!<br />23 August 2011 - 9<br />
  55. 55. Tuning Standards<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> modern western music uses 11 distinct identifiers, A, B, C, D, E, F, & G plus 4 others (introduced later as sharps and/or flats)
  56. 56. selected a “standard note” – Concert A (the A above middle C)
  57. 57. set at 435 Hz by the French in 1859
  58. 58. in England this varied from 439 HZ to 452 Hz
  59. 59. a frequency of 440 Hz was adopted in 1939 & ratified in 1955
  60. 60. now double the 440Hz to get another A (an octave higher 880 Hz)
  61. 61. now divide the Hz difference in pitch by 12 to get 12 notes of each octave</li></ul>Just like Australian railway gauges....<br />23 August 2011 - 10<br />
  62. 62. Equal Tempered Tuning<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> used generally in western music
  63. 63. wavelengths were assigned to the 12 notes as below....
  64. 64. A = 440 Hz, A# = 480 Hz, B = 520 Hz,
  65. 65. C = 560 Hz, C# = 600 Hz, D = 640 Hz,
  66. 66. D# = 680 Hz, E = 720 Hz, F = 760 Hz,
  67. 67. G = 800 Hz, G# = 840 Hz, A = 880 Hz.
  68. 68. a mathematical compromise acceptable to the human ear </li></ul>A = 440 Hz is top E string, fret 5 on the guitar……..<br />23 August 2011 - 11<br />
  69. 69. Staff?<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> looks like a fence – notes are displayed under it, on it or below it
  70. 70. higher up the fence, the higher the note (pitch)
  71. 71. 5 lines high (this means 4 spaces!)
  72. 72. divided into groups of notes by vertical lines (bar lines or fence posts)
  73. 73. area between each fence post is known as a bar……
  74. 74. read from left to right (unlike Chinese) – just like words on a page</li></ul>Just one bar at a time....<br />23 August 2011 - 12<br />
  75. 75. Definitions<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li>RHYTHM – pattern of regular or irregular pulses
  76. 76. BEAT – series of repeating, consistent pulsations, each pulsation is equal in spacing & called a “beat”, e.g. a clock
  77. 77. TEMPO – rate or speed of the beat</li></ul>So many drummers, so little time…<br />23 August 2011 - 13<br />
  78. 78. How Long In Each Bar?<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> the note type (its visible appearance) tells us how long (many beats) to play (or hold) it
  79. 79. but first we need to be told – “how many beats in each bar?”
  80. 80. at the start of a piece of music this is indicated by the “TIME SIGNATURE” – one number over another, like “a fraction”
  81. 81. at this stage we will just use 2 Time Signatures…..
  82. 82. ¾ time – 3 beats to each bar (waltz time)
  83. 83. 4/4 time – 4 beats to a bar (also called “common time”)</li></ul>All musicians should be comfortable in bars.....<br />23 August 2011 - 14<br />
  84. 84. Note Duration<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> Semibreve (an egg) = 4 beats
  85. 85. Minim (egg on a stick) = 2 beats
  86. 86. Crotchet (black egg on a stick) = 1 beat
  87. 87. Quaver ( black egg on a stick & 1 flag) = 1/2 beat</li></ul>Quavers have flags on the sticks & can be joined<br />23 August 2011 - 15<br />
  88. 88. “Relative” Note Duration<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> Semibreve = whole note
  89. 89. Minim = half note
  90. 90. Crotchet = quarter note
  91. 91. Quaver = eighth note</li></ul>Duration measured as portion of a “whole note”…..<br />23 August 2011 - 16<br />
  92. 92. Note Stems (Sticks)<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> Semibreve = doesn’t have one
  93. 93. Minim = always has a stem
  94. 94. Crotchet = always has a stem
  95. 95. Quaver = always have a stem with a single flag , can be joined if more than one exists side – by – side</li></ul>Quavers are sociable & enjoy holding hands……<br />23 August 2011 - 17<br />
  96. 96. Note Stems – Up or Down?<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> if note is above middle line of fence (Staff) – stem goes down
  97. 97. if note is below middle line of fence (Staff) stem goes up
  98. 98. if note is on the middle (third) line of the fence (Staff) – make up your own mind, but be consistent! The normal approach is “down”</li></ul>What rules apply to joined quavers……<br />23 August 2011 - 18<br />
  99. 99. Note Duration – Exercise 1<br />1BAR<br /> listen to the sample piece <br /> listen again & tap /sing/ moan etc to the timing of each note<br /> we will use these 4 note types for the next few exercises so that you are really comfortable with relative timing of our 4 notes types - semibreves, minims, crotchets & those friendly quavers<br />Great exercise – don’t forget the lyrics.....<br />23 August 2011 - 19<br />
  100. 100. Note Duration – Exercise 2<br />1BAR<br /> listen to the sample piece – it is in 3/4 – waltz time <br /> listen again & tap /sing/ moan etc to the timing of each note<br /><ul><li>Note the Time Signature at start of the piece (3/4),
  101. 101. 3 = 3 beats per bar
  102. 102. 4 = crotchet has a value of 1 beat</li></ul>Why can’t we see any semibreves?<br />23 August 2011 - 20<br />
  103. 103. Music Tempo<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> as well as being told “how many beats in each bar” – written music must also tell us the tempo or speed of the music (how long is a semibreve?)
  104. 104. this is normally displayed at start of piece with “bpm = “ where the “beats per minute” of the piece is stated, e.g. 60 bpm = 1 beat per second
  105. 105. experience only will give you a feel for what this means, here are several 4/4 samples of crotchets at different tempos</li></ul>60 bpm<br />100 bpm<br />140 bpm<br />190 bpm<br />Use a metronome to improve your tempo awareness....<br />23 August 2011 - 21<br />
  106. 106. Italian Speed Signs<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li>Grave – slow & solemn (20 – 40 bpm)
  107. 107. Adagio – slow & stately (66 – 76 bpm)
  108. 108. Andante – at a walking pace (76 - 108 bpm)
  109. 109. Moderato – moderate tempo (100 – 110 bpm)
  110. 110. Allegro – fast, quickly & bright (120 - 139 bpm)
  111. 111. Vivace – lively & fast (140 - 160 bpm)
  112. 112. Presto – lively & fast (160 - 200 bpm)
  113. 113. Prestissimo – extremely fast (over 200 bpm)</li></ul>Maserati = very cool & very fast!<br />23 August 2011 - 22<br />
  114. 114. Music Tempo (2)<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> Some music will speed up or slow down
  115. 115. Some music will change Time Signature from 4/4 to ¾ etc
  116. 116. Some music will have parts that have no notes, i.e. silences or “rests”
  117. 117. Some music will use notes longer or shorter than the 4 notes covered so far
  118. 118. Some notes will be longer than just 1 bar</li></ul>All will be revealed in good time.....<br />23 August 2011 - 23<br />
  119. 119. Note Duration – Exercise 3<br />1BAR<br /> listen to the sample piece<br /> listen again & tap/ sing /moan etc to the timing of each note<br />repeat until you are confident you can understand & follow the timing of the exercise<br />Timing is everything…….<br />23 August 2011 - 24<br />
  120. 120. The “Rest” Home<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li>musical silences also have defined durations, called “Rests”, the symbols below match up “Rests” with the 4 note types previously introduced, understood & befriended….</li></ul>Play Symbol Rest Symbol<br /><ul><li> Semibreve = 4 beats
  121. 121. black brick hanging “below” the fourth line of the Staff.</li></ul>Click on the crab to hear a 4 beat (semibreve) rest…..<br />23 August 2011 - 25<br />
  122. 122. More “Rest” Home<br />1BAR<br />Play Symbol Rest Symbol<br /><ul><li> Minim = 2 beats
  123. 123. black brick sitting “above” the third line of the Staff.
  124. 124. Crotchet = 1 beat
  125. 125. squiggly line (seagull?) covering all 4 spaces</li></ul>Another musical term for rest – “tacit”<br />23 August 2011 - 26<br />
  126. 126. Final “Resting Place”<br />1BAR<br />Play Symbol Rest Symbol<br /><ul><li> Quaver = 1/2 beat
  127. 127. Classy walking stick starting on second line of Staff
  128. 128. Has one “handle” to match single “flag” hanging from the quaver
  129. 129. For Guitar music particularly, the letters N.C. above a piece of music can be used to indicate that “No Chord” is to be played until the next chord name appears</li></ul>But how do we shut up the lead guitarist!!!<br />23 August 2011 - 27<br />
  130. 130. Note Duration – Exercise 3<br />With Rests<br />1BAR<br /> listen to the sample piece<br /> listen again & tap/ sing /moan (or d nothing when you see a Rest symbol) etc to the timing of each note<br />repeat until you are confident you can understand & follow the timing of the exercise<br />Do you need a rest now?<br />23 August 2011 - 28<br />

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