Session 1   intro & rhythm 1
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Session 1 intro & rhythm 1

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First of 10 Music Theory sessions - unfortunately not interactive at this point.

First of 10 Music Theory sessions - unfortunately not interactive at this point.

This session covers a short music history and commences giving time values to musical notes.

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    Session 1   intro & rhythm 1 Session 1 intro & rhythm 1 Presentation Transcript

    • The Destination
      1BAR
      • understand the “why” of music theory
      • instrument independent
      • apply theory in practical workshops
      • phased, comfortable approach
      • “play” not “work”
      • structured creativity
      • OK, let’s go....
      crabby comments to assist, confuse or distract....
      23 August 2011 - 1
    • The Process
      1BAR
      • building block approach
      • learning bites
      • discuss
      • apply (test where appropriate)
      • review
      • reinforce
      Get comfortable with a concept, then move on….
      23 August 2011 - 2
    • Music Elements
      1BAR
      • sounds
      • pitch
      • rhythm
      • melody
      • harmony
      • creativity
      • spirit
      Music theory is just like leaning another language….
      23 August 2011 - 3
    • Instrument Groups
      1BAR
      • strings
      • woodwinds
      • brass
      • percussion
      • electronic
      • voice
      Where does the piano accordion fit in?
      23 August 2011 - 4
    • Instrument Types
      1BAR
      • one note (pitch) only
      • one note at a time
      • multiple notes (one note = one location)
      • multiple notes (one note = multiple locations)
      • single tuning (multiple note locations)
      • multiple tuning (multiple note locations)
      • exotic instruments – quarter tones (steel & fretless guitars)
      Where does the pedal steel guitar fit in?
      23 August 2011 - 5
    • Music History for Drongos
      1BAR
      • early music linked with magic & shamanism
      • music had magical powers – it could change your emotions
      • music existed for a long time before it was written down
      • music was taught by rote
      • Hindus, Greeks, Persians & Chinese had traditions of written music before the birth of Christ
      • western music - 500 AD - Boethius – wrote a Latin paper on using a different Latin character to represent each note
      Earliest rave party – Jericho 2200 BC!!!
      23 August 2011 - 6
    • Music History for Drongos 2
      1BAR
      • middle ages – Catholic monks improved Boethius work
      • 700 AD – use of “neumes” above Latin letters to indicate note length, pitch & movement
      • neumes now written above or below a line, above the line was a higher pitch than below the line
      • 1000 AD – Guido di Arezzo – created a 4 line “staff” to denote pitch, supported writing of more than one note at once (polyphony)
      • 4 line staff extended to 5 lines – current system evolves
      All musical terms are Italian, e.g. Pizza!
      23 August 2011 - 7
    • Notes
      1BAR
      • represents the pitch & relative duration of a musical sound
      • pitch (wave frequency) – how high or low the note is
      • duration – period of time the note is played or held
      • identified by modern English alphabetical letters A, B, C, D, E, F & G as well as sharps (#) & flats (b) – black notes on keyboard
      • displayed on musical staffs or staves....
      Joke time – E, G & B go into a bar....
      23 August 2011 - 8
    • Notes – Science Time 1
      1BAR
      • each note has a “fundamental frequency”
      • this frequency (wavelength) is measured in Hz (hertz)
      • 1 Hz = 1 cycle wave per second
      • humans typically can hear notes between the ranges of 12 Hz to 20,000 Hz, dogs - 40 Hz to 60,000 Hz, & bats - 20 Hz to 120,000 Hz
      • standards required for instrument makers, sound engineers etc – a tuning system
      Don’t waste time playing bass solos to dogs!!!
      23 August 2011 - 9
    • Tuning Standards
      1BAR
      • modern western music uses 11 distinct identifiers, A, B, C, D, E, F, & G plus 4 others (introduced later as sharps and/or flats)
      • selected a “standard note” – Concert A (the A above middle C)
      • set at 435 Hz by the French in 1859
      • in England this varied from 439 HZ to 452 Hz
      • a frequency of 440 Hz was adopted in 1939 & ratified in 1955
      • now double the 440Hz to get another A (an octave higher 880 Hz)
      • now divide the Hz difference in pitch by 12 to get 12 notes of each octave
      Just like Australian railway gauges....
      23 August 2011 - 10
    • Equal Tempered Tuning
      1BAR
      • used generally in western music
      • wavelengths were assigned to the 12 notes as below....
      • A = 440 Hz, A# = 480 Hz, B = 520 Hz,
      • C = 560 Hz, C# = 600 Hz, D = 640 Hz,
      • D# = 680 Hz, E = 720 Hz, F = 760 Hz,
      • G = 800 Hz, G# = 840 Hz, A = 880 Hz.
      • a mathematical compromise acceptable to the human ear
      A = 440 Hz is top E string, fret 5 on the guitar……..
      23 August 2011 - 11
    • Staff?
      1BAR
      • looks like a fence – notes are displayed under it, on it or below it
      • higher up the fence, the higher the note (pitch)
      • 5 lines high (this means 4 spaces!)
      • divided into groups of notes by vertical lines (bar lines or fence posts)
      • area between each fence post is known as a bar……
      • read from left to right (unlike Chinese) – just like words on a page
      Just one bar at a time....
      23 August 2011 - 12
    • Definitions
      1BAR
      • RHYTHM – pattern of regular or irregular pulses
      • BEAT – series of repeating, consistent pulsations, each pulsation is equal in spacing & called a “beat”, e.g. a clock
      • TEMPO – rate or speed of the beat
      So many drummers, so little time…
      23 August 2011 - 13
    • How Long In Each Bar?
      1BAR
      • the note type (its visible appearance) tells us how long (many beats) to play (or hold) it
      • but first we need to be told – “how many beats in each bar?”
      • at the start of a piece of music this is indicated by the “TIME SIGNATURE” – one number over another, like “a fraction”
      • at this stage we will just use 2 Time Signatures…..
      • ¾ time – 3 beats to each bar (waltz time)
      • 4/4 time – 4 beats to a bar (also called “common time”)
      All musicians should be comfortable in bars.....
      23 August 2011 - 14
    • Note Duration
      1BAR
      • Semibreve (an egg) = 4 beats
      • Minim (egg on a stick) = 2 beats
      • Crotchet (black egg on a stick) = 1 beat
      • Quaver ( black egg on a stick & 1 flag) = 1/2 beat
      Quavers have flags on the sticks & can be joined
      23 August 2011 - 15
    • “Relative” Note Duration
      1BAR
      • Semibreve = whole note
      • Minim = half note
      • Crotchet = quarter note
      • Quaver = eighth note
      Duration measured as portion of a “whole note”…..
      23 August 2011 - 16
    • Note Stems (Sticks)
      1BAR
      • Semibreve = doesn’t have one
      • Minim = always has a stem
      • Crotchet = always has a stem
      • Quaver = always have a stem with a single flag , can be joined if more than one exists side – by – side
      Quavers are sociable & enjoy holding hands……
      23 August 2011 - 17
    • Note Stems – Up or Down?
      1BAR
      • if note is above middle line of fence (Staff) – stem goes down
      • if note is below middle line of fence (Staff) stem goes up
      • if note is on the middle (third) line of the fence (Staff) – make up your own mind, but be consistent! The normal approach is “down”
      What rules apply to joined quavers……
      23 August 2011 - 18
    • Note Duration – Exercise 1
      1BAR
      listen to the sample piece
      listen again & tap /sing/ moan etc to the timing of each note
      we will use these 4 note types for the next few exercises so that you are really comfortable with relative timing of our 4 notes types - semibreves, minims, crotchets & those friendly quavers
      Great exercise – don’t forget the lyrics.....
      23 August 2011 - 19
    • Note Duration – Exercise 2
      1BAR
      listen to the sample piece – it is in 3/4 – waltz time
      listen again & tap /sing/ moan etc to the timing of each note
      • Note the Time Signature at start of the piece (3/4),
      • 3 = 3 beats per bar
      • 4 = crotchet has a value of 1 beat
      Why can’t we see any semibreves?
      23 August 2011 - 20
    • Music Tempo
      1BAR
      • as well as being told “how many beats in each bar” – written music must also tell us the tempo or speed of the music (how long is a semibreve?)
      • this is normally displayed at start of piece with “bpm = “ where the “beats per minute” of the piece is stated, e.g. 60 bpm = 1 beat per second
      • experience only will give you a feel for what this means, here are several 4/4 samples of crotchets at different tempos
      60 bpm
      100 bpm
      140 bpm
      190 bpm
      Use a metronome to improve your tempo awareness....
      23 August 2011 - 21
    • Italian Speed Signs
      1BAR
      • Grave – slow & solemn (20 – 40 bpm)
      • Adagio – slow & stately (66 – 76 bpm)
      • Andante – at a walking pace (76 - 108 bpm)
      • Moderato – moderate tempo (100 – 110 bpm)
      • Allegro – fast, quickly & bright (120 - 139 bpm)
      • Vivace – lively & fast (140 - 160 bpm)
      • Presto – lively & fast (160 - 200 bpm)
      • Prestissimo – extremely fast (over 200 bpm)
      Maserati = very cool & very fast!
      23 August 2011 - 22
    • Music Tempo (2)
      1BAR
      • Some music will speed up or slow down
      • Some music will change Time Signature from 4/4 to ¾ etc
      • Some music will have parts that have no notes, i.e. silences or “rests”
      • Some music will use notes longer or shorter than the 4 notes covered so far
      • Some notes will be longer than just 1 bar
      All will be revealed in good time.....
      23 August 2011 - 23
    • Note Duration – Exercise 3
      1BAR
      listen to the sample piece
      listen again & tap/ sing /moan etc to the timing of each note
      repeat until you are confident you can understand & follow the timing of the exercise
      Timing is everything…….
      23 August 2011 - 24
    • The “Rest” Home
      1BAR
      • musical silences also have defined durations, called “Rests”, the symbols below match up “Rests” with the 4 note types previously introduced, understood & befriended….
      Play Symbol Rest Symbol
      • Semibreve = 4 beats
      • black brick hanging “below” the fourth line of the Staff.
      Click on the crab to hear a 4 beat (semibreve) rest…..
      23 August 2011 - 25
    • More “Rest” Home
      1BAR
      Play Symbol Rest Symbol
      • Minim = 2 beats
      • black brick sitting “above” the third line of the Staff.
      • Crotchet = 1 beat
      • squiggly line (seagull?) covering all 4 spaces
      Another musical term for rest – “tacit”
      23 August 2011 - 26
    • Final “Resting Place”
      1BAR
      Play Symbol Rest Symbol
      • Quaver = 1/2 beat
      • Classy walking stick starting on second line of Staff
      • Has one “handle” to match single “flag” hanging from the quaver
      • For Guitar music particularly, the letters N.C. above a piece of music can be used to indicate that “No Chord” is to be played until the next chord name appears
      But how do we shut up the lead guitarist!!!
      23 August 2011 - 27
    • Note Duration – Exercise 3
      With Rests
      1BAR
      listen to the sample piece
      listen again & tap/ sing /moan (or d nothing when you see a Rest symbol) etc to the timing of each note
      repeat until you are confident you can understand & follow the timing of the exercise
      Do you need a rest now?
      23 August 2011 - 28