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Seismology Measuring the Interior-2
 

Seismology Measuring the Interior-2

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  • PP.29-Stein: What in the physics of the solid earth allows waves to propagate through it? How does the propagation of seismic waves depend on the nature of the material within the earth? Stress Tensor : Describing the forces acting within a deformable solid earth material, and describes deformation.
  • PP. 102, Fowler, 2005. The bulk modules K , which is defined as the ratio of the increase in pressure to the resulting fractional change in volume, is a measure of the force per unit area required to compress material. The shear modulus  is a measure of the force per unit area needed to change the shape of a material. Since P-wave involve change of volume and shape,  is a function of K and  , whereas  is only function of  because S-waves involve no change in volume. Since the bulk modules K must be positive, equations (4.4 and 4.5) show that Vp is always greater than Vp, or, in other words, P-waves always travel faster than S-waves. The rigidity  for liquid is zero, a liquid has no rigidity and can not sustain shear; EQ. (4.5) therefore indicates that S-waves can not be propagated through liquids. Thus, S-waves can not be transmitted through the Earth’s liquid outer core. The dependence of Vp and Vs on density is not immediately obvious, but, in general, denser rocks have higher seismic velocities, contrary to what one would expect from a first glance at Eqs. (4.4) and (4.5). This occurs because the elastic module K and  are also dependent on  and increase rapidly than  .
  • Graph of seismic velocity versus density for materials presented in Fig.3.9. L=limestone; Q=quartz; Sh=shale; Ss=sandstone. Solid rectangles with labels are compressional wave velocities (Vp); corresponding shear wave velocities s) shown directly beneath by plus’s. Emprical (Nafe-Drake”) curves, developed through analysis of numerous rock and sediment samples, are superimposed on the graph (Ludwig, Nafe, and Drake, 1971). Portions of these curves, highlighted by the solid lines, show roughly linear relationship between seismic velocities and densities for crustal rocks. 1g/cm3=103kg/m3.
  • Seismic wave behavior P waves arrive first, then S waves, then L and R After an earthquake, the difference in arrival times at a seismograph station can be used to calculate the distance from the seismograph to the epicenter (D).
  • from an Earthquake occurring on a reverse fault

Seismology Measuring the Interior-2 Seismology Measuring the Interior-2 Presentation Transcript