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# Gravity Methods 1

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• very nice lecture sir , i am confused because you have wrote G=6367000m pleas sir explain it . my email is muhammad_wajid60@yahoo.com

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### Gravity Methods 1

1. 1. Ali Oncel [email_address] Department of Earth Sciences KFUPM Gravity Methods 1 Introduction to Geophysics Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
2. 2. Field Trip: Refraction Seismology Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
3. 3. Field Trip: Refraction Seismology Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
4. 4. Field Trip: Refraction Seismology Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
5. 5. Field Trip: Refraction Seismology Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
6. 6. Field Application by Gravimeter Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM This Wednesday, Mid Term Next Wednesday, May 10
7. 7. <ul><li>The gravity field is symmetric. Force vectors (arrows) have approximately equal magnitude and point toward the center of the Earth. </li></ul>Earth’s Gravity Potential Field Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
8. 8. <ul><li>The magnitude and direction of the magnetic field is governed by positive (south) and negative (north) poles . Magnitude varies by a factor of two from equator to pole. </li></ul>Earth’s Magnetic Potential Field Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
9. 9. Differences in Earth’s Potential Fields Earth’s gravity field is simply compared to the magnetic field . Lines of the force for the gravity field are directed toward the center of the Earth while magnetic field strength and direction depend on the Earth’s positive and negative poles. Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
10. 10. <ul><li>The acceleration due to gravity ( a=g ) of a body depends only the mass of attracting body ( m 2 =M ) and the distance to the center of that mass ( r=R ). g=GM/R 2 </li></ul><ul><li>The gravitational force between two objects is directly proportional to their masses ( m 1 , m 2 ), and inversely proportional to the square of their distance ( r ). </li></ul><ul><li>The mass ( m 1 ), times the acceleration ( a ) due to mass ( m 2 ), determines the gravitational force ( F ). F=m 1 a </li></ul>EARTH’S GRAVITY FIELD Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
11. 11. The variation of g across the earth’s surface provides information about the distribution of density contrasts in the subsurface since m =  V (i.e. density x volume). m s spring mass, m E mass of the earth = 5.967 x 1024 kg R E radius of the earth Like apparent conductivity and resistivity , the acceleration of gravity (g) is a basic physical property we measure, and from which, we infer the distribution of subsurface density contrast. Earth’s Gravitational Acceleration For perfectly spherical and non-rotating Earth with uniform mass distribution, g E represents the acceleration of gravity at a particular point on the earth’s surface: Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM R E m S m E
12. 12. <ul><li>The mass ( M ) of the Earth and radius ( r ) to the Earth’s center determine the gravitational acceleration ( g ) of objects and above Earth’s surface. </li></ul><ul><li>The acceleration is the same ( g ), regardless of the mass of the object. </li></ul><ul><li>Objects at Earth’s surface ( radius R 1 ) have greater acceleration than objects some distance above the surface ( radius R 2 ). </li></ul>Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
13. 13. The main factors responsible for the difference in gravitational acceleration at the equator compared to the poles. Gravity increases from 978,000 mGal at the equator, to about 983,000 mGal at the poles. Variation in gravity from equator to pole , according to 1967 Reference Gravity formula. Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
14. 14. Theoretical Gravity The average value of gravity for a given latitude is approximated by the International Association of Geodesy in 1967. g n = Normal Gravity: Gravitational acceleration expected for a rotating ellipsoidal earth without any geologic complications and no surface features . Ф =latitude Gravitation increase from the equator ( Ф =0) =978,03185 mGal to the pole ( Ф =0)=983,217.72 mGal Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
15. 15. dg/dR≈-0.308 mGal/m dg/dR ≈ average value for the change in gravity with increasing elevation Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
16. 16. Free Air Gravity Correction Rising upward from Earth’s surface, gravitational acceleration decreases by about 0.308 mGal for every meter of height. A gravity station at high elevation tends to have a lower gravitational acceleration (g) than a station at lower elevation Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
17. 17. Free Air Gravity Correction <ul><li>The free air correction (FAC) accounts for the extended radius to an observation point, elevated h meters above a sea level datum. </li></ul><ul><li>The above equation illustrates that, for every 3 m (about 10 feet) upward from the surface of the Earth, the acceleration due to gravity decreases by about 1 mGal. </li></ul>Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
18. 18. Gravity Anomaly <ul><li>What is an anomaly? </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between observed gravity and International Gravity Formula (IGF) for same location or relative to local base station, termed the gravity anomaly , D g </li></ul><ul><li>Dg = g obs - g n </li></ul><ul><li>difference is the result of density contrasts in the subsurface below the measurement point </li></ul>Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
19. 19. Free Air Gravity Anomaly Δ g fa = g – g t + FAC Δ g fa = free gravity anomaly g = gravitational acceleration observed at station g t = theoretical gravity Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
20. 20. Bouguer Correction <ul><li>The extra mass of mountains results in higher gravity relative to areas near sea level. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bouguer Correction (BC) accounts for the gravitational attraction of the mass above the sea-level datum. </li></ul>Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
21. 21. Bouguer Correction <ul><li>Thus, to account for the excess mass above a sea level datum, the Bouguer correction assumes an infinite slab of density ( ρ ), with thickness ( h ) equal to the station’s elevation. </li></ul><ul><li>BC= 2 π ρ G h </li></ul><ul><li>G=Universal Gravitational Constant (6,367,000 m) </li></ul><ul><li>H= thickness of the slab (station elevation) </li></ul><ul><li>Substituting the values of G and 2 π yields: </li></ul><ul><li>BC= 0.419 ρ h </li></ul>Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM b
22. 22. Bouguer Correction Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM