“Accelerating Geothermal Development in Turkey”
22-23 October 2013, Wyndham Kalamış - İstanbul
Geothermal Development Activities in Turkey
Orhan Mertoglu, Nilgun Basarir
Presented by : Prof. (H.) Orhan MERTOGLU*
President, Turkish Geothermal Association
and Jeotermal Araştırma ve Tesisler A.Ş./Ankara-Turkey
- IGA, International Geothermal Association (Iceland-Germany), Vice
President (2003-2007), European Branch Chairman (2007-2010),
Honorary Member of the Board (2010-….),
- EGEC-European Geothermal Energy Council (Belgium), former Vice
- Turkish Republic Ministry of Development 10th Development Plan (20142018) Chairman of Geothermal Commissions
Today, the geothermal
electricity production in the
world has reached globally
13000 MWe and the non –
electrical use has reached
globally 53.000 MWth.
The 2050 geothermal electricity
production target of the
countries worlwide is 200.000
MWe install capacity .
EXISTING SITUATION OF GEOTHERMAL APPLICATIONS
IN TURKEY (as of September 2013)
GEOTHERMAL DIRECT USE APPLICATIONS
(as of May 2013)
GEOTHERMAL DISTRICT HEATING
THERMAL FACILITIES HEATING
GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMP
TOTAL GEOTHERMAL HEAT USE
TOTAL ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION
89443 Residences Equivalence
~ 3 Million m2
42.000 Residences Equivalence
350 Spa, thermal facility
(870 MWt) (Annual 16 million visitors)
(260.000 Residences Equivalence)
Aydın Salavatlı, Aydın-Hıdırbeyli,
Installed Geothermal Power Plants
Salavatlı (DORA-I), Aydin
Operation Start-up Installed Capacity
Salavatlı (DORA-II), Aydin
Hıdırbeyli (IREM), Aydin
Hıdırbeyli (SINEM), Aydin
Hıdırbeyli (DENIZ), Aydin
*expected to be operational during 2013.
Salavatli - Dora III geothermal power plant with 17 MWe capacity is under trial operation
(beginning of Sept. 2013). The second 17 MWe unit is planned to start with trial operation in
Geothermal power plants projects received license from EMRA (EPDK)
Salavatlı (DORA-IV), Aydin
Geothermal Power Plants under development and construction
Salavatlı (DORA-III) 2nci bölüm,
Kütahya - Şaphane
Manisa - Alaşehir
Geothermal Power Plants planned
15 + 15
24 + 24 + 24 + 24
Development and projections of geothermal electricity
production in Turkey
~ 750 MWe
~ 300 MWe
August 2013 End of 2013
End of 2018
Turkey, has reached an important success in geothermal utilization in last years.
If we lo0k to the last 15 years, at the beginning this significant progress has been
-geothermal district heating systems, then
- world record (1st ranked) in rise of the geothermal greenhouse applications
(3 Million m2) in last 5 years
- in the last 5 years, especially in geothermal electricity production in Turkey. From 15
MWe to 242 MWe.
Existing situation of geothermal district heating systems in Turkey;
Local Governorship and Municipality equal
Local Governorship and Municipality Inc.
Local Governorship and Municipality Inc.
Local Governorship Inc.
Municipality + Private Sector Inc.
GEOTHERMAL IS A RELIABLE ENERGY RESOURCE:
A RECENT EXAPMPLE
The geothermal power plants at the North East of
All geothermal power plants in the affected area by 3,300kW
the earthquake on the 11th March 2011, recorded
M9.0, are in operation, generating the same levels
of power as those before the earthquake, although
many of them automatically shut down once right
All geothermal power plants in the affected area by the earthquake on
the 11th March 2011, recorded M9.0, are in operation, generating the
same levels of power as those before the earthquake, although many of
them automatically shut down once right after the event.
Under such circumstances, this has been shown how reliable and
sustainable the geothermal electricity production plants and in this
framework the geothermal applications are.
Additionally, according to Dr. Kasumi Yasukawa from Japan Institute for
Geosources and Environment and being the member of Board of
International Geothermal Association (IGA) declared to BBC News on
07.07.2011, that the “geothermal part in Japan’s electricity consumption
is 0,3 %. The Japan Government decided to increase this geothermal
portion to 10 %”.
This means that the geothermal electricity install power in Japan would
reach 28000 MWe. It is understood that Japan has selected geothermal
energy as alternative to nucleer power among all renewable energies.
The Reasons of the significant Progress of Geothermal Development
in Turkey :
1- The release of the Renewable Energy Law (No: 5346, May 2005)
With this law incentives to the renewable energy sources was given by different
electricity Feed in Tariff (5,5 Eurocents/kWh for geothermal). As it was amended in
2010 the incentives have been increased (10,5 $cents/kWh for geothermal).
2- The release of the Law on Geothermal Resources and Natural Mineral
Waters (No: 5686, June 2007) and its Implementation Regulation (No: 26727,
Dec.2007) providing exploration license (3 years + 1 year) and exploitation license
(30 years + 10 years) to the investors.
3- With the release of the geothermal law, MTA-General Directorate of Mineral
Research and Exploration has leased the rights of the geothermal fields suitable for
geothermal electricity production to the private sector in the form of operation
licenses by means of tenders. The high temperature geothermal fields have been
leased between 6,5 – 110 Million USD selling prices (we think that there is no another
similar example in the world) to the Turkish Private Sector.
4- The risk and fast action capability of the Turkish Private Sector.
TOTAL GEOTHERMAL THEORETICAL HEAT POTENTIAL OF TURKEY
(HYDROTHERMAL 0–3 km)
- 60000 MWt
= 7,5 Million Residences Equivalence heating or 300 billion m2 greenhouse heating
= Over 1 million thermal facility bed capacity
= 60 Billion m3/year natural gas equivalence
TOTAL GEOTHERMAL THEORETICAL ELECTRICITY POTENTIAL OF TURKEY
(HYDROTHERMAL) (0-3 km)
- 4500 MWe (36 Billion kWh/Year) theoretical potential
TOTAL GEOTHERMAL TECHNICAL AND ECONOMICAL ELECTRICITY
POTENTIAL OF TURKEY (HYDROTHERMAL) (0-3 km)
- 2000 MWe (16 billion kWh/Year), with additional incentive (15 USAcent/kWh feed in
tariff, 15-20 years)
THE GEOTHERMAL ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION TARGET OF TURKEY FOR
-750 MWe (6 Billion kWh/Year) (10,5 USAcent/kWh existing feed in tariff, 10 years)
THE EGS- ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM TECHNICAL ELECTRICITY
PRODUCTION POTENTIAL OF TURKEY (3-5 km)
Total EGS-Enhanced Geothermal System Electricity production technical potential
THE EGS- ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM TECHNICAL AND
ECONOMICAL ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION POTENTIAL OF TURKEY (3-5 km)
Technical and Economical EGS Electricity production potential expected to be
realized during next 20 years period and feed in tariff of 15 US$cent/kWh
THE GEOTHERMAL PROJECTIONS FOR 2014 – 2018 OF TURKEY (Acc. To
the 10th development plan (2014 – 2018) of the Ministry of Development
Targets for 2018
Additional investment USD
(6 Billion kWh)
2,0 Billion USD
1,4 Billion USD
(6 billion m2)
300 Million USD
180 Million USD
Heating (residences, hotels,
thermal facilities and others)
1,2 Billion USD
300 Million USD
Aquaculture + others
150 Million USD
Total Direct Use
5,53 Billion USD
Natural Gas Equivalence of all the above mentioned
geothermal direct use utilizations
6,1 Billion USD/Year
The economical value added to the Turkey’s economy by
means of above mentioned utilizations until the end of
32 Billion USD/year
The created employment (Direct and Indirect)
Some examples about geothermal greenhouses in
: 880.000 m2
: 250.000 m2
: 310.000 m2
: 152.740 m2
: 424.000 m2
: 885.000 m2
: ~ 3 Million m2
Especially in the Western Turkey, many deep wells have been drilled. In some of them,
200-250°C downhole temperatures has been measured and ab0ut half of them have
very low permeability (like dry).
These achieved temperatures gave us the thoughts about EGS systems applications.
According to our approach and calculations, we have obtained huge geothermal
electricity potential by taking EGS applications into account, our work is continuing
to be able to harness this potential.
We have conveyed the necessity about additional incentive demand for geothermal
heating and EGS applications to the Turkish Government.
The additional incentives for geothermal heating and EGS applications are expected
until the end of 2013 or mid of 2014.
A remarkable development is expected at the power generation with EGS in Europe in 2020.
The foreign investors are welcome for technical cooperation,
information exchange and joint venture investments in
geothermal in Turkey.
We will give importance especially to geothermal district cooling
(air-conditioning) and fish farming utilizations in Turkey.
We would like to thank to and congratulate Turkish Government, MTA,
Geothermal Experts and Turkish Private Sector for this success’.
We would like to thank
Green Power Conferences
for this excellent organisation
MANY THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION.
And sokak 8/2, 06880 Çankaya/Ankara
Tel: +90-312-4404319 Fax: +90-312-465 0375
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