Geothermal  Areas in Turkey

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  • 1. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE UTILIZATION OF GEOTHERMAL AREAS ıN TURKEY Prof.Dr. Alper BABA Izmir Institute of Technology Geothermal Energy Research and Application Center alperbaba@iyte.edu.tr
  • 2. WHAT IS GEOTHERMAL ENERGY?  A clean, renewable and environmentally benign energy source based on the heat in the earth  Used in 58 countries of the world. Known in over 80  Electricity generation in 24 countries  Direct heating use in 78 countries
  • 3. APPLICATION OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES Geothermal resources have long been used for  direct heat extraction for district urban heating,  industrial processing,  domestic water and space heating,  leisure and balneotherapy applications. Geothermal fields of natural steam are rare, most being a mixture of steam and hot water requiring single or double flash systems to separate out the hot water, which can then be used in binary plants or for direct heating. Re-injection of the fluids maintains a constant pressure in the reservoir, hence increasing the field’s life and reducing concerns about environmental impacts
  • 4. GEOTHERMAL ELECTRICITY INSTALLED CAPACITY MWE (2013) Russia 82 Iceland 575 Italy 843 China 24 USA 3093 Turkey 243.35 Japan 536 Mexico 958 Guatemala 52 El Salvador 204 Costa Rica 166 Guadeloupe 4 Philippines 1904 Ethiopia 7.3 Kenya 167 Indonesia 1197 Australia 1.1 New Zealand 437
  • 5. GEOTHERMAL DIRECT USE ENERGY PRODUCTION GWH/YR (2010) Canada 2465 Mexico 1117 USA 15710 Guatemala El Salvador Costa Rica Sweden 12584 Germany 3546 Latvia Switzerland 2143 Lithuania Poland Russia 1707 Ukraine Iceland 6767 Mongolia Slovakia Romania Bulgaria China 20931 Serbia Georgia Macedonia Nepal Japan 7139 Tunisia Greece Turkey 10247 Iran Algeria Guadeloupe Pakistan Egypt Eritrea Uganda Jordan Djibouti Ethiopia Kenya Thailand Vietnam Philippines Indonesia Burundi Tanzania Australia New Zealand 2654
  • 6. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS Surface disturbances  Physical effects - fluid withdrawal  Noise  Thermal pollution  Chemical pollution  Protection  Social and economic effects 
  • 7. TURKEY      Turkey is one of the most seismically active regions in the world. Its geological and tectonic evolution has been dominated by the repeated opening and closing of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic oceans (Dewey and Sengör, 1979; Jackson and Mc Kenzie, 1984). It is located within the Mediterranean Earthquake Belt, whose complex deformation results from the continental collision between the African and Eurasian plates (Bozkurt, 2001). The border of these plates constitutes seismic belts marked by young volcanics and active faults, the latter allowing the circulation of water as well as heat. The distribution of hot springs in Turkey roughly parallels the distribution of the fault systems, young volcanism, and hydrothermally altered areas
  • 8. North Anatolian Fault East Anatolian Fault Horst Graben System GEOLOGICALLY, TURKEY IS COMPOSED OF AEGEAN AND ANATOLIAN PLATES WHICH COVER THE WESTERN AND CENTRAL PARTS OF THE COUNTRY.
  • 9. GEOLOGICAL MAP OF TURKEY Western Anatolia Central Anatolia
  • 10. More than 1000 hot spring can be seen in Turkey MTA, 1995, Şimşek, 1982, 2010
  • 11. Geothermal Resources in Turkey More than 1000 hot spring can be seen in Turkey. Temperatures ranging from 25°C to as high as 287 °C, fumaroles, and numerous other hydrothermal alteration zones.
  • 12. Göbekli-Manisa (182 0C High enthalpy resource in Turkey Alaşehir-Manisa (287 0C Çanakkale-Tuzla (173 0C) İzmir-Dikili-Bergama 150 C) İzmir-Seferihisar 153 0C) Aydın-Germencik 232 0C Aydin-Salvatlı 171 0C) Denizli-Kizildere 242 oC Nevşehir-Acıgöl Kütahya-Simav 162 0C Bitlis-NemrutTendürek
  • 13. Geothermal Field (°C) Geothermal Field (°C) Manisa-Alaşehir-Köseali 287 Kütahya-Simav 162 Manisa Alaşehir X 265 Aydın-Umurlu 155 Manisa-Salihli-Caferbey 249 İzmir-Seferihisar 153 Denizli-Kızıldere 242 Denizli-Bölmekaya 147 Aydın-Germencik-Ömerbeyli 239 Aydın-Hıdırbeyli 146 Manisa-Alaşehir-Kurudere 214 İzmir-DikiliHanımınçiftliği 145 Manisa-Alaşehir-X 194 Aydın-Sultanhisar 145 Aydın-Yılmazköy 192 Aydın-Bozyurt 140 Aydın-Pamukören 188 Denizli-Karataş 137 Manisa-AlaşehirKavaklıdere 188 İzmir-Balçova 136 Manisa-Salihli-Göbekli 182 İzmir-Dikili-Kaynarca 130 Kütahya-Şaphane 181 Aydın-Nazilli-Güzelköy 127 Çanakkale-Tuzla 174 Aydın-Atça 124 Aydın-Salavatlı 171 Manisa-Salihli-Kurşunlu 117 Denizli-Tekkehamam 168 Denizli-Sarayköy-Gerali 114
  • 14. Dora-1, Karadas,2012 (Inanli and Atilla, 2011) Dora-2, Tufekcioglu ,2010 Bereket, Karadas,2012 (Simsek et al., 2005) Germencik, Wallace et al., 2009
  • 15. 2013 Update Results -Geothermal Power Generation in Turkey-243.35MWe Location Denizli Kızıldere I Kızıldere II Sarayköy Power plant Startup Reservoir date temperature (°C) Average Reservoir temperature (°C) Power capacity (MW e) Zorlu - Kızıldere Zorlu - Kızıldere Bereket 1984 2013 2007 242 - 217 145 17.4 60 7.5 Aydın/Sultanhisar Salavatlı Salavatlı Salavatlı Dora-1 Dora-2 Dora-3 2006 2010 2013 172 176 - 168 175 - 7.35 11.2 17 Aydın/Germencik Ömerbeyli Hıdırbeyli Bozkoy Bozkoy Gurmat Irem Sinem Deniz 2009 2011 2012 2012 232 190 - 220 170 - 47.4 20 24 24 2010 174 160 7.5 Çanakkale Tuzla Total Tuzla 243.35
  • 16. Thermal Tourism Agriculture Greenhouse • Currently, the country’s geothermal resources are primarily used for heating, which accounts for over % 90 of total direct use,
  • 17. DIFFERENT APPLICATION Reduce the industrial waste (Copper) Powder material Salt production
  • 18. ENVıRONMENT PROBLEMS   Turkey is one of the fastest growing power markets in the world and is facing an ever-increasing demand for power in the coming decades Geothermal development over the last forty years in Turkey has shown that it is not completely free of impacts on the environment
  • 19. GEOLOGICAL MAP OF WESTERN TURKEY (Baba and Sözbilir , 2012; Chemical Geology)
  • 20. HYDROGEOCHEMIC AL PROPERTIES OF GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM IN WESTERN TURKEY (Baba and Sözbilir, 2012; Chemical Geology)
  • 21. HEAVY METALS Arsenik Stronsiyum (Baba and Armansson, 2008; Energy Source)
  • 22. (Baba and Armansson, 2008; Energy Source)
  • 23. HYDROGEOCHEMIC AL PROPERTIES OF GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM IN WESTERN TURKEY (Baba and Sözbilir, 2012; Chemical Geology)
  • 24. SCALING AND CORROSıON Turkish geothermal operators claim to have virtually overcome the consequences of scaling and corrosion in both high and low temperature wells (Demir et al., 2013; Geothermic)
  • 25. GEOTHERMAL FLUIDS ENCOUNTERED IN TURKEY CAN BE CLASSIFIED CHEMICALLY AS %95 INCRUSTING AND TWO TO THREE GEOTHERMAL FIELDS HAVE HIGHLY CORROSIVE GEOTHERMAL FLUIDS. IN THREE OF THE 140 GEOTHERMAL FIELDS, GEOTHERMAL FLUID CONTAINING TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (TDS) EXCEEDS 5000 PPM. Turkish geothermal operators claim to have virtually overcome the consequences of scaling and corrosion in both high and low temperature wells, and scientific research.
  • 26. GEOTHERMAL FLUID COMPOSITIONS  The vast majority of geothermal fluids is of meteoric origin.  However, isotopic studies suggest that a small fraction (5-10%) may emanate from other sources, magmatic, juvenile, fluids or host sediments (connate or formation water)  Most geothermal fluids exhibit higher TDS contents than the original, cooler, intake waters.
  • 27. GEOTHERMAL FLUID COMPOSITIONS The amount and mature of dissolved chemical species depend on temperature, pressure, minimal-fluid equilibria and mixing with other waters.  One may logically infer that hotter fluids would display higher TDSs than cooler ones, an attribute however suffers many exceptions. 
  • 28. THE MAJOR CONSTITUANTS OF GEOTHERMAL WATERS ARE;  Cations: Na, K, Ca, Mg, Li, Sr, Mn, Fe  Anions: Cl-, HCO3-, SO42-, F-, Br Non ionic: SiO2, B, NH3, gases  Minor constituants: As, Hg, heavy, often toxic, metals
  • 29. Corrosion and Scaling  Damage occurs under the form of metal corrosion and deposition on exposed material surfaces of scale species.  Both phenomena may also coexist through deposition and/or entrainment of corrosion products.   Most commonly encountered damages address CO2/H2S corrosion, alkaline carbonate/sulfate, heavy metal sulphide and silica scale. Source mechanisms are governed by pH, solution gases and related bubble point and (CO2) partial pressures, salinity, solubility products and of thermodynamic changes induced by the production and injection processes.
  • 30. CORROSION AND SCALING Whereas scaling affects mainly high enthalpy systems,  a result of fluid flashing,  steam carry over and injection of heat depleted brines,  corrosion and, at a lesser extent though,     corrosion is the major damage in exploitation of low grade geothermal heat, known as direct uses. Micro-biological activity, particularily sulfate reducing bacteria, can also be a significant corrosion contributor in such low temperature environments.
  • 31. Scale Composition
  • 32. CALCIUM SCALE INHIBITION Four inhibition groups i. Threshold effect: the inhibitor acts a as salt precipitation retarder.  ii. Crystal distortion effect: the inhibitor interferes with crystal growth by producing an irregular structure (most often rounded surfaces) with weak scaling potential.  iii. Dispersion: the polarisation of crystal surfaces results in the repulsion between neighbouring crystal of reverse polarities  iv. Sequestration or chelation: complexation with selected cations (Fe, Mg, etc…) leads to the formation of soluble complexes.  
  • 33. CORROSION PHAENOMENOLOGY General (uniform) corrosion  Pitting corrosion  Crevice corrosion  Underdeposit corrosion  Galvanic corrosion  Impingement  Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) 
  • 34. CORROSION GOVERNING PARAMETERS Temperature  pH  Oxygen concentration  Fluid velocity  Suspended solids 
  • 35. CORROSION INHIBITION (EXAMPLE)
  • 36. CORROSION/SCALING MONITORING PROTOCOLS  hydrodynamics: control of pressures and temperatures and subsequent well, reservoir, geothermal network and heat exchanger performances,  fluid chemistry: general and topical (selected indicators, HS-, S2-, Fe3+, Fe3+, Ca2+, HCO3-, etc.) liquid and PVT (dissolved gas phase, gas-to-liquid ratio, bubble point) analyses,  inhibitor injection concentrations: volume metering, flow concentrations via tracing of the inhibitor active principle,  solid particle monitoring: concentrations (staged millipore filtrations) and particle size diameters and distributions (optical counting, doppler laser velocimetry),  microbiology: sulphate reducing bacteria numbering,  corrosion: measurement of corrosion rates (coupons, corrosion meters),  down hole line integrity: electrical measurements, pressurisation and/or tracer tests,  periodic well logging inspection
  • 37. DEPOSITION STUDY Themodynamics. Theory  Kinetics. Practice       In line coupons Solids Ageing. Laboratory simulation (Bench scale study) Suspended tank Full scale simulation
  • 38. ANALYSIS OF SCALES Microscopy  XRD  XRF  SEM  Microprobe  Wet chemical 
  • 39. SILICA SCALE EFFECT Problematic in surface equipment and in connection with disposal Thermodynamic study to determine minimum temperature of possible deposition Bench scale study prior to ponding or re-injection to study rate under different conditions
  • 40. SILICA REMOVAL/CONTROL l Prevention: – t > tAS – Inhibitors, e.g hydroxy-ethyl-cellulose, ethylene oxide, -C-O-C- group compounds l Removal: Difficult – Physical: drilling, scraping, hydroblasting, cavitation descaling – Chemical: HF, hot NaOH; undesirable
  • 41. IRON SILICATES (OXIDES, CARBONATES)   In high temperature brines, e.g Tuzla, Salton Sea, Djibouti, Milos. Also where volcanic activity has interfered, e.g Centreal and Eastern Anatolia Temperatures at least 50°C higher than for formation of simple silica deposits Proposed mechanism:  OFeOH•H2O + Si(OH)4 Fe(OH)3•SiO2 + 2H2O   When formation starts extent is great
  • 42. IRON COMPOUNDS: Fe/Si RATIO, CONTROL AND REMOVAL  Fe/Si RATIO (mole/mole):  0.15  at 105°C, 1.00 at 220°C (Tuzla) Control and Removal  Pressure control  Acid  Reducing agents, e.g. Na formate, as inhibitors  Drilling out
  • 43. SULPHIDES  PbS (galena), ZnS (sphalerite), CuS covellite), Cu2S (chalcocite), SbS2 (stibnite, in Mt Amiata, Italy), CuFeS2 (chalcopyrite), FeS2 (pyrite), FeS (pyrrhotite) by reaction of metal(s) with H2S.  Saline solutions, effect of volcanic gas  Lower temperature  lower solubility  Milos: Not directly on metal. Order of scales from wellhead to outflow: Galena, sphalerite, Fe-Si, SiO2
  • 44. BLACK DEATH Black death Galena on deposition coupon Picture from Haldor Arrmansson
  • 45. Deposition at different pressures Branched line Pressure controlled by orifices. Coupons inserted after each orifice Flow regulated by RJ-pipes, critical lip pressure monitored Pictures from Haldor Arrmansson
  • 46. Fe-Si deposit Pseudo scales Pictures from Haldor Arrmansson
  • 47. CALCITE SCALING Flashing  CO2 stripping and pH increase, causing calcite deposition Ca+2 + 2HCO3-  CaCO3 + CO2 +H2O  Increasing temperature  decreasing solubility  Extent of supersaturation can be calculated 
  • 48. CALCITE Removal Drilling out HCl treatment Control Inhibition:Organic phosphonates (success claimed);Synthetic polymers (e.g. polyacrylamide); Organic polymers (e.g. polycarboxylic acids);Sequestering agents (e.g. EDTA, polyphosphates (successful in low temperature situations)); HCl: Success claimed but care needed
  • 49. MAGNESIUM SILICATES  Formed upon heating of silica containing ground water or mixing of cold ground water and geothermal water Form at relatively high pH Well known where geothermal water used to heat groundwater Avoid mixing and keep pH low
  • 50. CORROSIVE SPECIES   O2: at low temperatures; H+ (pH): Low pH favours cathodic half-reaction; Cl: Fe+2 + Cl-  FeCl+ favours anodic half-reaction; CO2: Controls pH and favours last cathodic half-reaction. H2S attacks Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb H2S, CO3-2 and SiO2 may form protective films on steel Fe+2 + HS-  FeS + H+  Fe+2 + H3SiO4-  FeSiO3 + H+ + H2O  Fe+2 + HCO3-  FeCO3 + H+ 
  • 51. MODES OF CORROSION Uniform  Pitting  Crevice  Stress cracking  Erosion  Sulfide stress cracking  Hydrogen blistering  Intergranular  Galvanic  Fatigue  Exfoliation 
  • 52. MONITORING AND CONTROL  COUPONS  Wellhead fluid  Two phase flow lines  Flashed liquid  Steam  Condensate  Cooling water KEEP OXYGEN OUT  INSULATE Cl-RICH DRY STEAM 
  • 53. SPECIMENS  Type  Coupons  U-bend specimens  Notched specimens  Fatigue specimens  Number  Vendor of installation, plant owner, contractor 1 set each  Test period. ½ year, 1 year, long-term: 1 set each
  • 54. Fuji, 13% Cr stainless steel DIN X 20 Cr 13 (uncondensed steam) Virkir-Orkint CrNiMo steel 30 CrNiMo 8 (DIN 17200) (uncondensed steam) Fuji CrMoNiV steel DIN 30 CrMoNiV 5 11 (uncondensed steam) Fuji Stainless steel 405 (uncondensed steam) Fuji CrMoNiV steel DIN 30 CrMoNiV 5 11 (condensed steam) Fuji Stainless steel 405 (condensed steam) Fuji Stainless steel 304L (condensed steam) Fuji, 13% Cr stainless steel DIN X 20 Cr 13 (condensed steam)
  • 55. Pressure Forces Acting on Casing BURST COLLAPSE
  • 56. 24 May 2012 ALASEHIR
  • 57. Result and Conclusion  Geothermal development in the last forty years has shown that it is not completely free of adverse impacts on the environment.  These impacts are causing an increasing concern to an extent that may now be limiting development    The scarce data available shows that the thermal fluids contain trace elements (As, Cd, and Pb), which may affect soil and water. Corrosion and Scaling still a big problem in the most geothermal fields. All possible environmental effects should be clearly identified, and mitigation measures should be devised and adopted to avoid or minimize their impact.