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Geophysics: Overview-2

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  • 1. Introduction to Geophysics Ali O. Oncel [email_address] Department of Earth Sciences KFUPM Lecture 2 Overview
  • 2. Geophysics
    • Identify Geologic Problem
    • Survey Plan
    • Data Acquisition
    • Data Reduction
    • Data Analysis
    • Modeling
    • Write Report
    Photos from http://www.eegs.org/whatis/
  • 3. What is Geophysics?  
    • Application of physics to studies of the Earth, Moon, and other planets
    • Includes Earth, Atmosphere, Oceans, Planetary systems
  • 4. What is Geophysics?  
    • Solid-earth geophysics which is the study of the earth by quantitative physical methods, thus excluding portions of other subjects
    • Exploration geophysics is the use of seismic, gravity, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic, etc., methods in the search for oil, gas, minerals, water, etc., with the objective of economic exploitation.
  • 5. Examples of Geophysics
    • Pure and Applied Geophysics
    • Solid Earth
    • Surface Geophysics
  • 6. Applied Geophysics (economic objectives)  
    • Exploration Geophysics
    • Engineering Geophysics
    • Environmental Geophysics
    • Groundwater Geophysics
    • Archaeo – Geophysics
    • Forensics
  • 7. Applications?  
    • Approach to earthquake hazards and ground survey
    • Plate tectonics, the study of the interior structure of the earth
    • Human's ability to exploit natural resources
    • Engineering
    • Environmental
    • Hydrological
    http://seg.org/you-geo/definition.shtml
  • 8. Examples of geophysical methods?  
    • Gravity
    http://www.vibra-tech-inc.com/content.asp?ID=magnetics_gravity
  • 9. Examples of geophysical methods?  
    • Magnetics
    http://www.vibra-tech-inc.com/content.asp?ID=magnetics_gravity
  • 10. Examples of geophysical methods?        Seismics   a.   Reflection   b. Refraction   c.   Surface or borehole
  • 11. Examples of geophysical methods?        Ground Penetrating Radar
  • 12. Examples of geophysical methods?  
    • Resistivity
  • 13. Geophysical Methods
    • May not yield complete answer or unique solution; Non-uniqueness of forward modeling
    • Many solutions, but which ones are nonsense, which are plausible
    • Interpret within physical constraints & geological framework
  • 14. Geophysics and Geology
    • Geology places constraints on geophysical models
    • Geophysics places constraints on geologic interpretations
  • 15. Planning a Survey - Spatial Aliasing
  • 16. Two and Three Dimensions Location of Profiles
  • 17. Common Sources of Geophysical Noise
  • 18. Data Processing - Elimination of Noise
  • 19. Displaying Data
  • 20. Summary
    • Geophysics
    • Applied (Environmental) Geophysics
    • Gravity, Magnetic, Seismic, GPR & Resistivity
    • Selection of Proper Technique
    • Designing a Geophysical Survey