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Faulting and Seismicity: Eastern Mediterranean

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  • 1. Geophys. J. Int. (1998) 133, 390–406 Faulting associated with historical and recent earthquakes in the Eastern Mediterranean region N. N. Ambraseys1 and J. A. Jackson2 1Department of Civil Engineering, Imperial College of Science, T echnology and Medicine, L ondon, SW7 2BU, UK. E-mail: n.ambraseys@ic.ac.uk 2 Bullard L aboratories, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0EZ, UK Accepted 1997 November 17. Received in original form 1997 June 4 SUMMARY This paper summarizes evidence for surface faulting in historical and recent earthquakes in the Eastern Mediterranean region and in the Middle East. Such information is particularly important for studies of active tectonics and for palaeoseismology. We have found 78 cases of faulting pre-1900 and 72 post-1900, some of which show that faults that have apparently been inactive this century had already ruptured before 1900. For some cases faulting could not have been predicted from 20th century activity, and in others it could have been expected, but has not been observed during the instrumental period. The data are sufficient to allow the derivation of relationships between magnitude and rupture length. The purpose of this paper is to present the cases of coseismic 1 INTRODUCTION surface faulting known to us at present, both historical and modern, to show that faults in the region which appear to beEvidence for surface faulting in historical earthquakes in the quiescent today have been active in historical times, sometimesEastern Mediterranean and the Middle East is of importance more than once, and to identify hitherto unknown active faults.to all modern studies of tectonics and seismicity. Such evidence This compilation thus updates the last attempt to documentnot only confirms that known tectonic structures are active, coseismic surface ruptures in the region by Ambraseys (1975),but can also identify new ones. Despite shortcomings in the with almost double the number of cases in this new study.documentary evidence, information about surface faulting can be found in contemporary accounts and this provides a valuable reference point in the palaeoseismological record of faults. Such knowledge is particularly important when, for DATA example, the activity of a fault is to be researched by trenching The data used have been culled from a variety of published methods, as it allows the completeness of the palaeoseismologi- and unpublished sources and field investigations, in a number cal investigation to be assessed. of cases carried out by the first author. Because of space Obviously, the most interesting cases are those which have limitation for events before this century, only a few references happened where their occurrence could not be predicted from are given, and these are chiefly collections of literary sources. 20th century seismicity alone or, alternatively, where surface For the later period we have selected references which cover faulting could be expected from the 20th century seismicity both field data and seismological or engineering studies. It is but until now is not known to have happened. Since surface somewhat embarrassing but also unavoidable that one-quarter faulting is associated with large earthquakes, evidence of of the works quoted are by the first author, which stems from faulting can also be used to assess their size, even when necessity rather than from other motives. historical macroseismic sources do not provide enough direct evidence for magnitude estimates. The area of our investigations, shown in Fig. 1(a), is within Pre-instrumental periodlatitude 25° and 45° north and longitude 18° and 70° east. It comprises the Balkans, Turkey, the Caucasus and the Middle Historical sources record large surface fault ruptures, small East up to west Pakistan, a region of active tectonics and with ruptures not being spectacular enough to attract attention. a history which is amply, but not uniformly, documented Descriptions from which one can deduce faulting are relatively throughout the period of our interest of the past two millennia. few and hard to verify, particularly when the sources are Fig. 1(b) shows the distribution of medium and large earth- secondary and the recorded ground deformation is not well quakes during this century, and Fig. 1(c) is a location map described. It follows, therefore, that for the early historical period the information presented here is incomplete, but it isshowing some of the major fault zones referred to in the text. 390 © 1998 RAS byguestonJune29,2014http://gji.oxfordjournals.org/Downloadedfrom
  • 2. Faulting in the Eastern Mediterranean 391 information about faulting is implicit as, for instance, in the case of the #280 BC earthquake in Iran. Some examples of the descriptions found for this category are given in Appendix A. Other accounts of faulting are more explicit but quite a few are only very brief, and yield no further reliable information by being read into. (B) Cases for which surface faulting is not supported by clear evidence but can be inferred from the association of a narrow and long epicentral region of a large-magnitude earth- quake aligning with, or close to, a known fault. Occasionally the length of a break can be reckoned from the length of the long axis of the epicentral region which contains an assumed rupture. Clearly this would not tell us exactly how far the fault rupture extended, as it may have continued for a greater distance into sparsely populated areas, which we are unlikely to find reported in historical sources, but it will tell us that the shock was probably associated with a surface rupture that can be investigated today in the field. In these cases historical information will not reveal the exact location and rupture length, but it can help to define the time and the segment of the zone that was probably ruptured. (C) Faulting assumed because of the large size (M s ≥7.0) of the associated earthquake and its proximity to a known active fault zone. This category is more tenuous than category B, but it was included to guide further studies. There are many events of M s ≥7.0 that might have been associated with faulting, such as those in and around the Marmara Sea area, in Eastern Anatolia and Iran, but these are omitted as their epicentral area is ill defined. Of these three categories (A) and (a) involve some ruptures which may not previously have been associated with known active or Quaternary faults. Categories (B) and (C) merely date probable breaks of segments of known faults, and help assign size to these events. All these cases indicate recent fault Figure 1. (a) Area of our investigations, showing earthquakes of m b >4 activity because the proximity of these earthquakes to known during the period 1964–1990. (b) Distribution of significant shallow faults was part of the evidence assigning them to theseearthquakes during this century: open circles, M s between 6 and 6.9; categories.solid circles, M s ≥7.0. The largest symbols are M s ≥8. (c) Location Figs 2, 4 and 5 show the distribution of the epicentres inmap of the main fault area referred to in the text: NAF North Table 1 for the whole period of observation, before 1894 andAnatolian Fault, EAF East Anatolian Fault, DSF Dead Sea Fault, CF after 1893.Chaman Fault. Instrumental period put on record so that others can improve upon it by refining it and adding new case histories. During the instrumental period information about both the faulting and the seismological parameters of the associatedOne of the problems in these early and later descriptions of surface faulting is that one cannot always be certain whether earthquake improves: there are more detailed field observa- tions and better instrumental data allowing the uniformground deformation associated with an earthquake was of tectonic origin or due to landslides, liquefaction or slumping re-assessment of instrumental M s magnitudes. However, during the first half of this century this improve-of the ground. In some cases ground deformation genuinely of tectonic origin can be identified from descriptions of ground ment was very slow and surface faulting continued to be imperfectly reported. For example, the fault ruptures associatedruptures which extended continuously or discontinuously along considerable distances, but relative displacements are with the Locris earthquakes of 1894 in Greece were not properly mapped and their tectonic origin was not generallyseldom given for vertical, and never for horizontal, slip. The information which is usually available for this period may accepted by geologists, who until relatively recently considered this feature to have been a superficial effect of sliding. Also, oftherefore be classified into three broad categories according to the following criteria. the 360 km long fault break associated with the 1939 Erzincan earthquake in Turkey, only its western half was visited after(A) or (a) Strong evidence for surface faulting explicitly (A) or implicitly (a) described in the sources. The length of the the event, only part of the break was sketched rather than mapped on a one-to-one-million scale, and measurements ofrupture is rarely given, and only in few cases can it be reckoned from the distances between the localities which it traversed. fault displacement were made at a single location. The same applies to other major surface fault ruptures during that periodTo avoid any misinterpretation of the source material we have indicated in Tables 1 and 2 by small (a) cases for which in Anatolia, Iran, and Greece. © 1998 RAS, GJI 133, 390–406 byguestonJune29,2014http://gji.oxfordjournals.org/Downloadedfrom
  • 3. 392 N. N. Ambraseys and J. A. Jackson Table 1. List of earthquakes associated with surface fault break. Date Epicentre M s Az Mec L H V Q Location Ref N E deg. km cm cm 1 −464 – – 37.0–22.4 m 340 N 20 – 350 Cf Sparta GR 2 −426 – – 38.9–22.7 m – – – – – AAm Maliac G. GR 3 −280 – – 35.6–51.4 L – – – – – aA Sh. Rey IR 4 17 – – 38.5–27.8 L 270 N – – – APf Gediz R. TR 5 32 – – 40.5–31.5 L 080 R – – – Cf Gerede TR 6 37 – – 36.0–36.0 m 030 L – – – Cf Antioch TR 7 – – 37.3–36.5 m – – – – – C E.Anatol. TR 8 110 – – 39.5–33.5 m – – – – – C Galatia TR 9 115 Dec 13 35.8–36.3 L 010 L – – – aAf Oront. R. SY 10 155 – – 40.1–27.5 m 100 R – – – aAf Manyas TR 11 181 May 3 40.5–31.0 L – – – – – Bf Mudurnu TR 12 236 – – 40.9–36.0 m 110 R – – – aPf Amasya TR 13 368 Oct 11 40.5–29.5 L – – – – – Cf Iznik TR 14 460 Apr 7 40.3–27.8 m 060 R – – – aAf Manyas TR 15 499 Sep – 40.5–37.0 m 110 R – – – APf Niksar TR 16 518 – – 42.0–21.0 m – – 43 – – AP Macedonia MC 17 551 – – 38.5–22.7 m 290 N – – – APfm Chaeron GR 18 554 Aug 15 40.8–29.5 L – – – – – Bf Izmit TR 19 601 Apr – 37.0–36.5 - – – – – – aA E.Anatol. TR 20 750 – – 37.0–38.0 - – – – – – aA Mesopot. SY 21 856 Dec 22 36.0–54.3 L 250 T – – – aAf Qumis IR 22 926 Aug – 38.5–27.5 m 270 N – – – aAf Manisa TR 23 967 Sep – 40.8–32.0 L 080 R – – – Bf Gerede TR 24 995 – – 38.7–40.0 L 060 L – – – Cf Palu TR 25 1033 Dec 5 32.5–35.5 L 000 L – – – Cmf Jordan IS 26 1035 May – 40.8–33.0 m 070 R – – – aAf Cerkes TR 27 1045 Apr 5 40.0–38.0 L 120 R – – – aAmf Erzinc. TR 28 1050 Aug 5 41.0–33.5 L 080 L – – – aAf Cankiri TR 29 1068 Mar 18 28.5–36.7 L – – – – – aA Hejaz SA 30 1114 Nov 29 37.5–37.5 V 040 L – – – af Maras TR 31 1157 Aug 12 35.0–36.5 V 000 L – – – af Hama SY 32 1170 Jun 29 35.5–36.5 L 000 L – – – Cf Afamiya SY 33 1202 May 20 33.7–35.9 L 020 L – – – Bfm Bekaa LE 34 1254 Oct 11 40.0–39.0 L 110 R 150 – – APf Susehri TR 35 1296 Jul 17 39.2–27.4 m 050 N – – – aAf Soma TR 36 1336 Oct 21 34.7–59.7 7.6* 155 – 100 – – BPf Kwaf IR 37 1408 Dec 29 36.0–36.4 m 010 L 20 – – APf Orontes SY 38 1419 Mar 15 40.5–30.5 L – – – – – Cf Mudurnu? TR 39 1493 Jan 10 33.0–59.8 7.0* 120 T 30 – – APf Birjand IR 40 1505 Jul 6 34.8–69.1 7.4* 010 – 56 – 300 AP Kabul AF 41 1544 Jan 22 38.0–37.0 m 090 L – – – BAf Elbistan TR 42 1595 Sep 22 38.5–27.9 m 270 N – – – aP Ahmetli TR 43 1646 Apr 7 38.3–43.7 L 070 – – – – aP Van TR 44 1651 Jun 7 37.8–29.3 m 120 N – – – Bf Honaz TR 45 1653 Feb 22 37.9–28.5 7.1* 090 N 70 – 300 APd Menderes TR 46 1661 Mar 15 42.2–24.0 L – – – – – aA Maritza BU 47 1666 Sep 23 36.7–43.5 L – – – – – C N.Mosul IQ 48 1668 Aug 17 40.5–36.0 7.9* 090 – 400 – – APf Amasya TR 49 1721 Apr 26 37.9–46.7 7.7* 125 – 50+ – – AP Tabriz IR 50 1740 Oct 5 38.7–22.4 6.6* – – 20 – – aP Lamia GR 51 1752 Jul 29 41.3–26.5 L – – – – – aA Evros TR 52 1759 Nov 25 33.7–35.9 7.4* 020 L 100 – – Bekaa LE 53 1780 Jan 8 38.2–46.0 7.7* 120 RN 60+ – 600 AP Tabriz IR 54 1784 Jul 18 39.5–40.2 7.6* 110 R 150 – – Bfm Elmali TR 55 1789 May 28 38.8–39.5 L – – – – – BP Elazig TR 56 1796 Apr 26 35.5–36.0 6.6* – – – – – aA Latakia SY 57 1822 Aug 13 36.7–36.5 7.5* 020 L 200 – – APd Antakya TR 58a 1825 – – 36.1–52.6 6.7* – – – – – aPd Harhaz IR 58b 1829 May 5 41.2–25.1 7.2* – – 50 – – aPk Xanthi GR 59 1837 Jan 1 33.2–35.5 7.4* 000 – 80 – – BPkm Bshara LE 60 1838 – – 29.6–59.9 7.0* 170 – 70 – – APf Nasratab IR 61 1840 Jul 2 39.5–43.8 7.3* 140 R 80 – – BPf Kazlgo¨l TR 62 1855 Feb 28 40.0–28.5 7.4* 270 – 70 – – APm Ulubat TR 63 1855 Apr 11 40.3–29.1 6.6* – – – – – aA Gemlik TR 64 1861 Dec 26 38.2–22.2 6.6* 280 N 13 – 220 APk Vostiza GR 65 1864 Dec 7 33.2–45.9 6.4* – – 2+ – 50 aPk Zorbatia IQ © 1998 RAS, GJI 133, 390–406 byguestonJune29,2014http://gji.oxfordjournals.org/Downloadedfrom
  • 4. Faulting in the Eastern Mediterranean 393 Table 1. (Continued.) Date Epicentre M s Az Mec L H V Q Location Ref N E deg. km cm cm 66 1866 May 12 39.2–41.0 7.2* 230 L 45 – – APm Go¨nek TR 67 1870 Aug 1 38.5–22.6 6.7* 010 N 6+ – 200 aPm Fokis GR 68 1872 Apr 3 36.4–36.4 7.2* 030 – 20 – – APk Amik Gol TR 69 1874 May 3 38.5–39.5 7.1* 250 L 45 – 200 AM Go¨lcuk 1 TR 70 1875 Mar 27 38.5–39.5 6.7* 250 – 20 – 200 aP Go¨lcuk 2 TR 71 1875 May 3 38.3–29.9 6.5* 040 N 10 – 110 aP Civril TR 72 1880 Jul 29 38.6–27.2 6.5* 120 N 10 – 40 aPk Emiralan TR 73 1887 Sep 30 38.7–29.8 6.3* 290 N 10 – 50 aPd Banaz TR 74 1889 Jan 17 37.7–30.5 - – – – – – aPk Isparta TR 75 1892 Dec 19 30.9–66.5 6.9* 020 L 30 80 30 AMi Chaman PK 76 1893 Mar 2 38.0–38.3 7.1* 270 L – – – Bf Malatya TR 77 1894 Apr 27 38.6–23.2 6.9* 300 N 40 – 100 AMdm Martin #GR 78 1899 Sep 20 37.9–28.8 6.9 090 N 40 – 100 AMd Mender #TR 79 1904 Apr 4 41.8–23.1 7.2 230 N 25 – 200 aMim Struma #BU 80 1905 Jun 1 42.0–19.5 6.3 040 N 10 – 100 aPk Scutari #AL 81 1905 Dec 4 38.1–38.6 6.8 240 L – – – aPkf Malat. TR 82 1909 Jan 23 33.4–49.3 7.4 315 R 45 – 250 AMd Silakhor #IR 83 1909 Oct 20 28.9–68.3 7.1 130 L* 50 – – B Baluch #PK 84 1909 Feb 9 40.2–37.8 6.4 280 R* 15 – – APdm Ender. #TR* 85 1912 Aug 9 40.7–27.2 7.4 065 NR 50 – 300 AMd Marmara #TR 86 1914 Oct 3 37.6–30.1 7.0 230 NR 23 – 150 aPk Burdur #TR 87 1916 Jan 24 40.8–37.5 7.2 110 RL – – – Cf Samsun TR 88 1917 Jul 15 33.5–45.8 5.6 140 T* 2 – – APk Tursaq IQ 89 1928 Apr 14 42.1–25.2 6.8 290 N 64 – 50 AMU Plovdiv #BU 90 1928 Apr 18 42.2–24.9 7.0 300 N 50 – 350 AM Plovdiv *BU 91 1929 May 1 37.7–57.8 7.3 330 T 70 – 210 AG Kop. Dagh #TU 92 1930 May 6 38.2–44.6 7.2 305 RN 30 400 500 AMU Salmas #IR 93 1932 Sep 26 40.5–23.9 6.9 090 N 15 25 180 AMdi Ieriss #GR 94 1933 Nov 28 32.0–55.9 6.2 140 T 5 – 50 AMk Buhabad #IR 95 1935 May 30 29.8–66.8 7.6 015 T – – – Bdk Quetta PK 96 1938 Apr 19 39.5–34.0 6.8 120 R 14 100 60 AMd Kirsehir *TR 97 1939 Dec 26 39.7–39.7 7.8 110 R 340 650 250 AM Erzincan *TR 98 1941 Feb 16 33.4–58.9 6.1 005 RT 12 – 50 AGd Muham/ad #IR 99 1942 Dec 20 40.7–36.5 7.1 300 R 47 180 AMk Erba-Niks *TR 100 1943 Nov 26 41.0–35.5 7.4 275 R 270 200 100 AMd Ladik *TR 101 1944 Feb 1 40.9–32.6 7.3 255 R 160 370 100 AM Ger-Bolu *TR 102 1944 Jun 25 39.0–29.4 6.0 140 NR 18 – 30 APdU Saphane #TR 103 1946 May 31 39.3–41.2 5.7 300 R 10 30 30 APkd Ustukr. *TR 104 1946 Jul 27 35.6–45.8 5.5 145 T* 2 – – aPk Penjwin IQ 105 1947 Sep 23 33.7–58.7 6.8 180 RT 20 100 80 AG Dustab. #IR 106 1948 Oct 5 37.9–58.5 7.2 260 T – – – Bdk Ashkhab. TU 107 1949 Aug 17 39.4–40.8 6.9 100 R 38 150 30 AMd Elmalid. *TR 108 1951 Aug 13 40.7–33.3 6.9 260 R 32 60 30 APd Kursunlu #TR 109 1953 Feb 12 35.4–54.9 6.5 070 T 8 – 140 APdi Turud #IR 110 1953 Mar 18 39.9–27.4 7.3 240 R 58 430 50 AMd Gonen *TR 111 1954 Apr 30 39.2–22.2 6.7 300 N 30 20 90 AMd Sofades #GR 112 1957 Mar 8 39.3–22.7 6.6 100 NL 1 20 20 APi Velestin GR 113 1957 May 26 40.6–31.0 7.0 260 R 40 160 45 AP Abant *TR 114 1958 Aug 16 34.3–48.2 6.6 300 T 28 – 50 AMdk Firuz. *IR 115 1962 Sep 1 35.7–49.8 7.2 105 L 85 60 80 AGd B. Zahra *IR 116 1964 Oct 6 40.0–28.0 6.8 100 NR 40 – 10 AMkU Manyas #TR 117 1966 Aug 19 39.2–41.4 6.8 120 RN 34 30 25 AGdU Varto *TR 118 1966 Aug 20 39.3–41.2 6.2 110 RN 7 5 20 AMdm Varto TR 119 1966 Sep 1 37.4–22.1 5.6 155 N* 2 – 5 aMk Megalop. GR 120 1966 Oct 29 38.8–21.1 5.8 150 N 4 – 40 AMd Acarnan. #GR 121 1967 Jul 22 40.7–30.7 7.1 280 R 80 190 130 AGd Mudurnu *TR 122 1967 Jul 26 39.5–40.3 6.0 120 R 4 20 10 APk Tunceli #TR 123 1967 Jul 30 40.7–30.4 5.5 300 R 3 20 40 AGd Mudurnu TR 124 1967 Nov 30 41.4–20.4 6.6 030 NL 10 – 50 AMd Debar *AL 125 1968 Feb 19 39.5–24.9 7.3 040 RN 3 – 50 AMi Ag. Efstr *GR 126 1968 Aug 31 34.0–58.9 7.4 275 L 80 450 250 AG D. Bayaz *IR 127 1969 Mar 28 38.3–28.5 6.5 290 NL 35 20 80 AMd Alasehir *TR 128 1970 Mar 28 39.1–29.4 7.1 310 NL 45 30 230 AGUm Gediz *TR 129 1971 May 12 37.6–30.1 6.2 230 N 4 – 30 AMim Burdur #TR 130 1971 May 22 39.0–40.7 6.8 050 L 38 60 10 AGd Bingol *TR 131 1975 Sep 6 38.5–40.7 6.6 270 T 28 – 60 AGd Lice *TR © 1998 RAS, GJI 133, 390–406 byguestonJune29,2014http://gji.oxfordjournals.org/Downloadedfrom
  • 5. 394 N. N. Ambraseys and J. A. Jackson Table 1. (Continued.) Date Epicentre M s Az Mec L H V Q Location Ref N E deg. km cm cm 132 1975 Oct 3 30.3–66.1 6.5 025 L 5 4 – AMi Baluch PK 133 1976 Nov 24 39.1–43.9 7.3 110 R 48 350 50 AG Chaldiran *TR 134 1977 Dec 19 30.9–56.6 5.8 320 RT 7 15 7 AGd Gisk *IR 135 1978 Jun 20 40.6–23.2 6.4 300 N 32 2 20 AGdU Volvi *GR 136 1978 Sep 16 33.4–57.1 7.4 330 T 80 260 180 AMdU Tabas IR 137 1979 Nov 14 33.9–59.8 6.6 345 RT 18 90 60 AMdU Karizan *IR 138 1979 Nov 27 34.0–59.6 7.1 080 LT 68 260 250 AMd Khuli *IR 139 1980 Jul 9 39.3–22.8 6.4 090 N 8 5 20 AGd Almyros *GR 140 1981 Feb 25 38.1–23.1 6.4 250 N 15 80 AGdm Alkyon *GR 141 +1981 Mar 4 38.2–23.2 6.3 070 N 12 50 AGd Alkyon *GR 142 1981 Jun 11 29.8–57.8 6.7 340 RT 15 3 5 AGU Golbaf *IR 143 1981 Jul 28 30.2–57.6 7.1 340 RT 65 43 40 AGdU Sirch *IR 144 1983 Oct 30 40.4–42.2 6.7 050 L 12 100 60 AGdU Panisler *TR 145 1986 Sep 13 37.0–22.0 5.7 190 N 6 15 AG Kalamata *GR 146 1988 Dec 7 40.8–44.2 6.7 290 RT 33 150 50 AGdm Spitak *AR 147 1990 Jun 20 36.8–49.4 7.3 110 LT 80 60 90 AMdk Manjil *IR 148 1994 Feb 23 30.9–60.6 6.0 320 TL 4 30 AMm Lut IR 149 1995 May 13 40.0–21.7 6.5 240 N 15 0 5 AMdk Kozani GR 150 1995 Oct 1 38.2–30.3 6.2 330 NR 10 10 30 AMk Dinar TR References (see Appendix B): [1] 39, 71; [2] 31, 71; [3] 21, 31; [4] 4, 32, 71; [5] 4, 32, 71; [6] 4, 32, 71; [7–9] 4, 32, 71; [10] 4, 32; [11–13] 4, 32, 71; [14–15] 4, 32; [16–17] 4, 5, 32, 71; [18] 4, 32; [19–24] 4, 32, 71; [25–28] 4; [29] 4, 23; [30–32] 4; [33] 4, 22; [34] 4,24; [35] 4; [36] 21; [37] 24; [38] 4; [39] 21; [40] 20, 37; [41] 10; [42] 17; [43] 21; [44] 4; [45] 8, 17; [46–47] 4; [48] 16; [49] 21; [50] 10; [51] 17; [52] 13; [53] 21; [54–55] 17; [56–57] 9; [58] 21; [59] 12; [60–61] 21; [62–63] 4; [64] 19b, 123; [65–66] 4; [67] 28; [68–70] 9; [71–73] 4; [74] 9; [75] 70; [76] 9; [77] 19; [78] 8, 14; [79] 147; [80] 89; [81] 14; [82] 21; [83] 76; [84] 8; [85] 15; [86] 8; [87] 4; [88] 21; [89] 88, 97; [90] 6, 88, 97, 119, 150; [91] 21; [92] 136; [93] 114; [94] 21; [95] 146; [96] 8, 62, 113, 116, 122; [97] 8, 46, 48, 62, 80; [98] 21; [99] 8, 48, 59, 60, 62, 84, 108; [100] 8, 48, 60, 62, 80, 84, 90; [101] 8, 62, 84, 132; [102] 8; [103] 8, 62, 133; [104–105] 21; [106] 121; [107] 8, 48, 80; [108] 8, 118; [109] 27; [110] 48, 62, 65, 80, 85; [111] 109; [112] 19; [113] 8, 34, 48, 65, 106; [114] 26; [115] 1, 21, 98, 117; [116] 64, 83; [117] 8, 33, 48, 91, 104, 144; [118] 33; [119–120] 2; [121] 34, 48, 65, 80, 104; [122–123] 4; [124] 4, 45, 104, 130; [125] 114, 134; [126] 22, 29, 74, 77, 94, 100, 101, 135, 137; [127] 8, 30, 42, 66, 77; [128] 8, 30, 66, 77, 131, [129] 8; [130] 8, 40, 43, 82, 124; [131] 8, 41, 79, 138; [132] 68; [133] 8, 44, 48, 72, 138, 139; [134] 22, 38, 55; [135] 92, 95, 96, 110, 126, 127; [136] 50, 51, 54, 102; [137] 22, 73, 102; [138] 73, 102; [139] 19, 112; [140] 58, 78, 86, 87, 129, [141] 58, 78, 86, 87, 129; [142] 56, 141; [143] 56, 105; [144] 8, 48; [145] 93, 128; [146] 61, 81; [147] 57, 99, 103, 148; [148] 149; [149] 75, 115; [150] 63, 67. Notes All events are assumed to have focal depths in the crust. Magnitude: magnitudes for the instrumental period are recalculated M s values derived from the Prague formula. For early events of the pre- instrumental period, magnitudes (starred) have been derived from macroseismic information calibrated against instrumental M s values. The size of historical events under investigation has been classified under three broad categories: V, very large event M≥7.8; L, large event 7.0≤M s <7.8; M, medium event 6.0≤M s <7.0. Fault attitude and mechanism: T=thrust; L=left-lateral strike-slip; R=right-lateral strike-slip; N=normal, with a combination of these symbols for oblique motion. *=Assumed from regional fault pattern. Length of faulting: L =total length of surface rupture, including intermediate unfractured segments in km. Relative displacements: H=maximum observed lateral offset in cm; V =maximum observed vertical offset in cm; s=small displacements of imperceptible sense of motion; –=no data. Quality of evidence of faulting, Q (first column of Q): (A) surface faulting explicitly or (a) implicitly, deduced from the sources or field investigations; (B) no evidence for faulting in the sources; surface faulting inferred from the elongated shape of the epicentral region; and (C) faulting assumed because of the large size of the earthquake and its proximity to a known active fault zone. Location evidence (second column of Q) for quality categories A and a is subdivided into: G=good, derived from detailed field studies; M= moderate, based on cursory field survey of the fracture zone; P=poor, deduced from historical data or, for more recent events, from field evidence in need of authentication; A=very poor, exact location of fault break unknown. Nature of fault zone (third column of Q): d=Trace discontinuous or eroded; total length of rupture deduced from few and widely spaced reported observations; U=arcuate trace, graben, or complex fault zone; k=some of the observed or reported ground deformations probably not of tectonic origin; i=only part of the break was accessible or mapped; actual rupture length is probably longer than reported; n=reported ground effects, to the best of our judgement, not of tectonic origin or associated with a known earthquake; m=multiple shock; observed deformations and rupture length probably enhanced by more than one earthquake. For quality A, B and C (in any column of Q): f=assumed association of historical event with known Quaternary or recent fault-break. The name of the location where the event took place is given in the penultimate column, and the last column gives the country. AF: Afghanistan; AL: Albania; BU: Bulgaria; GR: Greece; IQ: Iraq; IR: Iran; IS: Israel; LE: Lebanon; MC: Macedonia; PK: Pakistan; SA: Saudi Arabia; SY: Syria; TR: Turkey; TU: Turkmenistan. * or # before the country designation indicates that the event was used/not used by Wells & Coppersmith (1994) in the derivation of their calibration formulae. © 1998 RAS, GJI 133, 390–406 byguestonJune29,2014http://gji.oxfordjournals.org/Downloadedfrom
  • 6. Faulting in the Eastern Mediterranean 395 Table 2. Uncertain and spurious cases of surface faulting. FaultLoc M s Az Mec L H V Q Location 1 1862 Nov 3 38.5–30.3 6.5* – – 3 – 50 aAn Suhut TR 2 1870 Feb 22 36.6–29.0 – – – 2 – 30 aPn Fethiye TR 3 1879 Mar 22 37.8–47.9 6.6* 170 T 2+ – – Bn Buzqush IR 4 1890 Jul 11 36.5–54.6 7.2* 060 – 10 – – aPn Tash IR 5 1911 Apr 18 31.2–57.0 6.2 155 – 15 – 50 aPn Ravar #IR 6 1927 Jul 11 32.0–35.5 6.0 – – – – 200 an Jordan IS 7 1929 Jul 15 32.1–49.5 6.0 150 – 1 – 100 Bkn Londeh IR 8 1943 Jun 20 40.7–30.5 6.4 Hendek TR 9 1957 Jul 2 36.1–52.4 6.8 120 – 3 – 10 akn Elburz IR 10 1957 Dec 13 34.6–47.8 6.7 315 T 10 – 100 akn Farsinaj #IR 11 1963 Jul 26 42.1–21.4 6.1 115 – 6 – 10 akn Skopje *MC 12 1966 Feb 5 39.1–21.6 6.2 230 N 2 – 30 kn Kremas GR 13 1968 Sep 3 41.8–32.3 6.5 160 – 2 20 30 akn Bartim #TR 14 1968 Sep 24 39.2–40.2 5.1 150 – 6 – 25 akn Kigi #TR 15 1969 Mar 25 39.2–28.5 6.1 100 N 5 10 10 akn Demirci TR 16 1972 Apr 10 28.4–53.0 6.9 120 – 20 5 25 akn Qir *IR 17 1972 Jul 2 30.0–50.9 5.3 290 N 10 – 400 AGn Mishan #IR 18 1975 Mar 7 27.5–56.4 6.1 Sarkhun IR 19 1976 Nov 7 33.8–59.2 6.4 140 – 9 s s akn Vandik IR 20 1977 Apr 1 27.6–56.3 6.3 n Khurgu #IR 21 1977 Apr 6 31.9–50.8 6.1 n Naghan #IR 22 1977 Jun 5 32.6–48.1 5.7 n Dizful #IR 23 1983 Aug 6 40.1–24.7 6.8 R n N. Aegean #GR 24 1992 Mar 13 39.6–39.5 6.8 – – 30 20 – akn Erzincan *TR 25 1995 Jun 15 38.4–22.3 6.5 280 N 7 – 3 adn Egio GR References (see Appendix B): [1–2] 6; [3–5] 21; [4–5] 21; [6] 4; [7] 21; [8] 140; [9] 21; [10] 36; [11] 3, 6; [12] 19; [13–14] 6; [15] 42; [16] 6, 21, 35; [17] 52; [18] 145; [19] 69; [20] 53; [21] 7; [22] 145; [23] 145; [24] 47, 49, 142; [25] 120. ASSESSMENT OF MAGNITUDES It is important to know the magnitude of the causative earthquake, not only for the development of predictive moment–magnitude relations as a function of the length, slip and attitude of a surface break, but also for hazard analysis. For the pre-instrumental period, surface-wave magnitudes, M s , can be assessed using a calibration formula which can be derived from regional, shallow, 20th century earthquakes in terms of their radii of isoseismals, r, and corresponding intensit- ies, I, in the MSK (Medvedev–Sponheuer–Karnik) scale. InFigure 2. Locations of earthquakes associated with surface faulting the present case the calibration formula we used was derivedfor the whole period of observation. from intensity data and isoseismals culled from a variety of published sources, including Shebalin et al. (1974), Papazachos et al. (1982) and Ambraseys & Jackson (1990), variables whichOccasionally, surface fault ruptures were wrongly attributed were correlated with uniformly recalculated M s (Ambraseys &to landslides and slumping of the ground, and pre-existing Free 1997). From 488 isoseismals coming from about 9000Quaternary fault scarps were often associated with recent intensity points which were associated with 123 shallowearthquakes. An example is a 10 km long Quaternary normal (h<26 km) earthquakes of the period 1905–1990 and fromfault showing a throw of 4 m, which was attributed to the their corresponding M s values, which have been recalculatedearthquake of 1972 July 2 (M s =5.3) in southwestern Iran in this study, the predictive relationship is(Berberian & Tchalenko 1976). A site visit in 1976 confirmed that this scarp, averaging about 2 m, was clearly an old feature, M s =−1.54+0.65 (I i )+0.0029 (R i )+2.14 log(R i )+0.32p , certainly pre-dating the 1972 earthquake and controlling the (1) course of the seasonal streams and various old tracks across it which were not dislocated by the 1972 earthquake. Old local where R i =(r i 2+9.72)0.5 and r, in kilometres, is the mean isoseismal radius of intensity I, and p is zero for mean valuesfarmers remembered the scarp from their early days, and 1955 aerial photos show it clearly. and one for 84 percentile values (Ambraseys 1992). With few exceptions, macroseismic data for the historicalThere is no doubt that in the last two decades the situation has improved: sites of historical faulting have been revisited, period are scanty and the magnitudes that can be calculated from eq. (1) are rather uncertain. In such cases we grouptrenched and mapped, and faulting due to recent earthquakes properly recorded. earthquakes into three broad categories: V, very large events © 1998 RAS, GJI 133, 390–406 byguestonJune29,2014http://gji.oxfordjournals.org/Downloadedfrom
  • 7. 396 N. N. Ambraseys and J. A. Jackson with M s values probably exceeding 8.0; L, large shocks of variety of data sets, have been derived for different parts of magnitude between 7.0 and 8.0; and M, medium events with the world, and reviews of these relationships are available M s ranging between 6.0 and 7.0. (Wells & Coppersmith 1994). For the late pre-instrumental period, starting with the 18th For 62 of the 150 earthquakes in Table 1, we have both century, macroseismic data improve in quality and quantity well-determined surface-wave magnitudes (M s ) from instrumen- and this allows the use of eq. (1) for the assessment of tal data, and reasonably reliable rupture lengths from field magnitudes. observations. These events are all in the instrumental period, with 55 per cent of the data coming from strike-slip, 30 per cent from normal and 15 per cent from thrust faults, excludingRESULTS cases of quality (B) and others for which the rupture length is Table 1 summarizes all the events, 150 in all, that we know, imperfectly known [marked (i) in column (Q)]. A straightfor- or suspect, to have been associated with coseismic surface ward orthogonal regression between M s and log (L) gives faulting, and Fig. 2 shows their location. Table 2 lists another M s =5.13+1.14 log(L ) , (2)25 cases of faulting which we believe to be uncertain or spurious. The values of the various parameters listed for each with L in kilometres, with a standard deviation of 0.15 in M s . event have been culled from a variety of sources, and the Alternatively, regressions of M s on log (L ) and of log (L ) on sources of information given for each entry have been chosen M s give chiefly because they give up-to-date cross-references for the event. The values for the various parameters in these Tables M s =5.27+1.04 log(L ) (3) supercede and correct previous estimates made by the authors andand by other writers. Each entry in these tables gives the date and time of the log(L )=−4.09+0.82M s , (4) event in the New Style (Gregorian calendar), the geographical respectively, with almost the same standard deviation of 0.22coordinates of the location of the middle point of the rupture, in M s for both cases, while a non-linear fit results inand the size of the associated event in terms of its surface- wave magnitude M s . For the instrumental period, M s values M s =5.06+1.42 log(L ) −0.14[log(L )]2 , (5) have been recalculated uniformly using surface-wave ampli- with a slightly larger standard deviation. Fig. 3 shows eqs (2),tudes and periods and the original Prague formula, which does (3) and (4) together with the data points.not restrict the period to the specific range 18–22 s, and allows For 58 of the 62 earthquakes used to derive eqs (2) to (5)the use of data in the range 3–25 s (Vanek et al. 1962; we also have horizontal (H) and vertical (V ) maximum surfaceAmbraseys & Free 1997). displacements, but the fit improves little, given byNext, the azimuth of the strike of the break (Az), measured from north to east, is given, when known, from field obser- M s =5.11+0.86 log(L )+0.21 log(R) , (6) vations, or marked by (f ) in the quality column Q, if its value has been assumed from regional tectonics. Slip type is desig- with a standard deviation of 0.20 in M s , in which R is the nated by (S) for strike-slip, (N) for normal, (T) for thrust and resultant displacement from H and V in centimetres. by a combination of these notations for oblique slip. The In terms of resultant displacement R alone, M s may be observed length of surface rupture (L), in kilometres, is given approximated by as deduced from the sources or as obtained from field studies. M s =5.21+0.78 log(R) , (7)A plus sign indicates that the actual length was probably greater than shown. The horizontal relative displacement (H), with a rather large standard deviation of 0.36 in M s . in centimetres, is the maximum value observed on the fault We find that the resultant displacement R is about 5.0 break or across principal displacement zones. The vertical (±4.0)×10−5L , regardless of mechanism, and a number close relative displacement (V ), in centimetres, represents the maxi- to compilations by Scholz 1982) and Scholz et al. 1986). mum throw across principal displacement zones, excluding However, the size of the sample is insufficient and the scatter measurements affected by ground deformations, which are too large to allow a better estimate of eqs (2)–(5) and R as a probably superficial, due to slumping or liquefaction. A factor function of mechanism. (Q) adds more coded information regarding the nature of the The predictive relationship between magnitude and fault fault and quality of measurements (see note at the end of length for the instrumental period, eq. (3), is almost identical Table 1). The location of the earthquake is given by the to that derived by Wells & Coppersmith (1994) from a global modern name of the area affected. The last column identifies data set, their Fig. 8, in which their magnitude is moment the country in which the event took place. magnitude, M w . Their data set consists of 244 earthquakes Of the 150 entries in Table 1, 52 per cent are for the period worldwide, of which 127 are associated with surface ruptures, before, and 48 per cent for after 1900. For the first period 31 and 117 with calculated subsurface ruptures. Of the 127 cases per cent of the entries are of category A, 40 per cent of ‘a’, 15 in their first data set only 35 are included in our Table 1,per cent of B and 14 per cent of C. For the present century, which in addition contains another 115 cases not used by86 per cent of the entries are of category A, only 8 per cent of Wells & Coppersmith (1994).‘a’, and the remaining 6 per cent of B and C. It is interesting to compare magnitudes of the pre- instrumental period, estimated from macroseismic data from RELATIONS BETWEEN MAGNITUDE AND eq. (1) (marked with an asterisk in Table 1) with magnitudes RUPTURE LENGTH predicted from observed rupture lengths from eq. (3). The comparison of these two methods for 26 events shows thatA considerable number of relationships between magnitude, rupture length, surface displacements and mechanism, using a magnitudes derived from rupture length are on average smaller © 1998 RAS, GJI 133, 390–406 byguestonJune29,2014http://gji.oxfordjournals.org/Downloadedfrom
  • 8. Faulting in the Eastern Mediterranean 397 Figure 3. Results of regression between M s and log (L ). Curve 1 is eq. (2); curve 2 is eq. (3); curve 3 is eq. (4); curve 4 is eq. (11). L is the length of faulting in kilometres. Note the effect of the sample distribution on the dependent variable for orthogonal and non-orthogonal regression. by 0.2 (±0.3) in M s than macroseismic magnitudes, probably with L in kilometres, which is similar to the empirical relation- ships given above and in Wells & Coppersmith (1994) and isbecause rupture lengths were actually longer than reported, which is reasonable. a reasonable fit to the earthquakes of M≥6.0 in Fig. 3. The advantage of this approach over some global empiricalIndeed, it is important, particularly for palaeoseismological investigations, to have some indication of whether the rupture relationship is that it is more explicit where the assumptions are: A is known to vary regionally (Ekstro¨m & Dziewonskilength and offset estimated from historical sources are likely to be seriously under- or overestimated, given the magnitude of 1988) and so is d. Moreover, for earthquakes in which the fault length is small compared with the seismogenic thickness,the event. This is a principal use of magnitude–length relation- ships. For an assessment of individual events or particular regions, the relationships between moment and magnitude and between moment and fault length are both known to be different fromit may be more informative to make such estimates from a combination of first principles and more closely constrained those given above, such that B#1.0 (Ekstro¨m & Dziewonski 1988) and M o 3L3. Thus a single relationship over the wholeempirical relationships, along the following lines: magnitude range of Fig. 3 (and over the magnitude ranges (1) for earthquakes that rupture the entire thickness (d) of discussed by Wells & Coppersmith 1994) is not likely to be the seismogenic upper crust, the downdip width of the fault is valid anyway. The explicit approach illustrated here is there- d/sinh, where h is the fault dip, and the moment is then fore more likely to be useful for detailed palaeoseismological investigation of specific events.M o =(mcd/sin h)L2 , (8) where m is the rigidity modulus and c is the ratio of average GENERAL OBSERVATIONSdisplacement (u) to fault length (L ), which is observed to be close to 5×10−5 for intracontinental earthquakes (Scholz 1982; We have attempted to associate the earthquakes in Table 1 Scholz et al. 1986); with a probable style (strike-slip, normal or thrust/reverse) of (2) both observationally and theoretically it is known that faulting. This is often a judgement based on knowledge of the for such earthquakes the relationship between moment and known style of faulting in the epicentral region, as the historical magnitude (M, whether M s or M w ) is of the form sources are rarely explicit enough to be unequivocal, especially with horizontal displacements on strike-slip faults. As anlog(M o )=A+BM , (9) illustration, the earthquake of 1780 in Tabriz (No. 53) was where A and B are constants, with B #1.5 (e.g. Kanamori & reported with only a vertical displacement, though it almost Anderson 1975; Ekstro¨m & Dziewonski 1988); certainly occurred on a right-lateral strike-slip fault, a style (3) combining these expressions gives a relationship between which dominates that part of NW Iran (see e.g. Jackson & moment and fault length of the form Ambraseys 1997). Of the events listed in Table 1, 35 per cent are associatedM=(1/B) log(mcd/sin h)−A/B+(2/B) (log L ) . (10) with strike-slip faulting, 28 per cent with normal faulting, and For illustration, if we take m=3×1010 N m−2, c=5×10−5, only 14 per cent with thrust or reverse faulting (22 per cent A=9.0 (for M o in units of N m, see Ekstro¨m & Dziewonski are of unknown type). The relatively low number of thrust/ 1988), and B=1.5, then for a seismogenic layer of thickness reverse faults is at variance with compilations of modern fault- d=15 km and a vertical strike-slip fault (h=90°), the relation- plane solutions in the region, which show many thrust and ship is reverse mechanisms in western Greece, eastern Turkey, the Caucasus and Iran. The reasons for their under-representationM w =4.9+1.33L , (11) © 1998 RAS, GJI 133, 390–406 byguestonJune29,2014http://gji.oxfordjournals.org/Downloadedfrom
  • 9. 398 N. N. Ambraseys and J. A. Jackson here are probably that: (1) even steep reverse faults may fail distribution of cases depicted in these figures. For instance, in Fig. 5 the faulting pattern in the modern period shows noto break the surface, where they produce folding instead; (2) thrust faults with a shallow dip rarely break the surface ruptures along much of the East Anatolian fault zone, the Dead Sea fault zone and Northern Iran.anyway, even in large events. Both effects are known in this region, for example in the Zagros (e.g. Jackson & McKenzie In contrast, for the historical period, Fig. 4 shows that these zones had already been ruptured in places before this century,1984) and the Caucasus (Triep et al. 1995), and are probably responsible for some of the large historical events for which and that the two sets of figures complement each other, with historical cases often forming a negative or mirror image ofthere is no reported evidence of surface faulting. From the preceding paragraphs it will be seen that not only the distribution of modern cases, and apparent gaps in the 20th century being filled in by historical cases.is historical information regarding surface faulting not always clear, and is in many cases inconclusive, but also even for a Like the North Anatolian fault zone, which was delineated by a series of surface fault ruptures during this century fromnumber of earthquakes in the first half of this century evidence for surface faulting is poor and occasionally insufficient. In east to west, in the last century the conjugate eastern Anatolian fault and its Levantine extension into the Dead Sea fault zonealmost none of the historical cases do documentary sources, even up to the end of the 19th century, provide more than a were also delineated by a succession of fault breaks. Truly great earthquakes of M>8.0+ are not easy to identifyminimum of information about faulting, and neither the length nor the attitude of the break can be deduced with certainty. from historical evidence. The chief difficulty is that it is not always possible to establish reliably the simultaneity of theirThe benefit of being able to have observations over a period of almost 20 times longer than this century, however, is obvious. destructive effects at distances of hundreds of kilometres with- out running the risk of amalgamating two or more separateThe locations of coseismic ruptures in Table 1 are shown in Fig. 2. Most are in categories (A) and (a), and are associated events into a great earthquake. A glaring example of such an amalgamation is the earthquake of 365 July 21 in the Easternwith well-known major fault zones such as the North and Eastern Anatolian fault zones, the Dead Sea fault system, the Mediterranean (Guidoboni et al. 1989; Ambraseys 1994), the misassociation of which with other earthquakes stretched itsNorthern and Eastern deformation belts of Iran and the Chaman zone in Pakistan, confirming the long-term and size to 8.3 (e.g. Papazachos & Papazachou 1997) and has lead to speculation and to the development of ‘catastrophe’ theoriesalmost continuous activity of these zones. Figs 4 and 5 show the data for all categories A to C plotted (e.g. Jacques & Bousquet 1984). Where good evidence exists, as for instance for Nos. 30, 31, and possibly 19 in Table 1, asseparately for the historical, pre-1894, and modern, post-1893, periods, respectively. The most interesting historical faulting is well as for a few other not yet fully studied events not listed in Table 1, the historical record does in only very few casesthat which has happened where its occurrence could not be predicted from 20th century activity or, alternatively, where it suggest magnitudes reaching or exceeding M 8.0. The data in Table 1 are only a fraction of the total numbercould be expected from 20th century seismicity but has not been observed this century. of events (M s ≥6.0) identified so far for the study area and they are listed in this table only because there is some evidenceThe importance of Figs 2, 4 and 5 lies therefore not so much in the similarities but rather in the differences between the of their association with surface faulting. However, although Table 1 presents a regionally limited and most certainly incom- plete set of data that cannot, and should not, be used alone to assess long-term seismicity, these data demonstrate an interes- ting pattern in the gross time sequence of surface faulting of principal fault zones in the region. SPECIFIC OBSERVATIONS Some specific observations from this compilation that are worth highlighting include the following. (1) The destructive earthquake of 518 AD in Macedonia, Figure 4. Locations of earthquakes associated with surface faulting which allegedly caused a surface rupture about 40 km long. for the historical pre-instrumental period before 1894. Exactly where this happened is difficult to ascertain. Although the location of the sites affected cannot be identified today, the most likely site is the valley of the upper reaches of the Vardar river, north-northeast of Gostivar (Ambraseys 1970). (For the locations of place-names given here and in the following, see the references cited.) (2) The earthquake of 551 AD in central Greece, one of a series that year, ruptured, in all probability, the eastward extension of the Delphi fault, which has been quiescent for hundreds of years. (3) Also in central Greece, the earthquake of 1740 October 5 that ruined Regini, Lamia and Ypati produced small ground deformations which run south of Lamia towards Regini butFigure 5. Locations of earthquakes associated with surface faulting for the modern instrumental period 1893–1996. neither their exact location nor their nature are known. © 1998 RAS, GJI 133, 390–406 byguestonJune29,2014http://gji.oxfordjournals.org/Downloadedfrom
  • 10. Faulting in the Eastern Mediterranean 399 (4) The case of faulting in Thrace on 29 July 1752 is were ruptured by the earthquakes of 115 December 13, interesting because it is located in an area which is considered 1408 December 29, 1759 November 25, 1796 April 26, to be relatively inactive. Equally interesting, for the same 1822 August 13 and possibly of 1837 January 1. Other large- reason, is the location of the large earthquake of 1829 May 5 magnitude events, for which we have no literary evidence for in the region of Drama–Xanthi in Thrace. faulting, confirm the high seismic potential of that region. (5) We find that many segments of the North Anatolian (9) A major event in 1068 in the Hejaz in northwestern fault zone, including the coastal area of the Sea of Marmara, Arabia is unusual not only because of its location but also which today show only minor activity, were ruptured before because of the evidence, admittedly slight, suggesting a surface this century, and that some of the events in central northern rupture, the location of which must be sought in the region Anatolia were truly large and probably multiple events. of Tabuk. (6) An earthquake of 110 AD in central Anatolia seems to (10) There are a few cases of faulting in northern Syria in have been associated with the Tuzgulu fault, south of the 601, 750 and later, but their location is very uncertain. North Anatolian zone, and that of 1544 with the Surgu fault, (11) For the Zagros suture zone in western Iran evidence west of the East Anatolian zone, but details are lacking. for surface faulting is lacking. This may be due to a lack of (7) In spite of the large number of relatively small earth- information, or to a lack of large-magnitude earthquakes, quakes (M s <6.0), surface faulting in Asia Minor and on which is typical of the zone, or to both. However, even mainland Greece is often poorly expressed and is not often moderately large earthquakes of modern times, such as the reported in the literature. 1972 April 10 Ghir earthquake of M s 6.9, have failed to (8) Much of the Eastern Anatolian fault and its southward produce surface faulting in the Zagros, whereas events of the extension into the Ghab, Yammouneh and Roum faults of the same size often produce coseismic surface ruptures in NE Iran. Levantine system, which have been inactive during this century, This may be related to the large thickness of salt above the basement in the Zagros, preventing ruptures reaching the surface (see Jackson & McKenzie 1984). (12) In contrast, in northern and eastern Iran, where 20th century earthquake faulting is well known, there is literary evidence for major ruptures, such as that of #280 BC. Further east, historical information for faulting becomes scarce and the few cases identified, such as that of the earth- quake of 1505 July 6 north of Kabul in Afghanistan, are probably a small sample of the number of cases that actually involved surface faulting. Most of the very large (V) and large (L) earthquakes inFigure 6. Locations of very large (M s ≥7.9, solid) and large (7.0≤M s ≤7.8) earthquakes in Table 1. Table 1 are associated with large strike-slip faults, such as the Figure 7. Location of Nauzad and Mask on the fault trace associated with the 1493 earthquake, Table 1 no. 39. © 1998 RAS, GJI 133, 390–406 byguestonJune29,2014http://gji.oxfordjournals.org/Downloadedfrom
  • 11. 400 N. N. Ambraseys and J. A. Jackson Figure 8. The 50 km long surface fault break associated with the earthquake of 1912 August 9 between the Gulf of Saros and the Sea of Marmara (Table 1, no. 85) remained, until recently, imperfectly known. Arrows indicate the fault break; distance between arrows is 50 km. G: the site of Ganos (modern Gaziko¨y) on the Marmara coast; white square: the location of Miseli (modern Mu¨rselli) near which a strand of the rupture is shown in the accompanying photographs. © 1998 RAS, GJI 133, 390–406 byguestonJune29,2014http://gji.oxfordjournals.org/Downloadedfrom
  • 12. Faulting in the Eastern Mediterranean 401 Figure 9. Fault zone of interconnected en echelon fractures with offset stream-beds associated with the Dasht-i Bayaz earthquake in eastern Iran (Table 1, no. 126). Two lines of qanats (underground tunnels, indicated by their access shafts) cross the zone, another abandoned line runs parallel to the east, part of which follows the 1968 fault break. Numerous abandoned shaft lineaments are evidence that previous ground movements damaged the underground aqueduct system in the vicinity of the fault zone. Ambraseys, N., 1975. Studies in historical seismicity and tectonics,North and East Anatolian, the Dead Sea and the Chaman Geodyn. T oday, 7–16, Pub. R. Soc. London.faults, shown in Figs 1(c) and 6, a feature that was expected Ambraseys, N., 1992. Soil mechanics and engineering seismology,since large earthquakes are generated by long faults. Invited Lecture, Proc. 2nd Natl. Conf. Geotechn. Eng., pp. xxi–xlii, Thessaloniki. CONCLUSIONS Ambraseys, N., 1994. Material for the investigation of the seismicity of Libya, L ibyan Studies, 25, 7–22. In conclusion, we may observe that any seismologist at the Ambraseys, N. & Free, M., 1997. Surface wave magnitude calibration turn of this century, or any scholar much earlier, could have for European region earthquakes, J. Earthq. Eng., 1, 1–22. accessed the historical data before his time that we used in Ambraseys, N. & Jackson, J., 1990. Seismicity and associated strain in this paper. Had it occurred to him to do so he would have central Greece between 1890 and 1988, Geophys J. Int., 101, 663–708. discovered almost all the main deforming belts in the region Berberian, M. & Tchalenko, J., 1976. Earthquakes of southern Zagros we know today as well as the overall distribution of seismic (Iran): Bushehr region, in Contribution to the Seismotectonics of Iran, Part II, ed. Berberian, M., Geol. Surv. Iran Rept, 39, 346–358.hazard. Ekstro¨m, G. & Dziewonski, A., 1988. Evidence of bias in estimation of earthquake size, Nature, 332, 319–323. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Guidoboni, E., Ferrari, G. & Margottini, C., 1989. Una chiave di lettura per la sismicita antica: la ricerca dei gemelli frl terremoto delThis research was supported by the Climatology Programme 365 d.C., in I T erremoti Prima del Mille, pp. 552–73, ed.of CEC (DGXII) and is currently supported by a Natural E. Guidoboni, Ist. Naz. Geof., Rome. Environment Research Council grant for the study of long- Jackson, J.A. & Ambraseys, N.N., 1997. Convergence between Eurasia term seismicity and continental tectonics in the Eastern and Arabia in Eastern Turkey and the Caucasus, in Historical and Mediterranean region and the Middle East. It is Imperial Prehistorical Earthquakes in the Caucasus, eds Giardini, D. & College ESEE contribution no. 97/30, and Cambridge Earth Balassanian, S., NAT O ASI series 2, 28, 79–90. Sciences contribution no. 5121. Jackson, J. & McKenzie, D., 1984. Active tectonics of the Alpine – Himalayan Belt between western Turkey and Pakistan, Geophys. J. R. astr. Soc., 77, 185–264.REFERENCES Jacques, F. & Bousquet, B., 1984. La raz de maree du 21 juillet 365 du cataclysme local et la catastrophe consmique, Melanges EcoleAmbraseys, N., 1970. A note on an early earthquake in Macedonia, Proc. 3rd Europ. Conf. Earthq. Eng., Sofia, 73–78. Franc. de Rome, 96, 423–461. © 1998 RAS, GJI 133, 390–406 byguestonJune29,2014http://gji.oxfordjournals.org/Downloadedfrom
  • 13. 402 N. N. Ambraseys and J. A. Jackson Kanamori, H. & Anderson, D., 1975. Theoretical basis of some $ An eyewitness, describing the effects of the earthquake of empirical relations in seismology, Bull. seism. Soc. Am., 65, 1254 in central northern Anatolia, informs us that: ‘... As 1073–1095. we rode along for three days (between Susehri and Erzincan) Papazachos, B., Comninakis, P., Hatzidimitriou, P., Kiriakidis, E., we saw a fault in the earth, exactly as it had been split open Kyratzi, A., Panagiotopoulos, D., Papadimitriou, E., Papaioannou, C. in the earthquake, and piles of earth that slid down from & Pavlides, S., 1982. Atlas of isoseismal maps for earthquakes in the mountains and filled the valleys ... We passed throughGreece 1902–81, Publ. Geoph. L ab. Univ. T hessaloniki, no. 4, the valley where ... a great lake had welled up in the courseThessaloniki. of the earthquake ...’ [34].Papazachos, B. & Papazachou, C., 1997. I Seismoi T is Elladas, p. 182, $ From a contemporary history we learn that in the earth-Ziti, Thessaloniki. Scholz, C.H., 1982. Scaling laws for large earthquakes: consequences quake of 1408 in the Orontes valley in Syria: ‘... The ground for physical models, Bull. seism. Soc. Am., 72, 1–14. fissured and was thrown down over the distance of one Scholz, C.H., Aviles, C.A. & Wesnousky, S.G., 1986. Scaling differences barid (20 km), from the town of Qusair to Saltuham...’ [37]. between large interplate and intraplate earthquakes, Bull. seism Soc. $ In the earthquake of 1493 near Birjand, in Iran: ‘... For two Am., 76, 65–70. farsakhs (12 km) between Nauzad and Mask the ground Shebalin, N., Karnik, V. & Hadzijevski, D., 1974. Catalogue of was fissured to such a depth that the bottom of the crack earthquakes Part I, 1901–70; Part II, prior to 1901; Part III, Atlas was invisible...’ [39].of isoseismal maps, UNDP/UNESCO Survey Seismicity of the Balkan $ A traveller describing the effects of the earthquake of 1825Region, Skopje. in western Mazanderan in Iran, not far from the site of theTriep, R.G., Abers, G.A., Lerner-Lam, A.L., Mishatkin, V., recent Manjil earthquake of 1990 June 20, says: ‘... BetweenZacharchenko, N. & Starovit O., 1995. Active thrust front of the Greater Caucasus: the April 29, 1991, Racha earthquake sequence Kuhrud and Bul Qalam there is some evidence that in this and its tectonic implications, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 4011–4033. locality the shock was associated with permanent ground Vanek, J., Zatopek, A., Karnik, V., Kondorskaya, N., Riznichenko, Y., deformations. The piers of a masonry bridge built on solid Savarenski, E., Soloviev, S. & Shebalin, N., 1962. Standardization rock and destroyed by the earthquake seemed as if they of magnitude scales, Izvest. Akad. Nauk., Ser. Geofiz., no. 2, could never have been intended to support the same arch, pp. 153–158, Moscow. so different was their parallel ... and the opposite sides ofWells, D. & Coppersmith, K., 1994. New empirical relationships among the ravine had no doubt suffered displacement.’ [58].magnitude, rupture length, rupture width, rupture area and surface $ Another eyewitness account about the earthquake ofdisplacement, Bull. seism. Soc. Am., 84, 974–1002. 1866 May 12 in eastern Anatolia in Turkey says that: ‘... As a result of the earthquake the ground was rent; the earth- APPENDIX A: quake fracture led from the village of Halipan in the south, to the border of the district of Varto, running uninterruptedIn order to give the reader some idea of the substance of for a distance of eight hours’ journey (#30 km) ...’[66].information that can be found in historical documents that $ A more explicit account about the earthquake of 1874 Maymay refer to surface faulting, we present in this appendix the 3 in eastern Anatolia, written by a mining engineer, saystranslation of pertinent parts, taken at random and out of that in this earthquake, ‘... The south side of lake Go¨lcu¨kcontext, from original sources. Numbers in brackets refer to was uplifted by a metre or two. The valley at the southeastentries in Table 1. end of the lake, near Kizin and Burnus Han, through which $ The earthquake of #280  in Rhagae (modern Shahr-e the lake empties itself by a stream running into the Tigris Rey in north central Iran) is described by a near- river, was upheaved. Because of this, the stream ceased to contemporary sources as follows: ‘... Rhagae, in Media, has flow and the lake began to rise. Roads and tracks that ran received its name because the earth about the Caspian along its shore were submerged and villages on its margins Gates had been rent by earthquakes to such an extent that were swamped and had to be abandoned. By the end of the many cities and villages were destroyed and the rivers year the water had almost reached the level of the uplifted underwent changes of various kinds...’ [3]. valley. $ For the earthquake of 518 AD in Macedonia, a contempor- ‘The valley southeast of S¸arikamis¸ was ‘‘rent’’ all the way to ary account about the effects of the earthquake includes the Haraba with the southeast of Lake Go¨lcu¨k uplifted by one following information: ‘... Many mountains throughout the to two metres along a length of about 45 km ...’ [69,70]. province (of Dardania) were rent asunder; rocks and forest trees were torn from their sockets and a yawning chasm 12 feet in breadth and 30 000 Roman feet (43 km) in extent APPENDIX B: REFERENCES TO TABLES intercepted and entombed many of the fugitive citizens...’ 1 Ambraseys, N., 1963. The Buyin-Zara earthquake of[16]. September 1962, Bull. seism. Soc. Am., 53, 705–740.$ The evidence for the earthquake of 551 AD in Greece comes 2 Ambraseys, N., 1967. The earthquakes of 1965–66 in thefrom a contemporary source which, in the long narrative Peloponnesus, Greece, Bull. seism. Soc. Am., 57, 1025–1046.adds that: ‘... In that locality where the so-called Schisma 3 Ambraseys, N., 1968. An engineering seismology study of(Cleft) is located there was a tremendous earthquake ... And the Skopje earthquake of 26 July 1963, in T he Skopjethe earth was rent asunder in many places and formed Earthquake, pp. 35–88, UNESCO, Paris.chasms. Now some of these openings came together again 4 Ambraseys, N., 1970a. Early earthquakes in the Near and..., but in other places they remained open, with the conse- Middle East 17–1699 AD; Part I: Documentation of historicalquence that the people in such places are not able to earthquakes in the Middle East; Part II: Historical earthquakesintermingle with each other except by making use of many detours ...’ [17]; after 17 AD; Part III: ‘North Africa and South-east Europe, © 1998 RAS, GJI 133, 390–406 byguestonJune29,2014http://gji.oxfordjournals.org/Downloadedfrom
  • 14. Faulting in the Eastern Mediterranean 403 UNESCO Repts, Nos SC/1473/69 and SC/2129/70, 450, Paris, 26 Ambraseys, N. & Moinfar, A., 1974. The Firuzabad earth- quake of 16 August 1958, Ann. Geofis., 27, 1–21.and unpublished data. 5 Ambraseys, N., 1970b. A note on an early earthquake in 27 Ambraseys, N. & Moinfar, A., 1977. The Torud earthquake of 12 February 1953, Ann. Geofis., 30, 185–200.Macedonia, Proc. 3rd European Conf. Earthq. Eng., 73–78, Sofia. 28 Ambraseys, N. & Pantelopoulos, P., 1989. The Fokis-Greece earthquake of 1 August 1870, J. Euro. Earthq. Eng, 3, 10–18.6 Ambraseys, N., 1975. Studies in historical seismicity and tectonics, Geodyn. T oday, 7–16. 29 Ambraseys, N. & Tchalenko, J., 1969. Dasht-e Bayaz Earthquake of 31 August 1968, UNESCO Publ. no.7 Ambraseys, N., 1979. A test case of historical seismicity: Isfahan and Chahar Mahal, Iran, Geogr. J., 145, 56–71. 1214/BMS, Paris. 30 Ambraseys, N. & Tchalenko, J., 1972. Seismotectonic aspects8 Ambraseys, N., 1988. Engineering seismology, J. Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 17, 1–106. of the Gediz earthquake of March 1970, Geophys. J. R. astr. Soc., 30, 229–252.9 Ambraseys, N., 1989. Temporary seismic quiescence: SE Turkey, Geophys. J., 96, 311–331. 31 Ambraseys, N. & White, D., 1996. The seismicity of the eastern Meditrranean region before the Christian era, ESEE10 Ambraseys, N., 1990. Two little-known 16–17th century earthquakes in central Greece, Communic. Natl. Grec. Etudes Rep. no. 96–4, 97, Imperial College of Science, London, and extended summary in Seismology in Europe, pp. 674–679,Sud-est Europ., 2, 75–82, Athens. 11 Ambraseys, N., 1992. Soil mechanics and engineering seis- Icelandic Met. Office, Reykjavik, J.Earthq. Eng., 1. 32 Ambraseys, N. & White, D., 1997. The seismicity of themology Invited Lecture, Proc. 2nd Natl. Conf. Geotechn. Eng., Thessaloniki, pp. xxi–xlii. eastern Mediterranean region during the first millennium of our era, J. Earthq. Eng., 1, 603–632.12 Ambraseys, N., 1997. The earthquake of 1 January 1837 in southern Lebanon and northern Israel, Ann. Geofis., 40, 33 Ambraseys, N. & Zatopek, A., 1968. The Varyto Ustukran earthquake of 19 August 1996, Bull. seism. Soc. Am., 58, 47–102.923–936. 13 Ambraseys, N. & Barazangi, M., 1989. The 1759 earthquake 34 Ambraseys, N. & Zatopek, A., 1969. The Mudurnu Valley earthquake of July 22 1967, Bull. seism. Soc. Am.,59, 521–589.in the Bekaa Valley, J. geophys. Res., 94, 4007–4013. 14 Ambraseys, N. & Finkel C., 1987. Seismicity of Turkey and 35 Ambraseys, N., Moinfar, A. & Tchalenko J., 1972. Ghir earthquake of 10 April 1972, UNESCO Pub. no. 2789, Paris.neighbouring regions 1899–1915, Ann. Geophys., 5B, 701–726. 15 Ambraseys, N. & Finkel, C., 1987. The Saros-Marmara 36 Ambraseys, N., Moinfar, A. & Peronaci F., 1973. The Farsinaj earthquake of 13 December 1957, Ann. Geofis., 26,earthquake of 9 August 1912, J. Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 15, 189–211. 679–692. 37 Ambraseys, N., Lensen, G. & Moinfar A., 1978. The Patan16 Ambraseys, N. & Finkel, C., 1988. The Anatolian earth- quake of 17 August 1668, in Historical Seismograms and earthquake of 28 December 1974, UNESCO Publ. no. SC/GEO/75/134, Paris.Earthquakes of the World, pp. 173–180, ed. Lee, W., Academic Press, San Diego. 38 Ambraseys, N., Arsovski, M. & Moinfar, A., 1979. The Gisk earthquake of 19 December 1977 and the seismicity of the17 Ambraseys, N. & Finkel, C., 1995. T he Seismicity of T urkey and Adjacent Areas 1500–1800, Eren, Istanbul. Kuhbanan fault-zone, UNESCO Publ. no. SC/80/2.1614, Paris. 39 Armijo, R. & Lyon-Caen, H., 1991. E–W extension and18 Ambraseys, N. & Free M., 1997. Surface wave magnitude calibration for European region earthquakes, J. Earthq. Eng., Holocene normal fault scarps in the Hellenic Arc: possible rupture of the 464 BC Sparta earthquake, Nature, 351,1, 1–22. 19 Ambraseys, N. & Jackson, J., 1990. Seismicity and associated 137–139. 40 Arpat, E., 1971. 22 Mayis 1971 Bingol depremi; Olu Denizstrain in central Greece between 1890 and 1988, Geophys. J. Int, 101, 663–708. fay sisteminin Karliova ilicesi ile Hazar Golu arasindaki bolumu, Report MTA, Ankara.19b Ambraseys, N. & Jackson, J., 1997. Seismicity and strain in the Gulf of Corinth since 1694, J. Earthq. Eng., 1, 433–474. 41 Arpat, E., 1977. 1975 Lice depremi, Yeryuvari ve Insan, 2, 15–27, Ankara.20 Ambraseys, N., Lensen, G., Moinfar, A. & Pennington W., 1981. The Pattan (Pakistan) earthquake of 28 December 1974: 42 Arpat, E. & Bingo¨l, E., 1969. The rift system of western Turkey, Bull. Min. Res. Explor. Inst., 73, 1–9, Ankara.field observations, Q. J. eng. Geol., 14, 1–16. 21 Ambraseys, N. & Melville, C., 1982. A History of Persian 43 Arpat, E., Saroglu, F., 1972. The East Anatolian Fault system: thoughts on its development, Bull. Mineral. Explor.Earthquakes, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 22 Ambraseys, N. & Melville C., 1988. An analysis of the Inst., no. 78, 33–39, Ankara. 44 Arpat, E., Saroglu, F. & Iz, H., 1977. 1976 Caldiran depremi,eastern Mediterranean earthquake of 20 May 1202, in Historical Seismograms and Earthquakes of the World, Yeryuvari ve Insan, 2, 29–41, Ankara. 45 Arsovski, M., 1970. Contemporary tectonic properties ofpp. 181–200, ed. Lee, W., Academic Press, San Diego. 23 Ambraseys, N. & Melville C., 1989. Evidence for intraplate some seismic active zones in Yugoslavia, Proc. 3rd Europ. Conf. Earthq. Eng, pp. 181–88, Sofia.earthquakes in north-west Arabia, Bull. seism. Soc. Am., 79, 1279–1281. 46 Barka, A., 1992a. The North Anatolian fault-zone, Ann. T ect., 6, 164–195.24 Ambraseys, N. & Melville, C., 1995. Historical evidence of faulting in eastern Anatolia and northern Syria, Ann. Geofis., 47 Barka, A., 1992b. Surface cracks of the March 13 1992 Erzincan earthquake, Bogazici, Univ. Spec. 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