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- 1. DICTIONARY OF PUBLIC RELATIONS MEASUREMENT AND RESEARCH Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research by Stacks (Ed.) Copyright © 2006, Institute for Public Relations www.instituteforpr.com
- 2. This booklet was prepared and edited by Dr. Don W. Stacks, University of Miami COMMISSION ON PUBLIC RELATIONS MEASUREMENT & EVALUATION DICTIONARY EDITORIAL BOARDPatricia Bayerlein Dr. Walter K. LindenmannGagen MacDonald PR Research & Measurement SpecialistDr. Kathryn Collins Dr. David MichaelsonGeneral Motors ConsultantJohn Gilfeather Dr. Tom WatsonRoper ASW Charles Sturt UniversityFraser Likely Dr. Donald K. WrightLikely Communication Strategies Ltd. University of South AlabamaMarcia L. Watson, editorial assistantUniversity of Miami Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research by Stacks (Ed.) Copyright © 2006, Institute for Public Relations www.instituteforpr.com
- 3. FOREWARD TO 2007 EDITIONIn the more than three years since the Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement andResearch was first released, it has become one of the most popular papers the Institute forPublic Relations has ever published. Week after week, visitors to our free website(www.instituteforpr.org) download the dictionary. It has been reprinted with permission,distributed and sometimes debated at major professional and academic conferences.The truth is that public relations teachers and practitioners traditionally have not used thesame nomenclature – let alone definitions – for many central concepts of research andmeasurement. Increasingly, however, it is clear that we should save our creativity forprogram development and execution, not for the names and meanings applied to keyelements of the science beneath the art of public relations.To that end, this second edition covers an expanded number of terms, with input from abroader group of scholars and research experts. They now represent many morecountries where public relations science is regularly used. The Institute owes anenormous debt of gratitude to all of them, but particularly to Dr. Don W. Stacks. Histireless commitment to the Institute’s mission is surpassed only by his commitment tofamily and students – and we are so very grateful to be number three on that list.So, is the dictionary done yet? For now, maybe. But this new edition will undoubtedlyreceive even wider distribution, leading to even more debate, and ultimately to furtherevolution in our thinking about public relations research and measurement. You areinvited to take part. Frank Ovaitt President & CEO Institute for Public RelationsGainesville, FloridaJanuary 2006 Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research by Stacks (Ed.) Copyright © 2006, Institute for Public Relations www.instituteforpr.com
- 4. FOREWORD TO 2002 EDITION “Words… are innocent, neutral, precise, standing for this, describing that, meaning the other…so if you look after them you can build bridges across incomprehension and chaos.“I don’t think writers are sacred, but words are. The deserve respect. If you get the right ones in the right order they can nudge the world a little….” From the play, THE REAL THING by Tom StoppardWhy a dictionary for public relations measurement and research?Because we don’t all measure the same things, measure the same ways, or use the sametools or terminology. To get all of us on the same page we need to know precisely whatwe mean when we use or say certain words in measuring our activities and our research.Some may complain that the words we have chosen to define are too simplistic.Remember Webster once defended his word choice by explaining that it’s the little wordswe think we know the meaning of - but don’t - which cause most of the problems inunderstanding and communications.We thank Dr. Don Stacks and others who have given so generously of their time toassemble this special choice of words and politely debate each definition. We have listedtheir names for you and they will tell you they gratefully acknowledge that this is a workin progress. Public relations continuously evolves so there are no “final words.” Jack Felton President & CEO Institute for Public RelationsGainesville, FloridaSeptember 2002 Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research by Stacks (Ed.) Copyright © 2006, Institute for Public Relations www.instituteforpr.com
- 5. PREFACE TO 2007 EDITIONPublic relations measurement and research has progressed far in the five years betweenthe first and second editions of the Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement andResearch. In its desire to answer concerns—among its own membership and from“internal” and “external” clients—about demonstrating its effectiveness, the professionbegan to focus on demonstrating its impact on the client’s outcomes of interest. This inturn has lead to a more education in research design and evaluation methods.The second edition of the Dictionary clearly reflects this trend. It does so in severalways. First, the Dictionary has been expanded by almost 100 terms. Second, its cross-referencing is more complete. Third, individual terms have been further designated asstatistical “s” or methodological “m” within the individual term definitions. Finally,terms have been redefined and in many instances are more sophisticated—reflecting asophistication of the profession.I am indebted to the Commission for Public Relations Measurement and Evaluationmembers who toiled tirelessly to find suitable new terms and define them so that the usermight better understand not only the term but also its usage(s) in the research andevaluation process. The second edition would not have been possible without their help.I would like to acknowledge the help of Ms. Marcia L. Watson who carefully proofedand corrected versions of the second edition. She did this in addition to her other dutiesas a doctoral student at the University of Miami.Finally, I would like to acknowledge the University of Miami School of Communicationand Dean Sam Grogg for allowing me the time to work on this project.Don W. StacksCoral Gables Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research by Stacks (Ed.) Copyright © 2006, Institute for Public Relations www.instituteforpr.com
- 6. Algorithm Behavioral Objective DICTIONARY OF PUBLIC RELATIONS MEASUREMENT AND RESEARCH1 (“neutral” or “neither agree nor disagree”) be provided to the respondent; also known as Likert-Algorithm – s. a step-by-step problem- type or Semantic Differential solving procedure, especially an measures; s. an output measured as established, recursive computational an interval or ratio measure procedure for solving a problem in a Audience – m. a specified group from finite number of steps within a defined public targeted for αAlpha Level (α) – s. the amount of error influence or chance allowed in sampling or inferential testingAnalysis of Variance (ANOVA) – s. an Bar Graph – s. A representation of a inferential statistical test of frequency distribution by means of significance for continuous rectangles (or other indicators) measurement dependent variables whose widths represent class against a number of groups as intervals and whose heights independent variables represent corresponding frequencies;Articles – m. an output, typically printed see also: graph but also found on the Internet Baseline – s. an initial measurementAttitude – m. a predisposition to act or against which all subsequent behave toward some object; a measures are compared; m. a data motivating factor in public relations; point established for comparison at composed of three dimensions: the developmental stage of a affective (emotional evaluation), research campaign. cognitive (knowledge evaluation), Behavioral Event Interview (BEI) – an and connotative (behavioral interview technique used to solicit evaluation) evidence or examples of a specificAttitude Research – m. the measuring competency or skill you possess; and interpreting a full range of BEI is based on the premise that a views, sentiments, feelings, persons past behavior is the best opinions, and beliefs that segments predictor of their future performance of the public may hold toward a Behavioral Objective – m. an objective client or product that specifies the expected publicAttitude Scale – m. a measure that relations campaign or program targets respondent attitudes or beliefs outcome in terms of specific toward some object; typically behaviors; s. a measure that is interval-level data and requires that actionable in that it is the behavior an arbitrary or absolute midpoint1 Terms are identified as either statistical (s) or methodological (m). Common usage is used whendetermining whether the term is listed as either statistical or methodological when terms have dualmeanings (e.g., regression). Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research by Stacks (Ed.) Copyright © 2006, Institute for Public Relations www.instituteforpr.com
- 7. Belief 2 Clustered Sample requested (e.g., outcome) of a target brings about a change in another audience; see also: outcome variable; s. the result of a significantBelief – m. a long-held evaluation of interaction term in an analysis of some object, usually determined on a variance or regression, often basis its occurrence; clusters of displayed in path analyses or beliefs yield attitudes sequential equation modelsBenchmarking (Benchmark Study) – Census – m. collection of data from m. a measurement technique that every person or object in a involves having an organization population learn something about its own Central Tendency – s. a statistic that practices, the practices of selected describes the typical or average case others, and then compares these in the distribution of a variable; see practices also: mean, median, mode, range,Bivariate Analysis – s. a statistical standard deviation, standardized examination of the relationship score, variance, z-score between two variables Characters – m. a manifest unit ofBRAD – s. British Rate and Data analysis used in content analysis measure – provides circulation and consisting of individuals or roles advertising costs data (e.g., occupations, roles, race) Chi-Square (X2) – s. an inferential statistical test of significance for categorical data (nominal or ordinal)Campaign (Program) – m. the Circulation – s. number of copies of a planning, execution, and evaluation publication as distributed (as of a public relations plan of action opposed to read) aimed at solving a problem Closed-Ended Question – m. a questionCase Study Methodology – m. an that requires participants to answer informal research methodology that selected and predetermined gathers data on a specific individual responses (e.g., strongly agree, or company or product with the agree, neither agree nor disagree, analysis focused on understanding disagree, strongly disagree) its unique qualities; is not Cluster analysis – s. An exploratory generalizable to other cases or data analysis tool which aims at populations sorting different objects into groupsCategorical Data – s. measurement data in a way that the degree of that are defined by their association association between two objects is with groups and are expressed in maximal if they belong to the same terms of frequencies, percentages, group and minimal if otherwise and proportions; see also: nominal Clustered Sample – m. a type of data, ordinal data probability sample that involves firstCategory – m. in content analysis the breaking the population into part of the system where the content heterogeneous subsets (or clusters), (units of analysis) are placed; also and then selecting the potential referred to as “subjects” or “buckets” sample at random from theCausal Relationship – m. a relationship individual clusters between variables in which a change in one variable forces, produces, or Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research by Stacks (Ed.) Copyright © 2006, Institute for Public Relations www.instituteforpr.com
- 8. Coefficient Alpha 3 Confidence Interval αCoefficient Alpha (α) – s. a statistical these programs and their products, test for a measurement’s reliability and by identifying gaps in the overall for interval and ratio data; also existing communication program; known as Cronbach’s coefficient uses accepted research techniques alpha and methodologies; see also: formalCohen’s Kappa – s. an intercoder methodology, informal reliability measure used in content methodology, case study, content analysis when there are more than analysis, survey, in-depth interview, two coders; see also: reliability, focus group, experiment, secondary, content analysis historical, participant-observationCohort Survey – m. a type of Communication(s) Research – m. any longitudinal survey in which some systematic study of the relationships specific group is studied over time and patterns that are developed when according to some criteria that stays people seek to share information the same (e.g., age = 21) while the with each other samples may differ Community Case Study – m. anColumn Inches – s. total length of an informal methodology whereby the article if it were all one-column researcher takes an in-depth look at measured in inches (or centimeters); one or several communities – determines the total “share of ink” subsections of communities – in that a company or brand has which an organization has an interest achieved by impartial, trained researchersCommunication – m. the process that using a mix of informal research deals with the transmission and methodologies (i.e., participant- reception of intentional messages observation, role-playing, secondary that are a part of a natural language analysis, content analysis, system (e.g., words, phrases, interviewing, focus groups) sentences, paragraphs) Concurrent Validity – m. aCommunication Product (Product) – measurement device’s ability to vary m. the end result of the directly with a measure of the same communication product process construct or indirectly with a resulting in the production and measure of an opposite construct. It dissemination of a brochure, media allows you to show that your test is release, video news release, Web valid by comparing it with an site, speech, and so forth; see also: already valid test output, outtake Confidence Interval – s. in surveyCommunication(s) Audit – m. a methodology based on a random systematic review and analysis of sampling technique; the range of how effectively an organization values or measurement within which communicates with all of its major a population parameter is estimated internal and external audiences by to fall (e.g., for a large population we identifying these audiences, by might expect answers to a question identifying the communication to be within ±3% of the true programs and their communication population answer; if 55% responded products utilized for each audience, positively, the confidence interval by determining the effectiveness of Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research by Stacks (Ed.) Copyright © 2006, Institute for Public Relations www.instituteforpr.com
- 9. Confidence Level 4 Convergent Validity would be from 52% to 58%); discriminant validity, divergent sometimes called measurement error validityConfidence Level – m. in survey Contingency Question – m. a survey methodology based on a random question that is to be asked only to sampling technique, the amount of some respondents, determined by confidence we can place on our their responses to some other confidence interval (typically set at questions; sometimes called a 95%, or 95 out of 100 cases truly “funnel question” representing the population under Contingency Table – s. a statistical study, with no more than 5 cases out table for displaying the relationship of 100 misrepresenting that between variables in terms of population); sometimes called frequencies and percentages; sampling error; s. the amount of sometimes called a “cross tabulation confidence a researcher has that a table” or “cross tab” finding between groups or categories Continuous Data – s. data that are is statistically significant; see also: measured on a continuum, usually as statistically significant interval dataConstruct Validity – m. a dimension of Contour Plot – s. a contour plot is a measurement; s. a statistically tested graphical technique for representing form of measurement validity that a 3-dimensional surface by plotting seeks to establish the dimensionality constant z slices, called contours, on of a measure; see also: validity, face a 2-dimensional format. That is, validity, criterion-related validity, given a value for z, lines are drawn content validity, discriminant for connecting the (x,y) coordinates validity, divergent validity where that z value occurs. TheContent Analysis – m. an informal contour plot is used to answer the research methodology (and question “how does Z change as a measurement tool) that function of X and Y?” systematically tracks messages Convenience Sample – m. a non- (written, spoken, broadcast) and probability sample where the translates them into quantifiable respondents or objects are chosen form via a systematic approach to because of availability (e.g., “man on defining message categories through the street”); a type of non-probability specified units of analysis; the action sample in which who ever happens of breaking down message content to be available at a given point in into predetermined components time is included in the sample; (categories) to form a judgment sometimes called a “haphazard” or capable of being measured “accidental” sampleContent Validity – m. a form of Convergent Validity – s. a type of measurement validity that is based construct validity that refers to the on other researchers or experts principle that the indicators for a evaluations of the measurement given construct should be at least items contained in a measure; see moderately correlated among also: validity, fact validity, construct themselves; see also: Coefficient validity, criterion-related validity, alpha, validity, face validity, content validity, construct-related validity, Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research by Stacks (Ed.) Copyright © 2006, Institute for Public Relations www.instituteforpr.com
- 10. Correlation 5 Data criterion-related validity, Crossbreak Analysis – s. a categorical discriminant validity, divergent analysis that compares the frequency validity of responses in individual cells fromCorrelation (r) – s. a statistical test that one variable against another; see examines the relationships between also: crosstabulation, frequency, variables (may be either categorical frequency table or continuous); see also: correlation Cross-Sectional Survey – m. a survey coefficient, Pearson Product Moment based on observations representing a coefficient, Spearman-Rho, r single point in time; see also:Correlation Coefficient – s. a measure snapshot survey of association that describes the Crosstabs – s. statistical tables used to direction and strength of a linear array the data; allows the analyst to relationship between two variables; go beyond total data into frequencies usually measured at the interval or and averages as well as to make ratio data level (e.g., Pearson possible overall as well as sub-group Product Moment Coefficient, r), but analyses (e.g., comparisons of the can be measured at the nominal or opinions expressed by sell-side ordinal level (e.g., Spearman-Rho) analysts with those stated by buy-Cost Per Thousand (CPM) – s. cost of side investment professionals) advertising for each 1,000 homes Crosstabulation – s. the result of two reached by the media categorical variables in a table; seeCost-Effectiveness – s. an outcome that also: crossbreak analysis, frequency, may be measured in public relations frequency table research which evaluates the relation Cumulative Scale (Guttman Scale/ between overall expenditure (costs) Scalogram) – m. a measurement and results produced, usually the scale that assumes that when you ratio of changes in costs to change in agree with a scale item you will also effects agree with items that are lessCovariation – s. a criterion for extreme; see also: outcome, causation whereby the dependent Guttman Scalogram, Likert scale, variable takes on different values semantic differential scale depending on the independent Cyber Image Analysis – m. the variable measurement of Internet content viaCriterion Variable –m. the variable the chat rooms or discussion groups in research wants to predict to; see also: cyberspace regarding a client or dependent variable product or topic; the measurement ofCriterion-Related Validity – m. a form a client’s image everywhere on the of validity that compares one Internet measure against others known to have specified relationships with what is being measured; the highest Data – m. the observations or form of measurement validity; see measurements taken when also: validity, face validity, content evaluating a public relations validity, content validity, campaign or program; s. the discriminant validity, divergent frequencies, means, percentages validity used to assess a campaign or Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research by Stacks (Ed.) Copyright © 2006, Institute for Public Relations www.instituteforpr.com
- 11. Database 6 Editorial program; see also: nominal data, such a way as to paint a picture of ordinal data, interval data, ratio data what people think or doDatabase – s. a collection of data Descriptive Statistics – s. the reduction arranged for ease and speed of and simplification of the numbers search and retrieval representing research, to easeDatabase Mining – m. a research interpreting the results technique utilizing existing data; see Descriptive Survey – m. a type of also, secondary methodology survey that collects in quantitativeDeduction – m. a philosophical logic in form basic opinions or facts about a which specific expectations or specified population or sample; also hypotheses are developed or derived known as a “public opinion poll” on the basis of general principles Design Bias – m. research design bias isDelphi Technique – m. a research introduced when the study fails to methodology (usually survey or identify the validity problems or interview) where the researcher tries when publicity about the research to forecast the future based on fails to incorporate the researcher’s successive waves of interviews or cautions surveys with a panel of experts in a Discriminant Validity – s. a type of given field as a means of building a validity that is determined by “consensus” of expert opinion and hypothesizing and examining thought relating to particular topics differential relations between a test or issues and measures of similar or differentDemographic Analysis – m. analysis of constructs. It is the opposite of a population in terms of special convergent validity and is also social, political, economic, and known as divergent validity; see geographic subgroups (e.g., age, sex, also: convergent validity, divergent income-level, race, educational- validity; m. a way of establishing if a level, place of residence, occupation) measure is measuring what it isDemographic Data – m. data that supposed to measure; see also: differentiates between groups of validity, criterion-related validity people or things (e.g., sex, race, Divergent Validity – s. see also: income) discriminant validityDependent Variable – m. the variable Double-Barreled Question – m. a that is measured or collected question that attempts to measureDepth Interview – m. an extensive, two things at the same time; a source probing, open-ended, largely of measurement error unstructured interview, usually conducted in person or by telephone, in which respondents are encouraged Editorial – m. the content of a to talk freely and in great detail publication written by a journalist, as about given subjects; also known as distinct from advertising content an “in-depth interview”; see also: in- which is determined by an depth methodology advertiser; an article expressing theDescriptive Research – m. a form of editorial policy of a publication of a research that gathers information in matter of interest (also known as a “leader” or “leading article”); space Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research by Stacks (Ed.) Copyright © 2006, Institute for Public Relations www.instituteforpr.com
- 12. Environmental Scanning 7 Fever Graph in a publication bought by an Events – s. a community affairs or advertiser that includes journalistic sponsorship output copy intended to make the reader Experimental Methodology – m. a think it originates from an formal research methodology that independent source (also knows as imposes strict artificial limits or an “advertorial”); s. an outcome or boundaries on the research in order measured variable to establish some causal relationshipEnvironmental Scanning – m. a between variables of interest; is not research technique for tracking new generalizable to a larger population developments in any area or field by Explanatory Research – m. a form of carrying out a systematic review of research that seeks to explain why what appears in professional, trade, people say, think, feel, and act the or government publications way they do; concerned primarilyEqual Appearing Interval Scale – m. a with the development of public measurement scale with predefined relations theory about relationships values associated with each and processes; are typically statement; see also: Thurstone scale deductiveEquivalent Advertising Value (AVE) – Exploratory Research – m. a form of s. equivalent cost of buying space research that seeks to establish basic devoted to editorial content attitudes, opinions, and behaviorError Bar – s. a graphical data analysis patterns or facts about a specific technique for showing the error in population or sample; are typically the dependent variable and inductive and involve extensive optionally; the independent variable probing of the population or sample in a standard x-y plot or dataEthnographic Research – m. an informal research methodology that relies on the tools and techniques of Face Validity – m. a form of cultural anthropologists and measurement validity that is based sociologists to obtain a better on the researcher’s knowledge of the understanding of how individuals concept being measured; the lowest and groups function in their natural form of measurement validity; see settings; see also: participant- also: validity, content validity, observation construct validity, criterion-relatedEvaluation Research –m. a form of validity, discriminant validity, research that determines the relative divergent validity effectiveness of a public relations Facilitator – m. an individual who leads campaign or program by measuring a focus group; also known as a program outcomes (changes in the moderator levels of awareness, understanding, Factor Analysis – s. a statistical tool attitudes, opinions, and/or behaviors that allows researchers to test the of a targeted audience or public) dimensionality of their measures; against a predetermined set of used to assess a measure’s construct objectives that initially established validity the level or degree of change desired Fever Graph – s. a form of line graph that measures peaks and valleys of Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research by Stacks (Ed.) Copyright © 2006, Institute for Public Relations www.instituteforpr.com
- 13. Field Study Methodology 8 Gross Rating Points (GRP) data along a continuum that is either Frequency Table – s. a listing of counts continuous or whose classes and percentages in tabular form; may represent categories; see also: graph report a single variable or multipleField Study Methodology – m. a formal variables; see also: crossbreak research methodology that imposes analysis, crosstabulation fewer restrictions or limits or F-Test – s. an inferential test of boundaries on the research in order significance associated with to test some causal relationships Analysis of Variance (ANOVA); see found in experimental research and also: Analysis of Variance generalize them to a larger Funnel Question – m. a question used population in a questionnaire or schedule thatFilter Question – m. a question which is moves an interviewer or respondent used to move a respondent from one from one part of a survey to another question to another; a question that (e.g., “Are you a registered voter?” is used to remove a respondent from If the respondent says yes, certain a survey or interview; see also: questions are asked and if not, then funnel question other questions are asked); see also:Focus Group Methodology – m. an filter question informal research methodology that uses a group approach to gain an in- depth understanding of a client, Goal (Objective) – m. the explicit object, or product; is not statement of intentions that supports generalizable to other focus groups a communication strategy and or populations includes an intendedFormal Methodology – m. a set of audience/receiver, a proposed research methodologies that allows measurable outcome (or desired the researcher to generalize to a level of change in that audience), larger audience but often fails to gain and a specific timeframe for that in-depth understanding of the client, change to occur object, or product; a set of Grand Mean – s. a descriptive statistics methodologies that follow scientific which represents the mean of all or social scientific method; a set of sample means in a study, weighted methodologies that are deductive in by the number of items in each nature sample. The grand mean treats theFormative Evaluation – m. a method of individuals in the different subsets evaluating the process by which (groups) as if there were no programs occur while activities are subgroups, but only individual in their early stages with the intent of measures in the set. The grand mean improving or correcting activities is thus simply the mean of all of theFrequency – s. a descriptive statistic scores; see also: mean that represents the number of objects Graph – s. a graphical representation of being counted (e.g., number of a variable; see also: bar, pie, line, advertisements, number of people fever who attend an event, number of Gross Rating Points (GRP) – measures media release pickups) of weight or readership or audience equivalent to audience exposure Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research by Stacks (Ed.) Copyright © 2006, Institute for Public Relations www.instituteforpr.com
- 14. Guttman Scale 9 Inferential Research among one percent of the population; see also: Targeted Gross Rating Points (TGRP) Image Research – m. a research Guttman Scale (Cumulative program or campaign that Scale/Scalogram) – m. a systematically studies people’s measurement scale that assumes perceptions toward an organization, unidimensionality and that people, individual, product, or service; when faced with a choice will also sometimes referred to as a choose items less intense than the “reputation study” one chosen Impressions – m. the number of people who might have had the opportunity to be exposed to a story that has appeared in the media; also known Histogram – s. a representation of a frequency distribution by means of as “opportunity to see” (OTS); s. rectangles whose widths represent usually refers to the total audited class intervals and whose heights circulation of a publication or the represent corresponding frequencies; audience reach of a broadcast a bar chart representing a frequency vehicle distribution; heights of the bars Incidence – s. the frequency with which represent observed frequencies; see a condition or event occurs in a also: graph given time and population or sample Historical Methodology – m. an Independent t-Test – s. an inferential informal research methodology that statistical test of significance that examines the causes and effects of compares two levels of an past events independent variable against a Holsti’s Reliability Coefficient – s. a continuous measured dependent fairly simple reliability measure used variable in content analysis; see also: Independent Variable – m. the variable reliability, content analysis, against which the dependent variable intercoder reliability, intracoder is tested reliability, Scott’s pi, and In-Depth Interview Methodology – m. Krippendorf’s alpha an informal research methodology in Hypothesis – m. an expectation about which an individual interviews the nature of things derived from another in a one-on-one situation; theory; a prediction of how an see also: in-depth interview independent variable changes a Induction – m. a philosophical logic in dependent variable; formally stated which general principles are as a predication (e.g., males will developed from specific purchase more of X than females), observations but tested via the null hypothesis Inferential Research – m. statistical (males and females will not differ in analyses that test if the results their purchases of X) observed for a sample are indicative Hypothesis Testing – m. determining of the population; the presentation of whether the expectations that a information that allows us to make judgments whether the research hypothesis represents are, indeed, results observed in a sample found in the real world Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research by Stacks (Ed.) Copyright © 2006, Institute for Public Relations www.instituteforpr.com
- 15. Inferential Statistics 10 Issues Research generalize to the population from was poorly written; s. tested for via which the sample was drawn reliability analyses; see also:Inferential Statistics – s. statistical tests Coefficient Alpha, KR-20 that allow a researcher to say within Intercoder Reliability – m. the a certain degree of confidence reliability of content analysis coding whether variables or groups truly when the coding is done by two or differ in their response to a public more coders; see also: reliability, relations message; see: Analysis of intracoder reliability, Holsti’s Variance, Chi-Square, bivariate Reliability Coefficient, Scott’s pi, correlation, correlation, Pearson Krippendorf’s alpha, Cohen’s kappa Product Moment Correlation, Interval Data – m. measurement data Spearman-rho, regression, path that are defined on a continuum and analysis, sequential equation model, assumed to have equal spacing t-test between data points (see interval andInformal Methodology – m. a research ratio data); s. includes temperature methodology that does not allow the scale, standardized intelligence test researcher to generalize to a larger scores, Likert-type scale, semantic audience but gains in-depth differential scale, Guttman understanding of the client, object, Scalogram; see also: attitude or product research, attitude scale, data,Informational Objective – m. an variable, Likert scale, Guttman objective that establishes what Scalogram information a target audience should Interview Schedule – m. a guideline for know or the degree of change in asking questions in person or over knowledge levels after the the telephone interviewers are tasked conclusion of a public relations with predicting your likelihood of campaign or program success in a given position and useInputs – m. the research information and your past behavior as one indicator data from both internal and external of your future performance sources applied in the conception, Intracoder reliability – m. the approval, and design phases of the reliability of content analysis coding input stage of the communication when the coding is done by only one production process coder, usually the researcher; s.Inquiry Research – m. a formal or obtained from statistical tests which informal research methodology that analyze coder decisions versus employs systematically content chance; see also: reliability, analysis, survey methodology, intercoder reliability, Cohen’s kappa, and/or interviewing techniques to Holsti’s Reliability Coefficient, study the range and types of Krippendorf’s alpha, Scott’s pi unsolicited inquiries that an Issues Research – m. a formal or organization may receive from informal research methodology that customers, prospective customers, or systematically studies public policy other target audience groups questions of the day, with the chiefInstrumental Error – m. in focus on those public policy matters measurement, error that occurs whose definition and contending because the measuring instrument positions are still evolving Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research by Stacks (Ed.) Copyright © 2006, Institute for Public Relations www.instituteforpr.com
- 16. Items 11 Mall Intercept ResearchItems – s. a manifest unit of analysis used in content analysis consisting an entire message itself (e.g., an Latent Content – m. from content advertisement, story, press release) analysis, an analysis of the underlying idea, thesis, or theme of content; the deeper meanings that areJudgmental Sample – m. a type of non- intended or perceived in a message probability sample in which Likert Scale – m. an interval-level measurement scale that requires individuals are deliberately selected for inclusion in the sample by the people to respond to statements on a set of predetermined reactions, researcher because they have special knowledge, position, characteristics usually strongly agree, agree, neither or represent other relevant agree nor disagree, disagree, strongly dimensions of the population that are disagree; must possess an odd deemed important to study; see also: number of reaction words or phrases; purposive sample also called “summated ratings method” because the scale requires at least two, if not three, statements per measurement dimensionKey Performance (Performance Line Graph – s. a representation of Result) – m. the desired end effect or frequency distribution by means of impact of a program of campaign lines representing data points at performance various intervals along a continuum;Known Group t-Test – s. an inferential see also: Graph statistical test of significance that Longitudinal Survey – m. a type of compares the results for a sampled survey that consists of different group on some continuous individuals or objects that is measurement dependent variable observed or measured over time against a known value; see also: (e.g., multiple snapshot samples) inferential statistics, independent t- testKR-20 – s. a reliability statistic for Mail Survey – m. a survey technique nominal- or ordinal-level whereby a questionnaire is sent to a measurement; also known as Kuder- respondent via the mail (or Internet) Richardson Formula 20; see also: and the respondent self-administers reliability, Coefficient Alpha the questionnaire and then sends itKrippendorf’s Alpha – s. a fairly back simple content analysis coding Mall Intercept Research – m. a special reliability measure; see also: type of person-to-person surveying reliability, intercoder reliability, in which in-person interviewing is Intracoder reliability, Holsti’s conducted by approaching Reliability Coefficient, Scott’s pi, prospective participants as they stroll Cohen’s kappa through shopping centers or malls; a non-probability form of sampling Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research by Stacks (Ed.) Copyright © 2006, Institute for Public Relations www.instituteforpr.com
- 17. Manifest Content 12 Message Content AnalysisManifest Content – m. from content content validity, construct validity, analysis, an analysis of the actual criterion-related validity content of a message exactly as it Media – m. includes newspapers, appears as opposed to latent content business and consumer magazines that must be inferred from messages and other publications, radio andMarket Research – m. any systematic television, the Internet; company study of buying or selling behavior reports, news wires, governmentMean – s. a descriptive statistic of reports and brochures; Internet Web central tendency that describes the sites and discussion groups “average” of a set of numbers on a Media Evaluations – m. the systematic continuum; also called “average;” appraisal of a company’s reputation, the process of applying a precise products or services, or those of its number or metric, which is both competitors, as measured by their valid and reliable, to the evaluation presence in the media of some performance Median – s. a descriptive statistic ofMeasurement – m. a way of giving an central tendency indicating the activity a precise dimension, midpoint in a series of data; the point generally by comparison to some above and below which 50 percent standard; usually done in a of the data values fall quantifiable or numerical manner; Mention Prominence – s. an outcome see also: data, scale based on an indication of howMeasurement Bias – m. failure to prominent a company, product, or control for the effects of data issue was mentioned in the media; collection and measurement, e.g. typically measured in percent of tendency of people to give socially article and position within the output desirable answers (e.g., headline, above the fold, firstMeasurement Error – m. the amount of three minutes) error found in a research campaign; Mentions – s. an output or outcome in surveys it is the amount of error in consisting of counts of incidents of a individual responses; s. a term that company or product or person expresses the amount of doubt that a appears in the media, one mention researcher may accept in terms of constitutes a media placement findings; see also: confidence Message Content – m. the verbal, interval visual, and audio elements of aMeasurement Reliability – m. the message; the material from which extent to which a measurement scale content analyses are conducted; s. a measures the same thing over time; trend analysis factor that measures s. a statistical reporting of how what, if any, of planned messages reliable a measure is; see also: are actually contained in the media; Coefficient Alpha, test-retest see also: message content analysis reliability, split-half reliability) Message Content Analysis – m.Measurement Validity – m. the extent analysis of media coverage of to which a measurement scale messages regarding a client, product, actually measures what it believed to or topic on key issues measure; see also: face validity, Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research by Stacks (Ed.) Copyright © 2006, Institute for Public Relations www.instituteforpr.com
- 18. Message Strength 13 Null Hypothesis Message Strength – s. trend analysis Nominal Data – s. measurement data factor that measures how strongly that are simple categories in which message about a client or product or items are different in name only and topic was communicated do not possess any ordering; data Mode – s. a descriptive statistic of that are mutually exhaustive and central tendency indicating the most exclusive; the simplest or lowest of frequently occurring (the most all data; categorical data; example: typical) value in a data series male or female, where neither is seen Moderator – m. an individual who leads as better as or larger than the other a focus group; also known as a Nonparametric Statistics – s. facilitator inferential and descriptive statistics Monitoring – m. a process by which based on categorical data; see also: data are systematically and regularly Chi-Square, Spearman-rho collected about a research program Non-Probability Sample – m. a sample over time; see also: environmental drawn from a population whereby scanning respondents or objects do not have Motivational Objective – m. an an equal change of being selected for objective that establishes the desired observation or measurement level of change in a target audience’s Nonverbal Communication – m. that specific attitudes or beliefs after a aspect of the communication that public relations campaign deals with the transmission and Multiple Regression – s. a statistical reception of messages that are not a technique that employs multiple part of a natural language system dependent variables to predict an (e.g., visual, spoken [as opposed to outcome variable (dependent verbal], environmental) variable); see also: Regression, Norm – s. short for “normative data”; independent variable, dependent see also: normative data variable Normal Curve – s. measurement data Multivariate Analysis – s. an inferential reflecting the hypothetical or descriptive statistic that examines distribution of data points or cases the relationship among three or more based on interval- or ratio-level data variables that are “normally distributed” and error free; all continuous or parametric data sets have their own normally distributed data that fall Network Analysis – m. a formal or under its specific normal curve informal research method that Normative Data – s. the proprietary set examines how individuals or units or of scores that allow comparison of actors relate to each other in some results to other studies and see systematic way “where you stand” and provide a Neutral Point – s. a point midway context between extremes in attitude measurement scales; in Likert-type Null Hypothesis – s. the hypothesis of scales usually defined as “neutral” or no difference that is formally tested “neither agree nor disagree”; see in a research campaign or program; also: attitude, attitude scale, Likert its rejection is the test of the theory; scale, semantic differential scale it is the formal hypothesis that all Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research by Stacks (Ed.) Copyright © 2006, Institute for Public Relations www.instituteforpr.com
- 19. Objective 14 Output inferential statistics test; see also: and ordered; categorical data; inferential statistics example: income as categories of under $25K, $26K–$50K, $51K– $75K, $76K–$100K, over $100K Outcomes – m. quantifiable changes inObjective – m. a measurable outcome in awareness, knowledge, attitude, three forms: informational opinion, and behavior levels that (cognitive), motivational occur as a result of a public relations (attitudinal/belief), behavioral program or campaign; an effect, (actionable); an explicit statement of consequence, or impact of a set or intentions that supports a program of communication activities communication strategy, and to be or products, and may be either short- measurable, includes an intended term (immediate) or long term; s. the audience/public, a proposed change dependent variable in research; see in a communication effect, a precise also: dependent variable indication of the amount or level of Outgrowth – m. the culminate effect of change and a specific timeframe for all communication programs and the change to occur products on the positioning of anOmnibus Survey – m. an “all purpose” organization in the minds of its national consumer poll usually stakeholders or publics; s. an conducted on a regular schedule outcome statistics used as a (once a week or every other week) dependent variable in some research; by major market research firms; also see also: dependent variable, called “piggyback” or “shared-cost” outcome survey Output – m. what is generated as aOpen-Ended Question – m. open-ended result of a PR program or campaign questions probe the dimensions of that impacts on a target audience or attitudes and behavior held by a public to act or behave in some way particular respondent through an — this is deemed important to the interactive conversation between researcher (also known as a respondent and interviewer “judgmental sample”); the final stageOpinion – m. a verbalized or written of a communication product, evaluation of some object production, or process resulting inOpportunities to See (OTS) – m. the the production and dissemination of number of times a particular a communication product (brochure, audience has the potential to view a media release, Web site, speech, message, subject or issue; s. an etc.); s. the number of outcome statistic based on outputs communication products or services serving as a dependent variable in resulting from a communication some research; see also: dependent production process; the number variable, impressions, outcome, distributed and/or the number output reaching a targeted audience;Ordinal Data – s. measurement data sometimes used as an outcome that are categories in which items are serving as a dependent variable in different in name and possess an research; see also: dependent ordering of some sort; data that are variable, outcome mutually exhaustive and exclusive Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research by Stacks (Ed.) Copyright © 2006, Institute for Public Relations www.instituteforpr.com
- 20. Outtake 15 Performance IndicatorOuttake – m. measurement of what Participant-Observation – m. an audiences have understood and/or informal research methodology heeded and/or responded to a where the researcher takes an active communication product’s call to role in the life of an organization or seek further information from PR community, observes and records messages prior to measuring an interactions, and then analyzes those outcome; audience reaction to the interactions receipt of a communication product, Path Analysis – s. a statistical technique including favorability of the product, that establishes relationships recall and retention of the message between variables with arrows embedded in the product, and between variables indicating the whether the audience heeded or pattern of causal relationships responded to a call for information usually in the form of a “path or action within the message; s. diagram”; see also: path diagram sometimes used as an outcome Path Diagram – s. a graphical serving as a dependent variable in representation of the causal research; see also: dependent relationships between variables variable, outcome showing both direction and strength of relationship Pearson Product Moment Coefficient (r) – s. a correlation statistic usedPaired t-Test – s. an inferential with interval and ratio data; see also: statistical test of significance that correlation, data, Spearman-rho compares data that are collected Percent of Change – s. a measure of twice on the same sample; see also: increase or decrease of media inferential statistics, independent t- coverage test, known-group t-test Percentage – s. a descriptive statisticPanel Survey – m. a type of survey that based on categorical data; defined as consists of the same individuals or the frequency count for a particular objects that is observed or measured category divided by the total over time; a type of survey in which frequency count; example: 10 males a group of individuals are out of 100 people = 10%; see also: deliberately recruited by a research descriptive statistics firm because of their special Percentage Point – s. the number that a demographic characteristics for the percentage is increased or decreased express purpose of being interviewed Performance – m. the act of carrying- more than once over a period of time out, doing, executing, or putting into for various clients on a broad array effect; a deed, task, action, or of different topics or subjects activity as a unit of a program ofParameter – s. in sampling, a performance characteristic of a population that is Performance Indicator – m. a sign or of interest parameter that, if tracked over time,Parametric Statistics – s. inferential provides information about the on- and descriptive statistics based on going results of a particular program continuous data; see also: data, of performance or campaign; s. an descriptive statistics, inferential outcome measured during a public statistics Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research by Stacks (Ed.) Copyright © 2006, Institute for Public Relations www.instituteforpr.com
- 21. Performance Measure 16 Proportion relations campaign that serves as a program on business investment; s. dependent variable; see also: data, the outcome (dependent) variable dependent variable which demonstrates the impact of aPerformance Measure – m. is a number public relations campaign or that shows the exact extent to which program investment on the overall a result was achieved; s. in a business outcomes; a causal research campaign, an outcome of indicator of public relations impact; some sort serving as a dependent see also: causal relationships, variable; see also: data, dependent Return on Investment (ROI) variable, outcome Probability Sample – m. a samplePerformance Result (Key drawn at random from a population Performance) – m. the desired end such that all possible respondents or effect or impact of a program of objects have an equal chance of campaign performance being selected for observation orPerformance Target – m. a time- measurement bounded and measurable Probe Question – m. a question used in commitment toward achieving a a questionnaire or schedule that desired result requires the participant to explain anPeriodicity – s. a bias found in sampling earlier response, often in the form of due to the way in which the items or “why do you think this?” respondents are chosen; example: Product (Communication Product) – newspapers may differ by being m. the end result of the daily, weekly, weekday only, and so communication product or process forth resulting in the production andPie Graph – s. A representation of a dissemination of a brochure, media frequency distribution by means of release, video news release, Web triangular portions of a pie whose site, speech, and so forth; an output sections represents the percentages or outtake; see also: output, outtake of the variable of interest; see also: Program (Campaign) – m. the graph planning, execution, and evaluationPiggyback Survey – m. see: omnibus of a public relations plan of action survey aimed at solving a problemPoll – m. a form of survey research that Prominence of Mention – m. trend focuses more on immediate behavior analysis factor that measures how than attitudes; a very short survey- prominently a client or product or like method whose questionnaire topic was mentioned and where that asks only very short and closed- mention occurred (e.g., headline, top ended questions; see also: in-depth of the fold, what part of a broadcast); survey, survey methodology s. an output unit of analysis used as aPosition Papers – m. print output dependent variable; see also:Positioning – m. trend analysis factor dependent variable, output that measures how a client or Proportion – s. a descriptive statistic product or topic was positioned in based on categorical data; defined as the media (e.g., leader, follower) the percentage as made part of onePR Return on Investment (PRROI) – (1.0); example: 10 males out of 100 m. the impact of a public relations Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research by Stacks (Ed.) Copyright © 2006, Institute for Public Relations www.instituteforpr.com
- 22. Psychographic Research 17 Questionnaire people are 10 hundredths of the or relevant dimensions of the sample populationPsychographic Research – m. research Push Poll – m. a survey technique in focusing on a population or sample’s which an interviewer begins by non-demographic traits and acting as if the telephone call is a characteristics, such as personality general survey but then asks the type, life-style, social roles, values, respondent a question implying attitudes, and beliefs questionable behaviors or outcomesPsychometrics – s. a branch of of a person or product psychology that deals with the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests for the measurement of psychological Q-Sort – m. a measurement instrument variables such as intelligence, that focuses on respondent beliefs by aptitude, and personality traits; also asking them to sort through piles of called psychometry opinion statement and sort them intoPublic – m. a group of people who have piles on an 11-point continuum consequences on an organization or usually bounded by “most-like-me” affected by the consequences of to “most-unlike-me”; see also: organizational decisions; a group of attitude scale people from which the public Qualitative Research – m. usually relations campaign or program refers to studies that are somewhat to selects specific targeted audiences in totally subjective, but nevertheless an attempt to influence it regarding a in-depth, using a probing, open- company, product, issue, or ended, response format or reflects an individual; see also: audience, ethnomethodological orientation sample Quantitative Research – m. usuallyPublic Opinion Poll – m. a type of refers to studies that are highly survey that collects basic opinions or objective and projectable, using facts about a specified population or closed-ended, forced-choice sample; also known as a descriptive questionnaires; research that relies survey; see also: poll, survey heavily on statistics and numerical methodology measuresPublic Relations Effectiveness – s. the Question – m. a statement or phrase degree to which the outcome of a used in a questionnaire or schedule public relations program is that elicits either an open- or closed- consonant with the overall objectives ended response from a research of the program as judged by some participant; see also: funnel and measure of causation; see also: probe questions causal relationship. Questionnaire – m. a measurementPurposive Sample – m. a non- instrument that contains exact probability sample in which questions and measures an individuals are deliberately selected interviewer or survey researcher uses for inclusion based on their special to survey through the mail, Internet, knowledge, position, characteristics, in person, or via the telephone; may be closed-ended and open-ended, but Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research by Stacks (Ed.) Copyright © 2006, Institute for Public Relations www.instituteforpr.com
- 23. Quota Sample 18 Research Bias typically employs more closed- one predictor (independent) variable; ended questions see also: Multiple regression; m. aQuota Sample – m. a type of non- source of error or invalidity in probability sample that draws its experimental methodology that may sample based on a percentage or impact on the validity of the quota from the population and stops experiment; see also: experimental sampling when that quota is met; a methodology, validity, inferential non-probability sample that attempts statistics to have the same general distribution Reliability – m. the extent to which of population characteristics as in the results would be consistent, or sample; see also: poll, survey replicable, if the research were methodology conducted a number of times; s. a statistical measure accessing consistency of a measure, usually through the Coefficient Alpha orRange – s. a descriptive central KR-20 statistic in measurement or tendency statistics that expresses the Cohen’s Kappa, Hosti’s reliability difference between the highest and coefficient, Krippendorf’s alpha, or lowest scores in the data set; Scott’s pi; see also: measurement example: responses to a question on reliability, Cohen’s Kappa, Holsti’s a 1 to 5 Likert-type scale where all reliability coefficient, Scott’s pi reaction categories were used would Reputation – s. An outcome variable yield a range of 4 (5 minus 1) often used dependent variable inRatio Data – s. measurement data that public relations research dealing are defined on a continuum and with the public’s perception of some possess an absolute zero point; source’s credibility, trustworthiness, examples: number of children, a or image based on the source’s bank account, absolute lack of heat behavior; see also: dependent (0o Kelvin = –459.67o or –273.15C) variableReach – m. refers to the scope or range Research – m. the systematic effort of distribution and thus coverage that before (formative research) or during a given communication product has and/or after (summative or in a targeted audience group; evaluative research) a broadcasting, the net unduplicated communication activity aimed at (also called “duplicated”) radio or discovering and collecting the facts TV audience for programs or or opinions pertaining to an commercials as measured for a identified issue, need, or question; specific time period may be formal or informalReadership – m. number of people who Research Bias – m. unknown or actually read each issue of a unacknowledged error created publication, on average; s. an during the design, measurement, outcome variable that often serves as sampling, procedure, or choice of a dependent variable; see also: problem studied; see also: dependent variable, outcome experimental methodology, validity,Regression – s. a statistical tool that regression predicts outcomes based on one outcome (dependent) variable and Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research by Stacks (Ed.) Copyright © 2006, Institute for Public Relations www.instituteforpr.com
- 24. Research Instrument 19 Secondary MethodologyResearch Instrument – m. tool used to that reflect an underlying structure collect data; see also, questionnaire, toward some attitude or belief interview schedule, semi-structured object; see also: attitude scale interview, structured interview Scalogram (GuttmanRespondent – m. the individual from Scale/Cumulative Scale) – m. a whom data is collected through measurement scale that assumes (a) participation in a research campaign; unidimensionality and (b) that sometimes called participant or, in people, when faced with a choice psychological study, subject will also choose items less intenseResponse Rate – m. from survey than the one chosen; see also: methodology, the number of attitude scale, Likert-type scale, respondents who actually completed semantic differential scale an interview; s. the percentage of Scattergram – s. a descriptive statistics completed surveys (often adjusted based on continuous data that for mailing errors) graphically demonstrated how dataResults – s. the outcome demonstrated are distributed between two to have been impacted upon by a variables; also known as a scatter public relations campaign; m. that diagram or scatterplot which is measured in a campaign as Schedule – m. the timeline on which a dependent variables; see also: public relations program or dependent variable, outcome, output, campaign is conducted; a list of outtake, outgrowth questions, usually open-ended, usedReturn on Investment (ROI) – s. an in focus group and in-depth outcome variable that equates profit interviews to gather data; see also: from investment; see also: Public survey methodology, in-depth relations return on investment, interview dependent variable Scott’s pi – s. a coding reliability measure employed in content analysis that reduces the impact of chance agreement among intercoderSample – m. a group of people or or intracoder coding; see also: objects chosen from a larger reliability, content analysis, Holsti’s population; see also: probability Reliability Coefficient, sample, non-probability sample; Krippendorf’s alpha, Cohen’s kappa convenience sample; panel survey; Screener Question – m. one of several longitudinal survey; snapshot survey questions usually asked at theSampling Error – m. the amount of beginning of an interview or survey error expected or observed in to determine if the potential surveys that may be attributed to respondent is eligible to participate problems in selecting respondents; s. in the study; see also: funnel the amount of error that is acceptable question or expected based on the sample size Secondary Methodology – m. an and expressed as confidence in informal research methodology that sampling form a population; see examines extant data in order to also: confidence level draw conclusions; a systematic re-Scale –m. a measurement instrument analysis of a vast array of existing consisting of attitude or belief items Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research by Stacks (Ed.) Copyright © 2006, Institute for Public Relations www.instituteforpr.com

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