Quality tools-asq-london-may-10-2006
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  • I prefer to look at these two maps from the perspective: Top Level Flow Map is product focused. It is needed to produce a Design FMEA. An MRP routing is an example of a top level map. Detail Process Flow Map is operator focused . It is essential to understand standard work and produce quality Process FMEAs
  • The first major type of flow map is the Top Level Flow Map.
  • The example above is the sequence of events for Green Belt training classes. Its activities go from the decision to do Green Belt training until Certification. This example has process inputs and outputs listed on the vertical arrows. Note that after the executive overview, the output is a functional data collection system, which becomes the input for the next activity -- the first week of training. Our flow chart recognizes that having this data collection system is the cornerstone to having data to analyze and turn into useful information for project selection. This particular map has the inputs labeled. Notice the outputs from training are 1) tool proficiency, and 2) homework. If the green belt does not become proficient with the tools and does not pursue homework, then the project work phase never happens. On this flow map we have also identified variables for project work, and categorized them to identify which ones are critical, standard and noise variables. identification of opportunities and budgeted time are critical factors that are manageable by the manufacturing site. The management of factors are the major driving factors black belt support and guidance are standard work procedure variables level of skill is considered a noise variable, because of the process being well mapped and having good project support.
  • The example above is the sequence of events for Green Belt training classes. Its activities go from the decision to do Green Belt training until Certification. This example has process inputs and outputs listed on the vertical arrows. Note that after the executive overview, the output is a functional data collection system, which becomes the input for the next activity -- the first week of training. Our flow chart recognizes that having this data collection system is the cornerstone to having data to analyze and turn into useful information for project selection. This particular map has the inputs labeled. Notice the outputs from training are 1) tool proficiency, and 2) homework. If the green belt does not become proficient with the tools and does not pursue homework, then the project work phase never happens. On this flow map we have also identified variables for project work, and categorized them to identify which ones are critical, standard and noise variables. identification of opportunities and budgeted time are critical factors that are manageable by the manufacturing site. The management of factors are the major driving factors black belt support and guidance are standard work procedure variables level of skill is considered a noise variable, because of the process being well mapped and having good project support.
  • Our FMEA will probably leave out critical items that need to be mistake proofed if we do not do the detail process map. The reason is simple -- the top level map leaves out the detail that the operator sees; consequently, any undisclosed choices will cause uncontrolled mistakes and create common cause process variation. It is common cause variation because it is common to the process. Only a change to the process can correct the root cause of the defects.
  • DBP = dibenzile peroxide
  • Notes:
  • Sample size used is generally 5.
  • Individuals and moving range charts are used for destructive testing. Rbar / d2 used to calculate control limits. d2 for a sample size or 5 equals 2.326.
  • #3 is a .5  shift in the average. Keep in mind that in about 300 points one point slightly outside the control limits will happen normally. If this were a 1st time set-up you would want to identify and eliminate the special cause on the mR chart. When doing the control limits, remove the point from the calculations. Example: Stat>Control Chart>I/MR Chart>estimate--Omit 140, 141 .

Quality tools-asq-london-may-10-2006 Quality tools-asq-london-may-10-2006 Presentation Transcript

  • Quality Tools When and Where to Apply Them? © Omnex All rights reserved
  • David A. Barber, CQE (ASQ)
    •  
    • Mr. Barber is the General Manager and Senior Quality Consultant / Trainer for Omnex Canada Inc. He has been a full time consultant since 1998, and estimates a total of 5,000 hours of in-class instructional training and 3,000 hours of client consultation since that time.
    •  
    • Mr. Barber has over 20 years experience in the Quality profession with the majority of this time being spent in Quality Director / Manager and Quality Engineering roles. He has a diverse background with experience in the automotive, medical devices, consumer electronic, telecommunications, plastics, machining, and stamping industries. Mr. Barber has assisted companies in the development and implementation of cohesive quality systems that have resulted in the achievement of ISO 9001:1994, QS-9000, TS16949:1999, ISO 9001:2000, TS16949:2002, TL9000, ISO/IEC 17025 and Six Sigma projects.
    •  
    • Mr. Barber is a fourteen-year senior member of the American Society for Quality (ASQ) and is a Certified Quality Engineer. He received his Quality Assurance Certificate (accredited by the ASQ) from Centennial College of Applied Arts and Technology, has a diploma in Electronics from Radio College of Canada.
    • Omnex provides training, consulting and software to the international market with offices in the USA, Brazil, Canada, India, Mexico, Venezuela, China (PRC) and Thailand. Omnex offers over 70 training courses in business and quality management systems worldwide.
    • Internet email: info@omnex.com
    • Web: www.omnex.com
  • Presentation Overview
    • Introduction & Overview
    • Types of Quality Tools
      • Traditional Quality Tools
      • Commonly Used Additional Tools
      • Some Other Quality Tools
    • Types, or categories of Tools
      • What are the best use of certain tools
    • When to Apply
    • Where to Apply
    • Review Some Tools
      • Workshop – When and Where to apply a specific tool?
  • History Quality (Tools) 1920 – Quality was a inspection function 1924 – Statistical Quality Control - Dr.Walter Shewhart 1930 – Acceptance Sample Late 1940’s – Could not produce quick enough (Japan Struggled) 1950’s – Quality Tools defined (Juran, Feiganbaum, Taguchi, etc.) 1960’s – FMEA’s in Aerospace, COQ loses favor 1980’s – ISO 9000, Six Sigma, (Tools part of business) 1990 to 2002 – Fine tune tools, program management 1970’s – QFD & Team Problem Solving (More Tools) 2006 – How to effectively & efficiently apply the right tools (does it work, at what $)
  • Traditional Quality Tools (ASQ)
    • 7 Quality Control Tools (will look at some)
    • Flowcharts
    • Pareto Charts
    • Control Charts
    • Cause & Effect Diagrams
    • Check Sheets
    • Scatter Diagrams
    • Histograms
    • 7 Quality Management & Planning Tools
    • Affinity Diagrams
    • Tree Diagrams
    • Process Decision Program Charts (PDPC)
    • Matrix Diagrams
    • Interrelationship Digraphs
    • Prioritization Matrices
    • Activity Network Diagrams
  • Additional Quality Tools
    • There are many quality tools used today
    • Some are even call techniques
    • Have seen as many as 100 tools used for a given continuous improvement roadmap or Quality / Business Management System
    • Which ones to use?
    • We will look at some more commonly used tools
  • Commonly Used Additional Quality Tools
    • Will look at some
    • 5W/2H
    • Is / Is Not (Difference & Changes)
    • Brainstorming (Creative Thinking)
    • Failure Modes & Effects Analysis (Process)
    • Box Plot
    • Design of Experiments
    • Run (Trend) Chart
    • Control Plans
    • Value Stream Map
  • Some Other Quality Tools
    • Balanced Scorecard
    • Gantt Chart
    • Paynter Chart
    • Storyboard
    • Tree Diagram
    • Turtle Diagram / SIPOC
    • Value-added Analysis
    • ANOVA
  • Where Did They Come From?
    • Area of Quality Engineering and Quality Systems
    • In what area are the tools taught;
      • Quality Control, Assurance, and Engineering
      • Quality Tools (7 basic)
      • TQM
      • Continuous & Continual Improvement
      • SPC (many levels)
      • Six Sigma
      • Lean Manufacturing
  • Where Did They Come From?
      • Continued
      • Program Management
      • Team Building / Creative Thinking
      • Team Problem Solving
      • ISO 9000 / Process Mapping
      • Individual Core Tools & Competencies
        • Advanced Product Quality Planning
        • Failure Modes & Effects Analysis
        • Measurement Systems Analysis
      • Others?
  • How to Think
    • Most Quality Tools only have two purposes;
    • Creative thinking
      • Diverge – Look at many possibilities
      • Expand our thinking
      • What are all variable
      • Right brain
      • Ideate
    • Analytical thinking
      • Converge – Narrow down and prove out
      • Focus our thinking
      • Which is the most important variable
      • Let the data solve the disagreement
      • Left brain
      • Evaluate
  • Type or Category of Tools
    • Tools have been broken down into categories to improve proper application and to understand “how to think” (focus).
    • All the quality tools (i.e. 20 to 100) can be grouped into 3 to 6 categories (normally).
    • The categories combined the “how to think” with the traditional “Plan, Do, Check, Act” cycle, or a variation thereof.
  • Type or Category of Tools
    • Sample 1.
    • Project Planning & Implementation
    • Idea Creation
    • Process Analysis
    • Data Collection & Analysis
    • Cause Analysis
    • Evaluation & Decision Making
    • Sample 2. (Simplified)
    • Identifying and Understanding
    • Analyzing
    • Implementing and Maintaining
    Source; ASQ.org / Omnex
  • When to Apply the Tool?
    • Or what do we want to do with the tools, or how is the tool used, to;
    • Identifying and Understanding
      • A process
      • A problem (potential root cause)
      • A product
    • Analyzing
      • Process or product variation (target, spread, pattern / shape)
      • Relationships of multi variables
      • Variable data over time
    • Implementing and Maintaining
      • A control method (error-proofing)
      • A corrective or preventive action
      • Review over time
      • A project
  • Where to Apply the Tool?
    • There are several different ways to look at this;
    • Where to apply the tool in the quality improvement process (General Steps - Examples);
        • Overall Plan
        • Current State
        • Opportunities for Improvement
        • Root Cause
        • Corrective / Prevent Action (Change)
        • Standardize
  • Where to Apply the Tool?
    • Where to apply the tool in the quality improvement process such as Six Sigma;
        • Define – improvement opportunities and their value to the company.
        • Measure – the current level of performance.
        • Analyze – the current process to identify improvement opportunities.
        • Improve – plan and deploy process improvements.
        • Control – hold the gains.
  • Where to Apply the Tool?
    • Where in your organization?
      • Which Process(s)?
        • Product Realization Process
        • Support Process
        • Customer Process
        • Management Process
      • Which Department or Function?
  • Example; Problem Solving Tools
  • Flowcharts © Omnex All rights reserved
  • Having The “Right” Amount Of Detail To Identify The Issues Is Essential Too little detail will not expose the problem. Too much detail will hide the problem. Input Output Process Well we can see the issue is the process, but where? I can’t find the issue in all this detail!
  • Two basic types of Flow Maps
    • Top Level Flow Map
      • Major Use - to locate critical features and processes for subsequent processing
      • Usually focused on process sequence for a product
      • It is used to develop the FMEA and Control Plan
      • It is characterized by a linear flow from one process step to the next
      • Follows the process sequence, but usually lacks sufficient detail for a new person to successfully complete the task.
    • Detail Process Flow Map
      • Major Use - to understand details of how a process works, decision points
      • Usually focused on one or two processes in a work area
      • It is usually used for Work Instructions
      • It is characterized by convoluted decision paths
      • Following the map should lead to successful completion of the task
  • Top Level Flow Map
    • Benefits of Using this Map
      • - Helps us view “the BIG picture” -- interrelationships
      • of processes
      • - This map is product process Sequence focused
      • - Top Level Map has a Product or Process Perspective
    • Limitations:
      • - Not very helpful in knowing work content, nor
      • decision points in work
    First Process Second Process Third Process
  • Top Level Flow Mapping - Basics
    • Creating a Process Map
      • Product or Process Focus
      • List Key Process Input Variables
      • List Key Customer Output Variables
      • Identify value-added and non-value added steps in the process. (process steps, inspection / testing, rework, scrap points)
    • Key Process Input Variables
      • Controllable Inputs: these can be changed and we see an effect in the key output variables. These inputs are sometimes called “knob variables”
      • Critical Inputs: are shown to statistically have major impact on variability of output variables
      • Noise Inputs: Inputs that impact the outputs but are difficult to control.
      • Standard Operating Procedures: A standard procedure for running the process
  • Example of Top Level Flow Map
    • Note the linear flow
      • Note the key inputs and outputs for the process chain
      • These key inputs and outputs become the basis for FMEA and Control Plan linkage
  • Detail Process Flow Map
    • Benefits of using this map:
      • Logical flow when decision points are reached
      • This map is work area and work content focused
      • Operator perspective
    • Limitations:
      • Often too much detail to clearly see interrelationships between processes
      • May be limited so that critical FMEA items get missed
  • Apply the Specific Tool
  • Pareto Diagram © Omnex All rights reserved
  • Pareto Diagram
    • Pareto Diagrams are an essential tool to help prioritize improvement targets. Paretos usually allow us to focus on the 20% of the problems that cause 80% of the poor performance.
    Defects Freqs Week Air Bubble 93 1 Air Bubble 81 2 Air Bubble 62 3 Air Bubble 57 4 Weight Dev. 120 1 Weight Dev. 132 2 Weight Dev. 91 3 Weight Dev. 88 4 Deformation 18 1 Deformation 29 2 Deformation 31 3 Deformation 42 4 Color 24 1 Color 42 2 Color 39 3 Color 27 4
  • Second Level Pareto
    • A second level Pareto is used to drill down into the data.
    • In Minitab, chart defects data in ‘Flaws,’ BY variable in ‘Period.’
    Flaws Period Scratch Day Scratch Day Peel Day Peel Day Smudge Day Scratch Day Other Day Other Evening Peel Evening Peel Evening Peel Evening Peel Evening Scratch Evening Scratch Evening Peel Night Scratch Night Smudge Night Scratch Night Peel Night Peel Night Peel Night Peel Night Other Night Other Night Scratch Night Scratch Night Peel Night Scratch Night Smudge Night Scratch Night Other Night Scratch Night Scratch Night Peel Weekend Peel Weekend Peel Weekend Smudge Weekend Smudge Weekend Smudge Weekend Other Weekend You should drill down using third level, fourth level, etc., as far as it makes sense in solving your problem.
  • Apply the Specific Tool
  • Histogram © Omnex All rights reserved
  • Histogram
    • Histograms show how data is distributed.
    • The Output Variable represents 6 days of data collection, 12 hours per day.
    DBP Time Day 95 1 1 100 2 1 104 3 1 105 4 1 108 5 1 99 6 1 100 7 1 104 8 1 101 9 1 105 10 1 (The First Ten Observations)
  • Apply the Specific Tool
  • Cause and Effect Diagrams © Omnex All rights reserved
  • Cause and Effect Diagrams
    • Purpose
      • The Fishbone Diagram, also known as the Cause and Effect Diagram or Ishikawa Diagram, is a graphical construct used to identify and explore on a single chart, in increasing detail, the possible causes which lead to a given effect. The ultimate aim is to work down through the causes to identify basic root causes of a problem.
  • Benefits of Cause and Effect Diagrams
    • Categorize causes of variation
    • Apply to product and service related functions
    • Complement the brainstorming process
    • Retain lasting value
    • Provide succinct information
    • Promote teamwork
    • Clarify understanding
    • Identify potential problem areas
  • The Generic Cause and Effect Diagram
  • Other Cause and Effect Diagrams
  • Fishbone Diagram
        • Reference:The Memory Jogger P. 23 - 30 Juran Quality Control Handbook P. 22.37 - 22.38
  • Apply the Specific Tool
  • Failure Modes & Effects Analysis (FMEA) © Omnex All rights reserved
    • A systematic group of activities intended to:
      • Recognize and evaluate the potential failure of a product / process and the effects of that failure,
      • Identify actions that could eliminate or reduce the chance of the potential failure occurring, and
      • Document the entire process.
    What is an FMEA
  • FMEA Sequence
    • Review all process operations
    • What can go wrong?
    • What are the effect(s)?
    • How bad is it?
    • What are the cause(s)?
    • How often does it happen?
    • How can this be prevented and detected?
    • How good are the methods of detection?
    • What can be done to improve the process?
  • FMEA Sequence Process Steps What can go wrong? What are the Effect(s)? How bad is it? What are the cause(s)? How can this be prevented and detected? How often does it happen? How good are the method(s) of detection? What can be done to improve the process? Risk Priority Number What is the new RPN? Analysis 1 Analysis 2 Analysis 3 Current Process Controls Detection Current Process Controls Prevention R P N D e t Occ Sev Actions Taken Action Results Responsibility & Target Completion Date Recomm’d Action(s) RPN Detec Occur Potential Cause(s)/ Mechanism(s) Of Failure Class Sev Potential Effect(s) of Failure Potential Failure Mode Process Function Require.
  • Analysis of a FMEA
    • A FMEA is like three separate analyses in one
    • Severity (scaled 1 to 10, where 10 = very Serious)
    • Occurrence (scaled 1 to 10, where 10 = high likelihood)
    • Detection (scaled 1 to 10, where 10 = can’t detect)
    • All three are multiplied
    • S x O x D = RPN (risk priority number)
    • RPN ranges is from 1 to 1000, where lower = better
    • Must establish a customer agreed maximum RPN
      • Common values have been 100, 70, 54, 42
  • Type of FMEA’s
    • Design
    • System
    • Bulk Material
    • Process
    • Service
    • Machinery (new AIAG guideline)
    • Safety
  • Apply the Specific Tool
  • Control Charts © Omnex All rights reserved
  • Control Chart Roadmap
    • Select the appropriate variable to control
    • Select the data collection point
    • Select Type of Control Chart
    • Establish basis for rational sub-grouping
    • Determine sample size
    • Determine measurement method/criteria
    • Determine measurement system variation
    • Perform initial capability study to establish control limits
    • Set up forms for charting data
    • Prepare procedures & train personnel
    • Implement & monitor (identify special causes thru pattern recognition)
  • Control Charts for Variable Data
    • Xbar Chart
      • Measures the aim or center of the process
      • Monitors the change in the Mean of the variable across time
    • Range Chart
      • Measures the gain or loss of uniformity
      • Monitors variability of the process over time
    • Sigma Chart
      • Similar to Range Chart
      • Uses the sample estimate of Sigma
    • Individuals Chart
      • Similar to Xbar
      • Plots individual points instead of the Mean
    • Moving Range Chart
      • Similar to Range chart
      • New range is plotted with each consecutive point
      • Used with the Individuals chart
  • Xbar-R Example
  • Control Charts for Attribute Data
    • P Chart (Percent or Fraction Defective of units non-conforming/ defective )
      • Subgroup sample size may not be equal
      • Good/Bad or Pass/Fail
    • NP Chart (Number of units non-conforming/ defective )
      • Equal subgroup sample size
      • Examples: Oil filter does not leak/leaks or Lamp lights/does not light
    • C Chart (Number of non-conformities/ defects )
      • Equal subgroup sample size
      • Each unit can have more than one non-conformance/ defect
    • U Chart (Number of non-conformities/ defects per unit)
      • Subgroup sample size may not be the equal
      • Examples: Paint defects on an oil filter or Errors on an invoice
  • Chart P Example
  • Apply the Specific Tool
  • Value Stream Mapping © Omnex All rights reserved
  • Drawing Current State Maps
    • Draw customer & supplier icons
    • Draw customer and supplier information flows
    • Draw delivery icons with frequency of deliveries
    • Draw & label operation boxes
    • Draw icons for raw, W.I.P. & F.G. inventories
    • Draw scheduling information flows
    • Draw material flows between operations
    • Draw data boxes for each operation
    • Calculate inventory days for each storage location
    • Draw timeline
    • Label and date the map – current state map for….
  • Current State Mapping Icons Customer Delivery Supplier Delivery Outside Customer or Supplier Operation Operator I Inventory Storage Point I Inventory Pushed Ahead Shipment Data Box Electronic Information Flow Scheduling Information Flow
  • VA & NVA Timelines
    • Draw value-added time down on the timeline, draw non value-added time up
    Inventory Days Inventory Days Cycle Time Cycle Time Cycle Time Total N.V.A. Time Total V.A. Time
  • 8400 pcs/mo Skid = 40 pieces Distributors & Installers Weekly FS = 600 SQ FS = 800 SQ FS = 300 SQ FS = 4000 SQ 9.5 days 7 days 2.4 days 1.9 days 5.2 days 11.4 days 25 seconds 60 seconds 35 seconds 20 seconds 40 seconds Weekly Ship Schedule Weekly Schedule C/T=25 sec. C/O= 90 sec. U/T = 95% QR = 99% SHEAR PUNCH 1 C/T=60 sec. C/O= 0 U/T = 95% QR = 98% 1 FS = 600 SQ S. WELD QR = 98% QR = 97% PAINT/BOX PRODUCTION CONTROL MRP Weekly PO fax 90/60/30 Day Forecast 90/60/30 Day Forecasts Weekly Order Weekly I Sheets 4000 I 3000 I 1000 I 800 I 2200 I 4800 Lead Time = 37.4 DAYS Production Time = 180 sec 2500 Sheets Michigan Steel Co. FORM 1 C/T=35 sec. C/O=40 min. U/T = 90% QR = 95% 1 C/T = 20 C/O=0 U/T = 99% 10 C/T=40 sec. C/O=0 U/T = 95% SHIPPING Staging
    • Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY) = FTQ (Yield) of all Operations Multiplied
    • Process Leadtime Days = Value-Added Time + Non Value-Added Time
    • Process Efficiency % = (VAT / Process Leadtime) x 100%
    • Inventory Days = Number Pieces divided by Daily Sales (for Raw, WIP & FG).
    • Floor Space = Total Square Footage of Production + Inventory Stores
    • Labor Productivity Ratio = Average Daily Sales / # Operators
    • Availability = Average of Uptime % for all Operations in the Process
    Process Scorecard Measures Process Performance is a lagging indicator – improvements will show on this scorecard after Lean Projects have been successfuly deployed!
  • Future State Maps
    • Future State Maps describe the value stream as it could be – the ideal state!
    • The Future State Map is the Blueprint you will use to plan improvement projects.
  • Future State Icons Withdrawal form a Supermarket Supermarket Withdrawal Kanban Leveling Production Kanban Kanban Path Signal Kanban OXOX Kaizen Project Required Kanban Post Kanban Arriving in Batches First-In First-Out Flow max 50 pcs FIFO
  • 8400 pcs/mo Skid = 40 pieces Distributors & Installers Daily Daily Ship Schedule 2 Days 10 PAINT/BOX   Body Cell 2 Days Daily  1 Present State Map DSM Cabinet Body Cell November 7, 2003 TT = 60 sec. PRODUCTION CONTROL MRP Daily PO fax 90/60/30 Day Forecast 90/60/30 Day Forecasts Daily Order 500 Sheets Michigan Steel Co. SHIPPING Staging 1 Day 40 C/T = 59 sec. C/O = 90 sec. Uptime = 99% FTQ = 99% FS = 875 FS = 4000 SQ C/T=40 sec. C/O=0 U/T = 95% FTQ = 97% 40 40
  • Process Scorecard for: ____________________ DSM Cabinet Body Mfg. 9. 5 Days 2 Days 79% 16. 5 Days 1 Day 94% 11. 4 Days 2 Days 82% 37. 4 Days 5 Days 87% 88% 94% + 6% 2300 SQ Ft. * 875 SQ Ft. * -1425 Sq Ft. 2. 4 Days 2.5 hours 85% 105 / OP. * 420 / OP. * 400% . 02% . 07% 250% * Mfg. Only. Measure Baseline State Present State Improvement Raw Inventory Days WIP Inventory Days F.G. Inventory Days Process Leadtime Process Efficiency Rolled Throughput Yield Floor Space E.P.E.I. Labor Productivity
  • Apply the Specific Tool
  • Summary & Review
    • Types of Quality Tools
      • Traditional Quality Tools
      • Commonly Used Additional Tools
      • Some Other Quality Tools
    • Types, or categories of Tools
      • HOW TO THINK
    • When & Where to Apply
  • Thank you Q & A!