Ipm in rice

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Ipm in rice

  1. 1. Rice thrips:Paddy thrips: Stenchaetothrips biformis                   (Thripidae: Thysanoptera)Local name: Thrips nusiDamage symptoms Leaves look like burnt appearance Damaged leaves Damaged field
  2. 2. Management:Cultural practice: Flooding to submerge the infested field for 2 days as a cultural control practice is very effective against the rice thrips. Biological control: Coccinellid beetles, anthocorid bugs, and staphylinid beetles are biological control agents that feed on both the larvae and adults. Chemical control: Application of  phorate 10 G @ 75g or carbofuron 3 G @ 1.25kg / seed bed (300 sq mt area) followed by light  irrigation. Spray monocrotophos 36 SL 1.3ml/l      
  3. 3. Rice grass hopperRice grass hopper: Oxya hyla intricata                                    (Orthoptera :Acrididae)Local name: MidateDamage symptoms: Both nymph and adult feed on leaves. Nibble at the florets into base of inflorescence stalks causing formation of white ears.
  4. 4. Management:   Cultural practices: Cleaning of bunds to destroy egg pods and nymphs. Deep ploughing is recommended in winter season to expose the egg mass. Chemical controls: Spray chloropyriphos 20EC 2ml/l for about 130-135liters of chemical solution required for one acre. Dusting of 50% malathion or 1.5% quinolphos or 1% endosalfon on bunds
  5. 5. Rice Gundhi bugRice Gundhi Bug:  Leptocorisa acuta (Hemiptera : Coreidae)Local name: Gandhi TiganeDamage symptoms The nymphs and adults suck the milk from the developing grains and stem in the early stage of grain formation. Discolouration of panicles as well as the presence of some empty or ill filled grains in the panicles. Infested paddy straw contains foul smell.  
  6. 6. Adult gundhi bug Chaffy seeds
  7. 7. Management:Preventive measures  Remove weeds from fields and surrounding areasBiological control Small wasps parasitize the eggs and the meadow grasshoppers prey on them. Both the adults and nymphs are preys to spiders, coccinellid beetles and dragonflies A fungus infects both nymphs and adults.
  8. 8. Chemical control Look for rice bugs at pre flowering stage and continue daily until the hard dough stage during early morning or late afternoon hours. malathion dust 5% @ 8kg/acre or  malathion 50EC @ 2ml/l (350ml/acre) and take up spraying on panicle. 270 liter of spraying chemical is required per acre.
  9. 9. Army wormArmyworm/Climbing cutworm:  Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae)Kannada name: Tene kattarisuva huluDamage symptoms: Early instar larvae skeletonise the leaves whereas later instar larvae are voracious feeders on leaves during night.                          
  10. 10. Cut worm Panicles are cut off from the base Fed upon leaf blades
  11. 11. Management:Preventive measures: Remove weeds from fields and surrounding areasCultural practices: Flooding seed bed is the best defence Digging pits or trenches, covered with leaves gives caterpillar a place to take shelter from the sunlight Ash filled trenches around the field serve as barriers Placing branches around the field gives a place for armyworm to congregate where than can be easily collected by hand.Chemical control: 1ml of methyl parathion 50EC or 0.5ml fenitrothion 100EC or 0.9ml diazinon 60EC or 1.3ml monocrotophos 36SL or 2ml chloropyriphos 20 EC or 1.5ml fenthoate 50EC or 2ml phasalone 35EC or 2ml endosalfon 35EC or 2ml quinolphos 25EC during evening
  12. 12. Rice case wormRice Caseworm: Paraponyx stagnalis (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae)Local name: Kolave Hulu, Goodu maru HuluDamage symptoms: The larva feeds on the foliage by scrapping chlorophyll leaving horizontal rows of green material. The leaf tips are sharply cut off and the cut portions are turned into cylindrical tubes, is either attached to the plant or seen floating on the water surface
  13. 13. Adult caseworm                                     Fig:Damage symptoms of Case worm
  14. 14. ManagementCultural practices: Drain water from the field. Keep kerosene soaked gunny bags in the field water and dislodge the leaf cases by passing rope or branches of thorny plant. The use of correct fertilizer application, wider spacing (30 × 20 mm), and early planting.Biological Control: Spiders, dragonflies, and birds eat the adults. There is a nuclear polyhedrosis virus, which is a potential control agent against the rice caseworm.Chemical control: 10-12 DAS  1ml of methyl parathion 50EC or 1.3ml monocrotophos 36SL or 2ml chloropyriphos 20 EC in 1 liter of water for spraying crop. Transplanted field require 225-230liter/acre spraying chemical or carbofuron 3% 7.6kg/acre granules can be used.
  15. 15. Rice hispaRice hispa: Dicladispa armig-era (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae) Kannada name : Mullu chippina dumbhiDamage symptoms: Grubs make tunneling through leaf tissue causing irregular translucent white patches that -are parallel to the leaf veins. Damaged areas have white streaks that are parallel to the midrib
  16. 16. Fig:  Hispa affected field
  17. 17. Management:Preventive measures : Clipping the tips of leaves at the time of transplantingBiological control: Small wasps that attack the eggs and larvae. Reduviid bug eats upon the adults. Fungal pathogens that attack the adults.Chemical control : ETL :  2adults or 2 damaged leaves/hill 10-12 DAS  1ml of methyl parathion 50EC or 0.5ml fenitrothion 100EC or 0.9ml diazinon 60EC or 1.3ml monocrotophos 36SL or 2ml chloropyriphos 20 EC in 1 liter of water for spraying crop. Transplanted field require 225-230liter/acre spraying chemical or carbofuron 3% @7.6kg/acre granules can be used.
  18. 18. Rice leaf folderRice Leaf Folder: Cnaphalocrosis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)Kannada name :  Yele Suruli Hulu, Yele Madachuva Hulu, Gari Suttuva HuluDamage symptoms Longitudinal white and transparent streaks on leaf blades are created which later giving scorched appearance. Folded leaf with larva inside along with excreta Sickly appearance of the filed           
  19. 19. caterpillar Adult leaf folder
  20. 20. ManagementBiological control : Five to six releases of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma    chilonis @1,00,000 adult parasites per hectare starting from 15 days after planting, in a crop season is effective and economical. Entomopahogenic bacteria such as Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner and a granulosis virus cause mortality of rice leaf folder larvae.Chemical control : ETL: 1 larva per tiller 10-12 DAS  1ml of methyl parathion 50EC or 0.5ml fenitrothion 100EC or 0.9ml diazinon 60EC or 1.3ml monocrotophos 36SL or 2ml chloropyriphos 20 EC in 1 liter of water  for spraying on crop. Transplanted field require 225-230liter/ha spraying chemical or carbofuron 3% @7.5kg/acre granules can be used.
  21. 21. Brown plant hopper (BPH)Brown plant hopper (BPH): Nilaparvata lugens .                     (Hemiptera : Delphacidae )Local name: Kandu jigi huluVernacular name: Bili Dhomi, SolleDamage symptoms:  Leaves turn to yellow and later brownish.  "Hopper burn". Presence of honeydew and sooty molds at the basal parts More severe during panicle initiation stage.                                                           ETL: 5-10 adult BPH tillering to ear emergence in the field
  22. 22. Adult brown plant hopper Infected field
  23. 23. Grassy stunt virus disease by BPH  
  24. 24. Management:Cultural practices: Avoid use of excess nitrogen. Monitoring of BPH at base of the plant 30 days after transplanting at weekly interval Resistant varieties IET-7575 and IET-8116 Alternate wetting and drying the field during peak infestation. Apply recommended dose of nitrogen fertilizer.Biological control: Wolf Spider Pardosa psuedoannulata and Lynx spider Oxyopes javanus prey on  leaf-and plant hoppers Mirid bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis  Reuter prey on eggs and small nymphs of GLH,BPH and WBPH
  25. 25. Chemical control: Spray monocrtophos 35 EC @ 2ml/l (624ml/acre) at nursery stage. Application of granular phorate 10G@ 4kg/acre or carbofuran 3G@ 10kg/acre insecticides in presence of thin film of water                                                                   or Spray imidacloprid 200 SL @ 0.5ml (125ml/acre) or thiomethaxm 25WG @ 0.5g (125kg/acre) or phaslone 35 EC @ 2ml/l (800ml/acre) water or quinolphos 5G @ 12kg/acre
  26. 26. Green plant hopper Green Leaf  Hopper : Nephotettix nigropictus and Nephotettix virescens                                           (Hemiptera : Cicadellidae )Local name: Hasiru Jigi HuluDamage symptoms: Stunted growth and reduced tillering. On tillers appearance of white patches at higher population level. Transmits virus diseases: tungro, yellow dwarf, yellow- orange leaf, and transitory yellowing.
  27. 27. Adult green plant hopper
  28. 28. Management:Cultural practices Avoid use of excess nitrogen. Monitoring of GLH at base of the plant 30 days after transplanting at weekly interval Alternate wetting and drying the field during peak infestation. Apply recommended dose of nitrogenous fertilizersBiological control: Mirid bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis  Reuter prey on  eggs and small nymphs of GLHChemical control: Spray monocrtophos 35 EC @ 2ml/l (624ml/acre) at nursery stage. Application of granular phorate 10G@ 4kg/acre or carbofuran 3G@ 10kg/ acre .                                                                            Spray imidacloprid 200 SL @ 0.5ml (125ml/acre) or thiomethaxm 25WG @ 0.5g (125kg/acre) or phaslone 35 EC @ 2ml/l (800ml/acre) water
  29. 29. White backed plant hopperWhite Backed Plant Hopper : Sogatella furcifera                                                   (Hemiptera : Delphacidae)Local name:Bili Bennina Jigi HuluVernacular name: Bili dhomi, SolleDamage symptoms: Leaves turn yellow and later brownish.  "Hopper burn". Sooty mould development due to honeydew secretion by hoppers.
  30. 30. Nymphs and adults sucking the sap
  31. 31. Management:Cultural practices: Avoid use of excess nitrogen. Monitoring of WBPH at base of the plant 30 days after transplanting at weekly interval Alternate wetting and drying the field during peak infestation. Apply recommended dose of nitrogenous fertilizersBiological control: Mirid bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis  Reuter prey on eggs and small nymphs of WBPH  Spider (Paradosa, Tetragnatha, Argiope, Araenus, Oxypes)feed on  leaf-and plant hoppers  Damsel flies, Dragon flies prey on hoppers and moths
  32. 32. Chemical control: Spray monocrtophos 35 EC @ 2ml/l (624ml/acre) at nursery stage. Application of granular phorate 10G@ 4kg/acre or carbofuran 3G@ 10kg/acre insecticides in presence of thin film of water.                                                                   Spray imidacloprid 200 SL @ 0.5ml (125ml/acre) or thiomethaxm 25WG @ 0.5g (125kg/acre)
  33. 33. Rice Stem BorerRice Stem Borer :Scirpophaga incertulas (Pyralidae : Lepidoptera)Damage symptoms: Caterpillars bore central shoot of seedlings and tillers leading to death of central shoot called "Dead Heart". Panicle turn whitish, erect with chaffy spikelets and can be easily pulled out, is known as "white ears"
  34. 34. Adult stemborerStemborer infected plant
  35. 35. Stemborer larvaWhite ears Dead heart
  36. 36. Management:Cultural practices: Clipping of seedling before transplanting for prevention egg laying  Harvesting done at the base of plant in order to avoid pupae remain in the field.Biological control: Five to six releases of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma japonicum @1,00,000 adult parasites per hectare starting from 15 days after planting, in a crop season is effective and economical.  Chemical control:  ETL:5-10% dead heart, 5% chaffy earhead per square   meter 1 adult/egg mass Spray endosulfan or monocrtophos or chloropyriphos 2ml / liter (624ml/acre) in water. Before sowing apply 10kg/acre of 0.3 G fipronil or carbofuron 3G @ 7.6kg/acre in soil and then go for irrigation.
  37. 37. Asian Gall MidgeAsian Gall Midge :Orseolla oryzae ( Diptera : Cecidomyiidae )Damage symptoms: Damaged tillers turns into tubular galls which dry off without bearing panicles. Main external symptom is SILVER SHOOT or GALL which resembles onion leaf. Attack to rice seedlings leads to profuse tillering and these new tillers often become infested
  38. 38. Adult gallmidge Infected plant Larva
  39. 39. Management:Cultural practices: Adopt early planting adjust planting time so that tillering is completed before 15th August. Grow resistant varieties like ‘Pothana’, ‘Divya’, ‘Kavya’, ‘Yerramallelu’,‘Kesava’, ‘Oragallu’, ‘Badrakali’, ‘Siva’, ‘Rudrama’, ‘Varsha’, ‘Surekha’,‘palguna’. Several workers observed that cultivars with high levels of resistance to gall midge received no benefit from insecticidal treatment. Avoid dense planting which increases population. Removing weeds like Echinochloa colonum, Leersia hexandra, Cynodon dactylon and Panicum miliaceum etc., which are alternative hosts to maintain field sanitation. Avoid excess irrigation.Biological Control: Platigaster spp is more active in months of October- November and suppresses the gall midge by parasitization.
  40. 40. Chemical control : Dusts and spray formulations are not very effective against gall midge. So granular application of insecticides is preferred. Seedling root dip in Chlorpyriphos also helps in preventing early infection.Nursery: Apply Carbofuran or Phorate @ 1kg to 1.25 kg a.i./ha or spray Monocrotophos @ 0.5 kg a.i./ha or Carbaryl 0.75 kg a.i./ha. In endemic areas adopt seedling dip with Chlorpyriphos.
  41. 41. Whorl MaggotWhorl Maggot :Hydrellia spp (Diptera: Ephydridae)Damage symptoms: The maggots attack the leaf blades even before uncurling and the initial damage is characterized by the presence of narrow stripes of whitish area in the blade margins. Heavy infestation causes a marked stunting of the plant and reduction of tillers.
  42. 42. Adult whorl maggot Maggot Infected plant
  43. 43. Management:Chemical control: Apply Phorate 10 G @ 10 kg / ha or Carbofuran 3 G @ 25 kg / ha or spray Fenitrothion 50 EC at 0.1 % (2 ml/lit). Apply Carbofuran granules @ 0.75 kg a.i./ha or Fipronil granules @ 75 g a.i./ha.
  44. 44. Rice horned caterpillarRice horned caterpillar: Melanitis ismene  Damage symptoms: Larva feeds on leaf blades of rice. Leaves are defoliated from the margin or tip irregularly.
  45. 45. AdultCaterpillar
  46. 46. Management Spray endosulfan 35 EC 1000 ml / ha or monocrotophos 36 WSC 500 ml / ha
  47. 47. larva Adult
  48. 48. Management Kerosenate the water while irrigation – suffocation Allow ducks into the fieldNursery Drain the water Spray chlorpyriphos 20 EC 80ml or endosulfan 35 EC 80ml + 20 lit of water for 8 cents
  49. 49. Caterpillar Adult
  50. 50. Management Spray endosulfan 35 EC 1000 ml / ha  or   monocrotophos 36 WSC 500 ml / ha
  51. 51. Mealy bug
  52. 52. ManagementCultural practice: Durin field preparation - remove the grasses from the bunds and trim the bunds Remove and destroy the affected plants.Biological control:o Conserve the natural enemies like Scymnus sp.,Anatrichus pygmaeus, and Mepachymerus ensiferChemical control: Spray any one of the following insecticides in the initial stage of infestation dimethoate 30 EC 500 ml/ha methyl demeton 25 EC@ 500 ml/ha.

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