Sectorial Planning ApproachSchool of Planning and Architecture, BhopalOmkar ParishwadEvolution:How do cities evolve?Who should plan the cities?Do the location, culture, climate and other factors play a crucial role in planning of a city?Why study foreign policies than discover and invent our own strategies?Introduction:Sectorial Planning is strategic planning for defined sectors or industries of the economy.‘Sector’ in terms of ‘sectorial planning’ means the spatial planning under consideration ofonly one planning criteria (e.g. traffic, environmental heritage, etc.). Sectoral planningprocess includes the followingsignificant characteristics: Presents the detailed sectorial development objectives, policies Education Health Social and strategies that are only summarized in the SES. Provides the supporting Infrastructure Electricity Transport documentation needed for explaining and justifying the departmental budget. Agricul Tourism ture Economical Gives the private sector a systematic process for participating in planning and Figure 1: Sectors for planning Health, Education, Social services… policy making at the sectorial Construction, Electricity, Transport, Water... level. Agriculture, Commerce, Finance, Tourism. Promotes a more efficient and equitable use of resources as a result of coordination and support of the private sector. Facilitates sustainable development through linking budget to plan implementation, and by generating sense of ownership on the part of local staff that are responsible for preparing the plan. Sectorial approaches are (in the ideal case) weighted and combined in the context of comprehensive development planning. Through a collaborative process, various and diverse stakeholders accomplish this task. Sector planning focuses on a manageable area and considers the land use, transportation, environmental, and infrastructure needs unique to that portion of the community.
Omkar Parishwad 2010MURP007 The generalities of comprehensive planning and the pitfalls of single issue or narrow scope planning are avoided. Approving the sector plan minimizes the inconsistencies resulting from parcel-by-parcel decisions.Process:The formulation of a sectorial plan involves the same logical process as for any strategicdevelopment plan, including the SES. This logical process can be summed up by the Departmentasking six fundamental questions which will have to be answered in the course of preparing thesectorial plan.It may be useful to think of each question as a scenario. The first scenario is intended to get the Department to systematically review its operating experience within the sector, and to explicitly document what it has found in the form of the sectorial performance assessment. 1. Where have we been and where are we now? 2. Where do we want to go from here? 3. How are we going to get there? 4. What resources will be required to enable us to get there? 5. How will we know when we have arrived? 6. What problems are we likely to face on the way, and do we have a contingency plan to deal with them? The second scenario represents the core of the planning process, and is calculated to produce a clear identification of outcomes, objectives or end states that the Department and stakeholders want to achieve. The third scenario essentially requires the Department and stakeholders to specify the strategies that will be followed to achieve the outcomes or objectives set in the second scenario. This scenario must consider development opportunities and constraints, as well as the macroeconomic and sector specific policy environment. In the fourth scenario required resources are addressed. Resources must be broadly considered, including, in addition to financial and personnel resources stipulated in the budget, political support and macroeconomic environment. 1
Omkar Parishwad 2010MURP007 The fifth scenario calls for success criteria. Success criteria must be specified in terms of performance measures that will enable the Department to objectively determine how much progress has been made toward targeted departmental and sectoral objectives or outcomes. The last (sixth) scenario requires policy makers to anticipate likely problems (issues and constraints) and to formulate a contingency plan to deal with them. Essentially contingency plans will be incorporated in the policies and strategies supporting each of the Department’s budget outputs (output structure).The national planning system incorporates four major components:Performance budgetingNational strategic planning (SES)Sectorial planningProject planningPurpose:Departmental Budget Support Budgetary resources enable the Department to produce and deliver the goods and services (outputs) that directly contribute to achieving the predetermined outcomes (objectives) specified in the sectorial plan.Enables Systematic Participation of the Private Sector The sense of ownership generated in this process should result in obtaining endorsement of the sectorial plan, along with support in its implementation.Promotes More Efficient Use of Resources Formulating the sectorial plan with systematic input from stakeholders can be expected to result in a more efficient use of resources through better co-ordination and support from the private sector in working toward jointly set objectives, and through more rigorous analysis of appropriate strategies and policies for achieving the objectives.Facilitates Sustainable Development Both continuing budgetary supports, and stakeholder involvement in the planning process, constitute critical elements toward promoting sustainable development. 2
Omkar Parishwad 2010MURP007Content:Case Study:The United Nations 1990 International Standard Industrial Classification of all EconomicActivities (ISIC) is used as a point of reference to define sectors for the purposes of sectorialplanning in Samoa.These sectors can be grouped under the three broad sectorial headings used in PSIP, as follows,with the corresponding national accounts categories shown in brackets. 3
Omkar Parishwad 2010MURP007 Economic Sectors: Social Sectors: Infrastructure Sectors: •• Agriculture (agriculture, •• Education (component of •• Construction (construction) fisheries and forestry) public administration, and •• Electricity (electricity and •• Manufacturing (food & including two sub-sectors of water) beverages manufacturing and •Primary and Secondary and •• Water (electricity and other manufacturing) Post-secondary) water) •• Tourism (hotels and •• Health (component of •• Transport (transport and restaurants, wholesale and public administration) communications) retail trade, and transport) •• Welfare and Social Services •• Communications (transport •• Commerce (wholesale and (component of public and communications) retail trade and personal and administration) other services) •• Finance (financial and business services) •• Public Administration (public administration)Table 1: Sectoral approach division. PRIVATE SECTOR non-government organizations, churches, other government agencies, and individuals are a potential source of knowledge and ideas that are essential to identifying issues and opportunities, clarifying objectives, preparing policies and strategies, and identifying possible projects PARTICIPATORY APPROACH of Sector Plan formulation increases ownership and acceptance of the Plan, and thus increases its chances of effective implementation since, toFigure 1: Samoa Planning Department Map. varying degrees, implementation relies on the actions of the private sector, churches, non-government organizations, other government agencies and individualsAdaptability:The major problem about using this planning strategy in Indian cities is the Economic assessmentand the Public awareness.People can never be estimated to be sighted about the matters of future development in favour ofthe city.Also the Economic base of our country is in a very preliminary stage. To estimate it to suchlengths is a very difficult task. 4
Omkar Parishwad 2010MURP007Also the implementation tasks that should take place in incremental sense would take a lot ofmanagement and synchronizing from all the sectors of the society.The positive side of the coin is also very impelling, though that stage would arrive late.Merits & Demerits:As the purpose states, the merits are Sustainable growth due to involvement of the local bodies and private sector. Better management of the resources and facilities as planners are the managing link between the two. Economic stability as it is priory estimated for the development.The Demerits being; Poor standards of the locals in terms of progress. So over-estimation and costly affairs in terms of progress. Political interference as the law is not interfering directly.Conclusions: City planning takes place smoothly as the Economic Strategy is well balanced beforehand. As locals get involved in the planning perspectives, better solutions are developed and implemented. Citizens orient buildings, plant trees and return stores to a depressed area. So the sense of ownership is generated which results in swifter progress of the city. Criminal activity is reduced through improved lighting and reduced blight. Schools are more community friendly through integration into the neighbourhood. As the planning authority remains with the planner, the progress is controlled.References: Davis, Derrin and Stephen Pollard, , Economic Management and the Role of Planning, East West Centre, Development Series, No. 6, March 1995. United Nations, International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities, Third Revision, 1990. Samoa, Government of, Treasury Department, Manual on Project Planning and Programming, September 1998. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Report of Mission on Economic Planning in the Pacific Island Countries, 1991. Workshop on sectorial planning: www.unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/CARICAD/UNPAN... 5