Ws 110 reproductive rights and health
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Ws 110 reproductive rights and health



Womens Rights and Health

Womens Rights and Health



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Ws 110 reproductive rights and health Ws 110 reproductive rights and health Presentation Transcript

  • Women’s Health & Reproduction WoS 110 – Haghighatjoo 2011
  • Definitions:
    • Health: State of “complete physical, mental & social well-being”; not just the “absence of disease or infirmity” (World Health Organization)
    • Reproduction: process of generating offspring
    • Family planning: program to regulate number, timing, and spacing of children in family through contraception or other birth control methods
      • Services may include: providing education, information, contraceptives, abortions, fistula repair, maternal & infant health care, etc.
  • Challenges for women in developing world
    • Reproductive health problems remain the leading cause of ill health & death for women of child-bearing age (ages 15-49) (UNFPA)
    • Poor women suffer disproportionately from:
      • Unintended pregnancies
      • Maternal death & disabilities (see example of fistulas in West Africa, H&J)
      • Sexually transmitted infections (HIV & more)
      • Gender-based violence
  • Health & Women’s Agency
    • “… Good health is essential to leading a
    • productive and fulfilling life, and the right
    • of all women to control all aspects of their
    • health, in particular their own fertility, is
    • basic to empowerment.”
      • Beijing Platform for Action (1995), Paragraph 92
  • Foundations in Human Rights & Development
    • Under CEDAW women are accorded
    • basic rights related to health:
    • Access to education & information on health & family planning
    • Not be discriminated against in the field of health care
  • Women’s Health & UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
    • Promoting gender equality & empowering women
    • Reducing child mortality
    • Improving maternal health
    • Combating HIV/AIDS
  • Reproductive Health
    • Reproductive choice
    • Physical health of women & children (all age groups)
    • Psychological health & well-being
    • Access to family planning & maternal & infant health services
  • Question of Access to Information & Health Services in Rural Egypt
    • Population: 79 million
    • Contraception: 60%
  • Environmental Pollutants Key Concern for Women’s & Family Health
  • Health through NGO services (Quesna, Egypt)
  • Key questions : reproductive health
    • Can a woman control when & with whom she has sexual relations?
    • Can she have sexual relations without fearing infection or unwanted pregnancy?
    • Can she choose whether or not to have children?
    • Can she go through pregnancy & childbirth safely?
    • Can she obtain safe contraceptives?
    • Can she access information on reproductive health?
  • Social Institutions Affecting Women’s Reproductive Health
    • Family (males and females)
    • Government—national & international levels
      • Social politics
    • Global & domestic economies
    • Religious organizations
  • Governmental Controls
    • They vary widely from country to country:
    • Level of state funding for health & family planning
    • Extent of cooperation with international organizations & NGOs is important for developing countries
    • Legal limits: state defines access to some services
    • State demographic & family planning policies (e.g., China’s population control policies)
  • Global Gag Rule & U.S. Social Politics Abroad
    • Reagan instated Mexico City Policy (1984) & Clinton reversed in 1990s
    • 2001: G.W. Bush reinstated the Mexico City Policy known as the “Global Gag Rule”
    • Bars U.S. family planning assistance to foreign NGOs, who w/ own funds support abortion-related activities in their own country
    • USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development) largest donor for all contraceptive supplies
    • Impacts?
  • Resources:
    • Kaiser Family Foundation site on global health
    • ( )
    • United Nations Population Fund
    • ( )
    • World Health Organization
    • ( )