Fiedler model (Fred Fiedler) One of the main assumptions of this model is that every leader has a basic leadership style, which is fixed. According to this model, effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader’s style and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader. Fiedler also proposed three key situational factors.
Three key situational factors Leader-member relations: the extent to which confidence, trust, and respect members have in their leader (good or poor). Task structure: the extent to which the job assignment is procedurised (structured or unstructured) and there are standard operating procedures (high or low). Position power: the extent to which a leader has the power of influencing the processes of hiring, firing, discipline, promotions, and salary increase (strong or weak).
Matching leaders and situations According to the results of his research, Fiedler proposed that: Task-oriented leaders perform best in situations of high and low control. However, relationship-oriented leaders perform best in moderate control situations.
Limitations Recent research has shown that leaders’ styles may not be fixed. There is little theoretical explanation for the results of Fiedler’s study. The three category-version of the theory has more evidence than the eight category- version of it.
Hersey and Blanchard’s situationalleadership theory The main assumption of this theory is that it is the followers who accept or reject the leader. According to this theory, effective group performance depends on the proper match between a leader’s style and the followers’ readiness. Readiness refers to the extent to which followers have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific tasks.
Predictions of this theory If a follower is unable and unwilling, giving clear and specific directions is the most effective style of leadership. If a follower is unable and willing, being highly task- oriented and highly relationship-oriented is the most effective style of leadership. If a follower is able and unwilling, being supportive and participative is the most effective style of leadership. If a follower is able and willing, the leader does not need to do much (laissez-faire).
Main advantage and limitation The main advantage of this theory is to take into account the roles of followers’ abilities and willingness in predicting leadership effectiveness. Few studies have empirically supported this theory.