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    Sess16 Sess16 Presentation Transcript

    • Organizational Behavior Session 16
    • Leadershiptheories: Part II
    • Contingency theoriesof leadershipSome contingency theories:Fiedler contingency model,Cognitive resource theory,Hersey and Blanchard’s situational theory,Leader-member exchange theory,Path-goal theory.
    • Fiedler model (Fred Fiedler) One of the main assumptions of this model is that every leader has a basic leadership style, which is fixed. According to this model, effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader’s style and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader. Fiedler also proposed three key situational factors.
    • Three key situational factors Leader-member relations: the extent to which confidence, trust, and respect members have in their leader (good or poor). Task structure: the extent to which the job assignment is procedurised (structured or unstructured) and there are standard operating procedures (high or low). Position power: the extent to which a leader has the power of influencing the processes of hiring, firing, discipline, promotions, and salary increase (strong or weak).
    • Matching leaders and situations According to the results of his research, Fiedler proposed that: Task-oriented leaders perform best in situations of high and low control. However, relationship-oriented leaders perform best in moderate control situations.
    • Limitations Recent research has shown that leaders’ styles may not be fixed. There is little theoretical explanation for the results of Fiedler’s study. The three category-version of the theory has more evidence than the eight category- version of it.
    • Hersey and Blanchard’s situationalleadership theory The main assumption of this theory is that it is the followers who accept or reject the leader. According to this theory, effective group performance depends on the proper match between a leader’s style and the followers’ readiness. Readiness refers to the extent to which followers have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific tasks.
    • Predictions of this theory If a follower is unable and unwilling, giving clear and specific directions is the most effective style of leadership. If a follower is unable and willing, being highly task- oriented and highly relationship-oriented is the most effective style of leadership. If a follower is able and unwilling, being supportive and participative is the most effective style of leadership. If a follower is able and willing, the leader does not need to do much (laissez-faire).
    • Main advantage and limitation The main advantage of this theory is to take into account the roles of followers’ abilities and willingness in predicting leadership effectiveness. Few studies have empirically supported this theory.