Organizational Behavior Motivation theories Part 3 Motivational aspects of social cognitive theory
Self-efficacy Self-efficacy refers to “beliefs in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments” (Bandura, 1997, p. 3) One not only needs necessary knowledge and skills for performing a task, but also needs high self-efficacy for performing that task successfully.
Consequences of high self-efficacy The more people believe in their capabilities for given domains and tasks, the more likely they will put effort into and persist with their activities, especially when there are failures (Bandura, 1997). An individual’s self-efficacy also influences what he or she chooses to do. Leaders high in leadership efficacy experience low level of anxiety (Hoyt et al., 2003). Leaders’ self-efficacy for leadership influence follower’s self-efficacy (Hoyt et al., 2003). People with high self-efficacy are more likely to set high level goals, and in turn, may have high achievement.
Sources of self-efficacy Mastery experiences: Successful experiences are likely to enhance self- efficacy, while failures may reduce self-efficacy. These are the most influential sources of self-efficacy. Vicarious experiences: refer to those by which people appraise their capabilities in relation to others’ attainments. The information acquired from these experiences is likely to be more influential for one’s self-efficacy when the others are similar to the individual. Verbal persuasion: persuasion that one possesses certain capabilities can affect self-efficacy. However, verbal persuasion may be ineffective when it is used alone and inconsistent with other sources, especially mastery experiences. Physical and affective states: Personal efficacy may also be appraised when people interpret their physiological or affective states. People may judge their fatigue, aches, pains, and tensions to be signs of physical or affective incapability.
Empowerment and self-efficacy Dimensions of empowerment: Meaning Self-determination Self-efficacy Impact
Collective efficacy According to Bandura (1997), “collective efficacy is defined as a group’s shared belief in its conjoint capabilities to organize and execute the course of action required to produce given levels of attainments” (p. 477). Sources of collective efficacy can be similar to sources of self-efficacy.