Organizational Behavior Session 8 Motivation theories Part 2
Maslow’s theory (Hierarchy of needs theory) Maslow hypothesized that within every individual there exists a hierarchy of five needs:1- Physiological: bodily needs;2- Safety: security, protection from physical and emotional harm;3- Social: affection, belongingness, acceptance, friendship;4- Esteem: self-respect, autonomy, recognition, attention;5- Self-actualization: the drive to become what one is capable of becoming; According to Maslow, when each of these needs becomes substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant.
Maslow’s theory (continued) This theory can give us an insight into motivation in terms of needs. However, it has been argued that Maslow’s theory has cultural limitations. There is no strong empirical evidence for the hierarchy of needs.
ERG Theory (Alderfer, 1970) Three dimensions of ERG theory: Existence Relatedness Growth ERG theory proposes that (1) more than one need may be operative at the same time; (2) Order of needs may differ in different cultures; (3) if fulfillment of a higher level need is prevented, the desire to satisfy a lower level need increases.
Two-factor (hygiene-motivation) theory Herzberg investigated the question ‘What do people want from their jobs?’ Results suggested that intrinsic factors such as advancement, recognition, responsibility, and achievements seemed to be related to job satisfaction. On the other hand, dissatisfaction was attributed to extrinsic factors such as supervision, pay, company policies, and working condition. This study suggested that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not two opposite sides of a continuum.
Two-factor theory (continued)Satisfaction No satisfaction Motivators: recognition, responsibility, advancementDissatisfaction No dissatisfaction Hygiene factors: pay, policies, work condition, supervision
Expectancy theory Expectancy theories use rational approaches and suggest that individuals choose behaviors based on their expectations of the outcomes of those actions, seeking to achieve the most desirable outcome for themselves.
Vroom’s expectancy theory Vroom’s expectancy theory integrates three components: Motivation force= Valance × Instrumentality × Expectancy Valance: is the importance that the individual places upon the expected outcome of a situation. This component is related to an individual’s expected incentive, preferences, and values. Instrumentality: is the belief that the success of the situation is linked to the expected outcome of the situation, e.g. its gone really well, so Id expect praise. Expectancy: is the belief that output from the individual and the success of the situation are linked, e.g. if I work harder then this will be better.