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  • 1. Organizational Behavior Session 8 Motivation theories Part 2
  • 2. Maslow’s theory (Hierarchy of needs theory) Maslow hypothesized that within every individual there exists a hierarchy of five needs:1- Physiological: bodily needs;2- Safety: security, protection from physical and emotional harm;3- Social: affection, belongingness, acceptance, friendship;4- Esteem: self-respect, autonomy, recognition, attention;5- Self-actualization: the drive to become what one is capable of becoming; According to Maslow, when each of these needs becomes substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant.
  • 3. Maslow’s theory (continued) This theory can give us an insight into motivation in terms of needs. However, it has been argued that Maslow’s theory has cultural limitations. There is no strong empirical evidence for the hierarchy of needs.
  • 4. ERG Theory (Alderfer, 1970) Three dimensions of ERG theory: Existence Relatedness Growth ERG theory proposes that (1) more than one need may be operative at the same time; (2) Order of needs may differ in different cultures; (3) if fulfillment of a higher level need is prevented, the desire to satisfy a lower level need increases.
  • 5. Two-factor (hygiene-motivation) theory Herzberg investigated the question ‘What do people want from their jobs?’ Results suggested that intrinsic factors such as advancement, recognition, responsibility, and achievements seemed to be related to job satisfaction. On the other hand, dissatisfaction was attributed to extrinsic factors such as supervision, pay, company policies, and working condition. This study suggested that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not two opposite sides of a continuum.
  • 6. Two-factor theory (continued)Satisfaction No satisfaction Motivators: recognition, responsibility, advancementDissatisfaction No dissatisfaction Hygiene factors: pay, policies, work condition, supervision
  • 7. Expectancy theory Expectancy theories use rational approaches and suggest that individuals choose behaviors based on their expectations of the outcomes of those actions, seeking to achieve the most desirable outcome for themselves.
  • 8. Vroom’s expectancy theory Vroom’s expectancy theory integrates three components: Motivation force= Valance × Instrumentality × Expectancy Valance: is the importance that the individual places upon the expected outcome of a situation. This component is related to an individual’s expected incentive, preferences, and values. Instrumentality: is the belief that the success of the situation is linked to the expected outcome of the situation, e.g. its gone really well, so Id expect praise. Expectancy: is the belief that output from the individual and the success of the situation are linked, e.g. if I work harder then this will be better.
  • 9. Effort Performance Outcome (reward) expectancy instrumentality
  • 10. Implications for leaders:2. Identify positively valent outcome;3. Increase expectancies;4. Make performance instrumental toward positive outcome.
  • 11. Group tasks Use expectancy theory to explain motivational processes of:3. An employee’s motivation to become a manager;5. An employee’s motivation to participate in a training program.