Organizational Behavior Session 6 Motivation theories Part 1
Definitions Motivation: The process that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal.
Reinforcement theory Reinforcement theory dominated the motivation literature until early 1960s, conceptualizes motivation entirely in terms of observable behavior. This theory assumes that behavior is caused by events external to the person and that behavior can be understood in terms of simple laws that apply to both human beings and animals. According to this theory, individuals exhibit a particular behavior because they have been reinforced (rewarded) for that behavior in the past. Behavior modification: The process of using reinforcement principles to change behavior.
Reinforcement theory (continued) Skinner (1974) defined consequences that influence the probability of behaviors:1- Positive reinforcement increases the probability of behaviors that they were contingent upon.2- Negative reinforcement increases the probability of behaviors by taking away or reducing its intensity.3- Punishments reduce the probability of behaviors.
Reinforcement theory (continued) Punishment may be effective when positive reinforcers are also used. Without using positive reinforcers, punishment leads to only short term suppression of the undesirable behaviors. If managers frequently use punishment, it may create a fearful atmosphere, which undermines learning and the effectiveness of communication.
Reinforcement theory (continued)Some important points for using rewards effectively:1- Use reward to get individuals engaged in an activity, and then gradually withdraw the reward when they show some interest.2- Make sure that it is clear to individuals what behavior the reward is contingent.3- Reward genuine achievements, such as high levels of effort and persistence. Avoid rewarding performance that required little or no effort.4- Use the most modest reward that will work.5-Make sure that the time between the desired behavior and the reward is not so great that reward has no effect.6- Make sure that rewards are realistically available.7- Make sure that you treat employees fairly!
Equity theory (J. Stacy Adams) Adams described the employment relationship as an exchange relationship in which employees contributed inputs and received outcomes in return. Inputs: education, previous work experience, effort on the job, training, and etc. Outcomes: Pay, recognition, praise by supervisors, promotion, and etc.
Equity theory (continued) According to this theory, every employee compares himself/herself with other employees. When an inequity is perceived, there are six choices:4. Changing inputs5. Changing outcomes6. Distorting perception of self or others7. Changing the inputs or outcomes of the referent others8. Choosing a different referent9. Leaving the field
Equity theory (continued) procedural justice, the perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards, has strong impact on organizational commitment, trust in managers, intention to quit, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Distributive justice (fairness of allocation) is more important for job satisfaction. Research has shown that perceived distributive justice is greatly influenced by perceived procedural justice.
Reading Please read page 162 to 194 of the text book.