Major Problem Areas Pollution Overfishing Fish Population Bycatch Dredging/Trawling Whaling Global Warming Mineral/Gas Exploitation
Framing the Ocean Source: http://www.thekepka.com/Painting%20Photos/ocean-mist-big.gif
Major Frames Geopolitical Framing Economic Framing Strategic Framing Survival Framing Cultural Framing Environmental Framing Aesthetic Framing
Oceans are international and legally complicated!
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Signed by 21 (U.S.) Not Signed by 18 Ratified by everyone else. Source: http://www.un.org/Depts/los/reference_files/chronological_lists_of_ratifications.htm
Defining the Territory The UNCLOS (from now on, LOS) seeks to define the littoral (LOL) “territory” of the ocean Territorial (12 miles) – Nations Laws Contiguous (12-24 miles) – Pollution Laws Exclusive Economic Zone (200 Miles) International waters (200+ Miles)
Section V Exclusive Economic Zone “1 (a): Sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, whether living or non-living, of the waters superjacent to the seabed and of the seabed and its subsoil, and with regard to other activities for the economic exploitation and exploration of the zone, such as the production of energy from the water, currents and winds” Source: http://www.un.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/closindx.htm
Section XI Use of International Waters -aka- Resource Exploitation “Activities in the Area shall, as specifically provided forinthis Part, be carried out in such a manner as to foster healthy development of the world economy and balanced growth of international trade, and to promote international cooperation for the over-all development of all countries, especially developing States, and with a view to ensuring…” Source: http://www.un.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/closindx.htm
Section XII Protecting the oceans (sort-of) Article 193: States have the obligation to protect and preserve the marine environment. Article 194: States have the sovereign right to exploit their natural resources pursuant to their environmental policies and in accordance with their duty to protect and preserve the marine environment. Source: http://www.un.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/closindx.htm
Section XII Protecting the oceans (actually) Vessel / installation pollution (dumping, toxic runoff, ballast) Control runoff Obligation to work with regional partners Reporting / Monitoring Source: http://www.un.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/closindx.htm
Rhetorical Treaties Understanding law is key to effective advocacy International nature of Oceans Shows us a lot about the way the ocean is framed LOS is a salient political issue, especially regarding ratification in the US The treaty itself is a rhetorical artifact
Just keep Swimming or “17 trillion California Rolls to go, please”
“Fish Stocks” Are Declining Pew Research Center claims that, if overfishing doesn’t stop, we will see the complete collapse of fisheries by 2048. Source: Pew Center, 2008 http://www.oceanlegacy.org/pdfs/ocean-conservation-2008.pdf]
Fishing Related Threats 2/3 of Greenpeace’s “Ocean Threats” are related to fishing Overfishing Factory Fishing Bottom Trawling Bycatch Fish Farming Pirate Fishing Source: http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/campaigns/oceans/threats
Fishing Kills Fish, Surprisingly Pew Center claims that in the last 50 years of industrial fishing large predatory fish populations (sharks, swordfish, tuna) have decreased 90%. Image Source: http://www.earth-policy.org/index.php?/indicators/C55/
Aquaculture “Fish Farming” Introduces messed up species into the oceans that out compete native species Does reduce our involvement with trawling Helpful for Developing Nations Viable and sustainable alternative to fishing
PETA: Save the Sea Kitten!
Don’t you love whales? I actually think they’re pretty ugly. Dolphins too. I prefer SharKat.
Americans Love Whales Despite Monstro in Disney’s Pinnochio, Americans seem to love whales. They’re smart, non-threatening, big, mysterious. Save the whales.
International Whaling Commission International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling – 1964 1986 Moratorium on Whaling (Japan, Norway, Russia, and Peru) “Scientific Whaling” Licenses
US Enforcement IWC has no enforcement arm US Packwood-Magnuson and Pelly Amendments Japan Whaling Association v. American Cetacean Society (1986) Winter v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. (2008)
Threats to Whales Whaling Bycatch Environmental Destruction Boats Low Frequency Active Sonar (LFA)
Current Whaling Explicit Commercial Whaling (2009): Iceland: 38 Minke Whales Norway: 536 Minke Whales Source: http://www.iwcoffice.org/conservation/table_objection.htm “Scientific Whaling” (2009): Japan Only 1 Fin, 2 Sperm, 100 Sei, 50 Bryde’s, and 851 Minke Whales Source: http://www.iwcoffice.org/conservation/table_permit.htm
Aboriginal/Subsistence Whaling Allowed under the IWC: W. Greenland: 14 Fin, 153 Minke E. Greenland: 1 Minke St. Vincent/Grenadines: 2 Humpback Russia: 130 Gray, 2 Bowhead United States: 50 Bowhead Source: http://www.iwcoffice.org/conservation/table_aboriginal.htm
Whale Advocacy “Save the Whales” Campaign Whale Wars Environmental Terrorism South Park “Dolphin Free Tuna” (also whale free, please) Whale Watching