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Oceans Presentation Oceans Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • Oceans
    Rob Mills
    February 23rd, 2010
  • What Are Oceans?
  • Souce: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/bathymetry/predicted/explore.html
  • Major Problem Areas
    Pollution
    Overfishing
    Fish Population
    Bycatch
    Dredging/Trawling
    Whaling
    Global Warming
    Mineral/Gas Exploitation
  • Framing the Ocean
    Source: http://www.thekepka.com/Painting%20Photos/ocean-mist-big.gif
  • Major Frames
    Geopolitical Framing
    Economic Framing
    Strategic Framing
    Survival Framing
    Cultural Framing
    Environmental Framing
    Aesthetic Framing
  • Oceans are international
    and legally complicated!
  • United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
    Signed by 21 (U.S.)
    Not Signed by 18
    Ratified by everyone else.
    Source: http://www.un.org/Depts/los/reference_files/chronological_lists_of_ratifications.htm
  • Defining the Territory
    The UNCLOS (from now on, LOS) seeks to define the littoral (LOL) “territory” of the ocean
    Territorial (12 miles) – Nations Laws
    Contiguous (12-24 miles) – Pollution Laws
    Exclusive Economic Zone (200 Miles)
    International waters (200+ Miles)
  • Section V
    Exclusive Economic Zone
    “1 (a): Sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, whether living or non-living, of the waters superjacent to the seabed and of the seabed and its subsoil, and with regard to other activities for the economic exploitation and exploration of the zone, such as the production of energy from the water, currents and winds”
    Source: http://www.un.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/closindx.htm
  • Section XI
    Use of International Waters
    -aka- Resource Exploitation
    “Activities in the Area shall, as specifically provided forinthis Part, be carried out in such a manner as to foster healthy development of the world economy and balanced growth of international trade, and to promote international cooperation for the over-all development of all countries, especially developing States, and with a view to ensuring…”
    Source: http://www.un.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/closindx.htm
  • Section XII
    Protecting the oceans (sort-of)
    Article 193: States have the obligation to protect and preserve the marine environment.
    Article 194: States have the sovereign right to exploit their natural resources pursuant to their environmental policies and in accordance with their duty to protect and preserve the marine environment.
    Source: http://www.un.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/closindx.htm
  • Section XII
    Protecting the oceans (actually)
    Vessel / installation pollution (dumping, toxic runoff, ballast)
    Control runoff
    Obligation to work with regional partners
    Reporting / Monitoring
    Source: http://www.un.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/closindx.htm
  • Rhetorical Treaties
    Understanding law is key to effective advocacy
    International nature of Oceans
    Shows us a lot about the way the ocean is framed
    LOS is a salient political issue, especially regarding ratification in the US
    The treaty itself is a rhetorical artifact
  • Just keep Swimming
    or “17 trillion California Rolls to go, please”
  • “Fish Stocks” Are Declining
    Pew Research Center
    claims that, if
    overfishing doesn’t stop,
    we will see the complete
    collapse of fisheries by
    2048.
    Source: Pew Center, 2008 http://www.oceanlegacy.org/pdfs/ocean-conservation-2008.pdf]
  • Fishing Related Threats
    2/3 of Greenpeace’s “Ocean Threats” are related to fishing
    Overfishing
    Factory Fishing
    Bottom Trawling
    Bycatch
    Fish Farming
    Pirate Fishing
    Source: http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/campaigns/oceans/threats
  • Fishing Kills Fish, Surprisingly
    Pew Center claims that in the last 50 years of industrial fishing large predatory fish populations (sharks, swordfish, tuna) have decreased 90%.
    Image Source: http://www.earth-policy.org/index.php?/indicators/C55/
  • Fishing Kills Non-Fish
    Sponges
    Coral
    Whales
    Plankton
    Ocean Fauna
  • Aquaculture
    “Fish Farming”
    Introduces messed up species into the oceans that out compete native species
    Does reduce our involvement with trawling
    Helpful for Developing Nations
    Viable and sustainable alternative to fishing
  • PETA: Save the Sea Kitten!
  • Don’t you love whales?
    I actually think they’re pretty ugly. Dolphins too. I prefer SharKat.
  • Americans Love Whales
    Despite Monstro in Disney’s Pinnochio, Americans seem to love whales.
    They’re smart, non-threatening, big, mysterious. Save the whales.
  • International Whaling Commission
    International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling – 1964
    1986 Moratorium on Whaling (Japan, Norway, Russia, and Peru)
    “Scientific Whaling” Licenses
  • US Enforcement
    IWC has no enforcement arm
    US Packwood-Magnuson and Pelly Amendments
    Japan Whaling Association v. American Cetacean Society (1986)
    Winter v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. (2008)
  • Threats to Whales
    Whaling
    Bycatch
    Environmental Destruction
    Boats
    Low Frequency Active Sonar (LFA)
  • Current Whaling
    Explicit Commercial Whaling (2009):
    Iceland: 38 Minke Whales
    Norway: 536 Minke Whales
    Source: http://www.iwcoffice.org/conservation/table_objection.htm
    “Scientific Whaling” (2009):
    Japan Only
    1 Fin, 2 Sperm, 100 Sei, 50 Bryde’s, and 851 Minke Whales
    Source: http://www.iwcoffice.org/conservation/table_permit.htm
  • Aboriginal/Subsistence Whaling
    Allowed under the IWC:
    W. Greenland: 14 Fin, 153 Minke
    E. Greenland: 1 Minke
    St. Vincent/Grenadines: 2 Humpback
    Russia: 130 Gray, 2 Bowhead
    United States: 50 Bowhead
    Source: http://www.iwcoffice.org/conservation/table_aboriginal.htm
  • Whale Advocacy
    “Save the Whales” Campaign
    Whale Wars
    Environmental Terrorism
    South Park
    “Dolphin Free Tuna” (also whale free, please)
    Whale Watching