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Communication and Consumer
Behaviour
Consumer Behaviour
Presentation
Ma’am Farasat
Waqas
Javed

MB12-05
What is Communication?
 The

transmission of a message from a sender to a
receiver via a medium of transmission.
Elements of the Communication Process


The Message Initiator (the Source)
 The Sender
 The Receiver
 The Medium
 The...
Basic Communication Model
■

The Communication Process

Source

Encoding

Message

Feedback

Medium

Decoding

Receiver
Factors Affecting Communication Process
 Characteristics

of the source
 Message characteristics
 Characteristics of th...
Message Characteristics
 Source Credibility
– Reputation of the retailer
– Consumer’s previous experience with product
– ...
Message Characteristics
 Message Structure and Presentation
– Resonance or wordplay
– Message Framing: positive or negati...
Message Characteristics
 Advertising Appeal
– Factual or Emotional

Used

 Types of Emotional Appeals
– Fear
– Humor
– A...
M. Amir
MB-12-50
Medium
 Medium can be:
– Impersonal (mass media)
– Interpersonal (with salesperson or a friend)
– Interactive (direct fee...
Characteristics of the Medium - Newspaper
 Access

to large
audiences
 Effective for local reach
 Flexible
 Fast
 Fee...
Characteristics of the Medium - Magazines
 Highly

selective
 Selective binding
possible
 High quality production
 Hig...
Characteristics of the Medium - Television
 Large

audiences
possible
 Appeals to many senses
 Emotion and attention
po...
Characteristics of the Medium - Radio
 High

geographic and
demographic selectivity
 Audio only
 Relatively inexpensive...
Characteristics of the Medium - Internet
 Potential

for audience
selectivity
 Customized tracking
possible and other
fe...
Characteristics of the Medium – Direct Mail
 High

audience
selectivity
 Personalization possible
 Novel, interesting
s...
Characteristics of the Medium – Direct Marketing
 Development

of

databases
 High audience
selectivity
 Relatively fre...
Characteristics of the Target Market
 Personal

characteristics and comprehension
 Involvement and congruency
 Mood
 B...
Feedback: The Receiver’s Response
 Feedback should
– Promptly
– Accurately

be gathered:
Humayoon Askry
MB-12-14
Issues in Credibility


Credibility of Informal Sources
 Credibility of Impersonal, Neutral Sources
 Credibility of Spo...
The Message Source
Issues with
Credibility


Credibility of Informal
Sources
 Credibility of Formal
Sources
 Credibilit...
The Message Source
Issues with
Credibility


Credibility of Informal
Sources
 Credibility of Formal
Sources
 Credibilit...
The Message Source
Issues with
Credibility


Credibility of Informal
Sources
 Credibility of Formal
Sources
 Credibilit...
This ad has
strong synergy
between the
endorser and
the type of
product.
The Message Source
Issues with
Credibility


Credibility of Informal
Sources
 Credibility of Formal
Sources
 Credibilit...
MB-12-32

Khurram
Khalil
Sleeper Effect
 The

idea that both positive and negative credibility
effects tend to disappear after a period of time.
Barriers to Communication
 Selective

Perception
 Psychological Noise
Communication and Marketing Strategy


Establish communication objectives
 Select target audience
 Choose the best medi...
Designing Persuasive Communications
 Message Presentation
– Resonance
– Message Framing
– Comparative advertising
– One-s...
Omer
Shahzad
MB-12-08
Designing Persuasive Communications
 Message Presentation
– Resonance
– Message Framing
– Comparative advertising
– One-s...
Designing Persuasive Communications
Message Structure
and Presentation


Resonance
 Message framing
 Comparative
advert...
Wordplay on
Cigarettes
Cases of
Morven Gold
Designing Persuasive Communications
Message Structure
and Presentation


Resonance
 Message framing
 Comparative
advert...
Positive Framing in Fair & Lovely Ad
This ad uses
negative
framing.
Designing Persuasive Communications
Message Structure
and Presentation


Resonance
 Message framing
 Comparative
advert...
Wordplay on
Death
Cigarettes
Comparative
ad scenario
between
GoAir and
KingFisher
Airlines
Dove in a comparative ad against Pantene
Designing Persuasive Communications
Message Structure
and Presentation


Resonance
 Message framing
 Comparative
advert...
MB-12-48

Nouman
Ashraf
Advertising Appeals
 Fear
 Humor
 Abrasive

advertising
 Sex in advertising
 Audience participation
Fear Appeal
Sex in Advertisement Appeal
Humor Appeal
Impact of Humor on Advertising
•Humor attracts attention.
•Humor does not harm comprehension.
•Humor is not more effective...
Message Effectiveness
 Market

communications are designed for a target
audience
 The effectiveness can be measured thro...
Communication Feedback
 Exposure

effects
 Persuasion effects
 Sales effects
Summary
 Communication

process
 Barriers to communication
 Modes of designing an effective message
 Effective adverti...
Communication and Consumer Behavior
Communication and Consumer Behavior
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Transcript of "Communication and Consumer Behavior"

  1. 1. Communication and Consumer Behaviour Consumer Behaviour Presentation Ma’am Farasat
  2. 2. Waqas Javed MB12-05
  3. 3. What is Communication?  The transmission of a message from a sender to a receiver via a medium of transmission.
  4. 4. Elements of the Communication Process  The Message Initiator (the Source)  The Sender  The Receiver  The Medium  The Message  The Target Audience (the Receivers)  Feedback - the Receiver’s Response
  5. 5. Basic Communication Model ■ The Communication Process Source Encoding Message Feedback Medium Decoding Receiver
  6. 6. Factors Affecting Communication Process  Characteristics of the source  Message characteristics  Characteristics of the receiver  Characteristics of the medium
  7. 7. Message Characteristics  Source Credibility – Reputation of the retailer – Consumer’s previous experience with product – Reputation of the medium
  8. 8. Message Characteristics  Message Structure and Presentation – Resonance or wordplay – Message Framing: positive or negative – One-sided versus Two-sided Messages – Comparative Advertising – Order Effects – Repetition
  9. 9. Message Characteristics  Advertising Appeal – Factual or Emotional Used  Types of Emotional Appeals – Fear – Humor – Abrasive advertising – Sex in advertising
  10. 10. M. Amir MB-12-50
  11. 11. Medium  Medium can be: – Impersonal (mass media) – Interpersonal (with salesperson or a friend) – Interactive (direct feedback possibility exists)
  12. 12. Characteristics of the Medium - Newspaper  Access to large audiences  Effective for local reach  Flexible  Fast  Feedback possible through coupon redemption, etc.  Not selective  Short message life  Clutter  Cost varies based on ad size and vehicle circulation
  13. 13. Characteristics of the Medium - Magazines  Highly selective  Selective binding possible  High quality production  High credibility  Long message life  High pass along rate  High clutter  Delayed and indirect feedback  Rates vary based on circulation and selectivity
  14. 14. Characteristics of the Medium - Television  Large audiences possible  Appeals to many senses  Emotion and attention possible  Demonstration possible  Very high costs overall  Long lead time  High clutter  Short message life  Viewers can avoid exposure with zapping  Day-after recall tests for feedback
  15. 15. Characteristics of the Medium - Radio  High geographic and demographic selectivity  Audio only  Relatively inexpensive  Good local coverage  Short exposure time  High clutter  Zapping possible  Delayed feedback through day-after recall tests
  16. 16. Characteristics of the Medium - Internet  Potential for audience selectivity  Customized tracking possible and other feedback tools possible  Useful for branding and reinforcement of messages  Demographic skew to audience  Very high clutter  Zapping possible  Great variation in pricing  Privacy concerns
  17. 17. Characteristics of the Medium – Direct Mail  High audience selectivity  Personalization possible  Novel, interesting stimuli possible  Low clutter  Perception of junk mail  Feedback possible through response
  18. 18. Characteristics of the Medium – Direct Marketing  Development of databases  High audience selectivity  Relatively free of clutter  Privacy concerns  Measurable responses  Cost per inquiry, cost per sale, revenue per ad can be calculated
  19. 19. Characteristics of the Target Market  Personal characteristics and comprehension  Involvement and congruency  Mood  Barriers to communication – Selective exposure to messages – Psychological noise
  20. 20. Feedback: The Receiver’s Response  Feedback should – Promptly – Accurately be gathered:
  21. 21. Humayoon Askry MB-12-14
  22. 22. Issues in Credibility  Credibility of Informal Sources  Credibility of Impersonal, Neutral Sources  Credibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers  Sleeper Effect
  23. 23. The Message Source Issues with Credibility  Credibility of Informal Sources  Credibility of Formal Sources  Credibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers  Message Credibility   Includes word of mouth These sources also called opinion leaders  Informal sources may not always be credible
  24. 24. The Message Source Issues with Credibility  Credibility of Informal Sources  Credibility of Formal Sources  Credibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers  Message Credibility    Neutral sources have the greatest credibility Source credibility judged on past performance, reputation, servic e, quality, spokesperson image, retailers, social responsibility Institutional advertising used to promote favorable company image
  25. 25. The Message Source Issues with Credibility  Credibility of Informal Sources  Credibility of Formal Sources  Credibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers  Message Credibility  Effectiveness related to: – The message – Synergy between endorser and type of product – Demographic characteristics of endorser – Corporate credibility – Endorsement wording
  26. 26. This ad has strong synergy between the endorser and the type of product.
  27. 27. The Message Source Issues with Credibility  Credibility of Informal Sources  Credibility of Formal Sources  Credibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers  Message Credibility   Credibility of retailers Reputation of the medium that carries the ad  Consumer’s previous experience with product
  28. 28. MB-12-32 Khurram Khalil
  29. 29. Sleeper Effect  The idea that both positive and negative credibility effects tend to disappear after a period of time.
  30. 30. Barriers to Communication  Selective Perception  Psychological Noise
  31. 31. Communication and Marketing Strategy  Establish communication objectives  Select target audience  Choose the best media  Develop suitable message strategies – Match message with audience characteristics – Develop suitable message structure, presentation – Develop suitable message appeals  Reduce barriers to effective communication  Measure effectiveness of marketing communications
  32. 32. Designing Persuasive Communications  Message Presentation – Resonance – Message Framing – Comparative advertising – One-sided Versus Two-sided Messages – Order Effects
  33. 33. Omer Shahzad MB-12-08
  34. 34. Designing Persuasive Communications  Message Presentation – Resonance – Message Framing – Comparative advertising – One-sided Versus Two-sided Messages – Order Effects
  35. 35. Designing Persuasive Communications Message Structure and Presentation  Resonance  Message framing  Comparative advertising  Order effects   Wordplay Used to create a double meaning when used with a relevant picture
  36. 36. Wordplay on Cigarettes Cases of Morven Gold
  37. 37. Designing Persuasive Communications Message Structure and Presentation  Resonance  Message framing  Comparative advertising  Order effects    Positive framing Negative framing One-sided vs. two-sided
  38. 38. Positive Framing in Fair & Lovely Ad
  39. 39. This ad uses negative framing.
  40. 40. Designing Persuasive Communications Message Structure and Presentation  Resonance  Message framing  Comparative advertising  Order effects  Marketer claims product superiority over another brand  Useful for positioning
  41. 41. Wordplay on Death Cigarettes
  42. 42. Comparative ad scenario between GoAir and KingFisher Airlines
  43. 43. Dove in a comparative ad against Pantene
  44. 44. Designing Persuasive Communications Message Structure and Presentation  Resonance  Message framing  Comparative advertising  Order effects   Primacy effect Recency effect
  45. 45. MB-12-48 Nouman Ashraf
  46. 46. Advertising Appeals  Fear  Humor  Abrasive advertising  Sex in advertising  Audience participation
  47. 47. Fear Appeal
  48. 48. Sex in Advertisement Appeal
  49. 49. Humor Appeal
  50. 50. Impact of Humor on Advertising •Humor attracts attention. •Humor does not harm comprehension. •Humor is not more effective at increasing persuasion. •Humor does not enhance source credibility. •Humor enhances liking. •Humor that is relevant to the product is superior to humor that is unrelated to the product. •Audience demographic factors affect the response to humorous advertising appeals. •The nature of the product affects the appropriateness of a humorous treatment. •Humor is more effective with existing products than with new products. •Humor is more appropriate for low-involvement products and feeling-oriented products than for high-involvement products.
  51. 51. Message Effectiveness  Market communications are designed for a target audience  The effectiveness can be measured through communication feedback
  52. 52. Communication Feedback  Exposure effects  Persuasion effects  Sales effects
  53. 53. Summary  Communication process  Barriers to communication  Modes of designing an effective message  Effective advertising appeals  Feedback importance for message effectiveness
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