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The Research Paper: APA Style
In-text Citation and Reference List examples based on the
2010 Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
Examples are for print sources unless otherwise indicated.
For additional examples and more details consult the full APA manual kept at the Information Desk.
Some disciplines may require other styles, so check with your instructor for a style recommendation. *
For updated citation information and tutorials consult http://www.apastyle.org/learn
IN-TEXT CITATION is used to identify your source of information, whether quoted or paraphrased, within
your paper. It is brief information, referring the reader to your reference list. Include the author(s) last name
(unless it appears in the narrative) and the date. For quotations, include the page number, or for electronic
(online) articles without page numbers, use a brief section title and paragraph number. Here are a few examples:
Quotations -- with pages: “Our culture is full of simpleminded myths of blame” (Sher, 1994, p. 45).
-- online article, no pages: “Empirical studies have found mixed results” (Golan &
Kuchler, 2007, “Conclusions,” para. 4).
Pagels (1995) discussed …
Two authors: Juedes and Curry (1999) concluded…
OR (Juedes & Curry, 1999)
Three to five authors – first citation: Smiler, Kay, and Harris (2008) examined the history…
-- more references to the same source (first author followed by et al.):
Smiler et al. (2008) found…
Six or more authors: The first author followed by et al for all citations. If there is more
than one article with the same lead author, see the manual for directions.
Multiple works cited together: List alphabetically by first author.
Several studies (Balda, 1995; Kamil, 1988; Pepperberg & Funk, 1990)…
Personal Communications (e.g., e-mail, personal interviews): These are included for in-text citations,
but are not included in the reference list because they are not recoverable.
…as described by R. Gerstner (personal communication, November 12, 2001).
Secondary Source (use sparingly): The secondary source, Claiborne, is the one included in the
Strangelove and Manic’s study (1990, as cited in Clairborne, 1999) …
The REFERENCE LIST is a list of all resources cited in your paper. There are several general guidelines to
use, regardless of the type of resource. There are many examples on the following pages.
Double space between all lines. This guide shows entries single spaced to save paper.
Use a hanging indent, with all lines after the first indented.
List entries alphabetically.
List all authors of a work, up to and including seven authors.
Use authors’ initial(s), not first name.
Put the date of publication after the author's name(s). If no date use: n.d.
If author is unknown, alphabetize by first significant title word.
Capitalize only the first word of a book or article title, the subtitle, and all proper names.
For a periodical title capitalize as on the source (i.e., journal or magazine title).
Italicize periodical titles and volume number, and book titles.
For unusual formats add note in brackets. Example: [DVD]
For ELECTRONIC RESOURCES use the same elements as for comparable print materials. Add enough
retrieval information to enable others to find the source, preferably the digital object identifier (DOI).
Author1, A. A., & Author2, B. B. (date). Title etc: Subtitle
goes here (edition). Place of publication: Publisher.
For online books or chapters, include retrieval information instead of place of publication and
o use a DOI (digital object identifier) if available.
o if no DOI, use a brief url
Pagels, E. H. (1995). The origin of Satan. New York: Random
Two to Seven Authors/
Blackwood, E., & Wieringa, S. (1999). Female desires:
Same-sex relations and transgender practices across
cultures (2nd ed.). New York: Columbia University
Book Chapter or Encyclopedia Article
Golding, D. (2002). Vulnerability. In A. Goudie & D. Cuff
(Eds.), Encyclopedia of global change (Vol. 2, pp. 483486). New York: Oxford University Press.
Book Chapter or Encyclopedia Article Online
Diecchio, R. (2007). Geothermal energy. In P. Robbins (Ed.),
Encyclopedia of environment and society (Vol. 2,
pp.759-760). Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com
Brown, J. E., & Stephens, E. C. (Eds.). (1998). United in
diversity: Using multicultural young adult literature in
the classroom. Urbana, IL: National Council of
Teachers of English.
No Author – online reference source
List alphabetically by article title.
Heuristic. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster Online. Retrieved
from http://www.merriam-webster. com/dictionary/
American Psychiatric Press. (1998). Diagnostic and
statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.).
Washington, DC: Author.
Author1, A. A., & Author2, B. B. (Date). Article title.
Journal Title, vol # (issue #), start page-end page.
Include the year for all articles; month/day only for magazines and news publications.
Include the issue number only if each issue begins with page 1.
Include the DOI (digital object identifier), if available, for all formats.
o Look for the DOI on the first page of the article, or in the database from which you linked.
o http://www.crossref.org/guestquery/ is helpful for finding article DOI numbers.
o If no DOI: For paper omit, for online see below.
For electronically retrieved (online) articles only:
o If no DOI is available then substitute the URL of the journal’s homepage in this way:
Retrieved from http://www.xxxxx
o Include retrieval date only if the source may change over time (e.g., wikis, draft paper).
Journal - One Author
Sargent, D. M. (1996). On-line computers in psychology:
Laboratory course for advanced psychology majors.
Behavior Research Methods, Instruments and
Computers, 28(3), 17-26.
Journal Article – online
Russo, E. (2001). Forging a place for research on aging.
The Scientist, 15(3), 135-146. doi: 10.1037/000294184.108.40.2062
Journal Article – online, no doi
Young, C., & Rasinski, T. (2009). Implementing readers
theatre as an approach to classroom fluency
instruction. Reading Teacher, 63(1), 4-13. Retrieved
Journal – 2 - 7 Authors
Curry, I. E., Peters, C. P.V., & Ree, C. (2001). Growing up in the
company of stress dependent librarians: A psychological
perspective. Journal of Adult Development, 126, 154157.
Busby, C. (2001, May). Beautiful girls, ugly disease. Teen
Magazine, 45, 98-102.
Newspaper Article – online source
Associated Press. (2002, January 30). Investigators to sue
White House for access to Energy Task Force list.
The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.
Government Document – group author Online
National Institute of Mental Health. (2008). Attention
deficit hyperactivity disorder (NIH Publication No. 083572). Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/
Chimpanzee health improvement, maintenance and protection
General format: Title, xxx Cong. (date).
act: Hearing before the Subcommittee of Health and
Include beginning page before date, if available.
Environment of the Committee on Commerce, House of
Representatives, 106th Cong. 35 (2000).
LeRoy, M. (Producer), & Fleming, V. (Writer/Director). (1999).
Wizard of Oz [DVD]. United States: MetroGoldwyn-Mayer.
Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap
radio [audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.
From personal or institutional website,
Greater New Milford (Ct) Area Healthy Community, Task
Force on Teen and Adolescent Issues. (2000). Who has
time for a family meal? You do! Retrieved from
Message from listserv
Simons, D. J. (2000, July 14). New resources for visual
cognition [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved
from http://groups.yahoo.com/ group/visualcognition/
* Note: The primary mission of the APA Publication Manual is to meet the publishing needs of
scientists. Your professor may modify the citation requirements for your particular course or
assignment. If you have any questions about what is expected, check with your professor.
• State University of New York at Oswego