Apa style (1)
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Apa style (1) Document Transcript

  • 1. The Research Paper: APA Style In-text Citation and Reference List examples based on the 2010 Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association Examples are for print sources unless otherwise indicated. For additional examples and more details consult the full APA manual kept at the Information Desk. Some disciplines may require other styles, so check with your instructor for a style recommendation. * For updated citation information and tutorials consult http://www.apastyle.org/learn IN-TEXT CITATION is used to identify your source of information, whether quoted or paraphrased, within your paper. It is brief information, referring the reader to your reference list. Include the author(s) last name (unless it appears in the narrative) and the date. For quotations, include the page number, or for electronic (online) articles without page numbers, use a brief section title and paragraph number. Here are a few examples: Quotations -- with pages: “Our culture is full of simpleminded myths of blame” (Sher, 1994, p. 45). -- online article, no pages: “Empirical studies have found mixed results” (Golan & Kuchler, 2007, “Conclusions,” para. 4). One author: OR Pagels (1995) discussed … (Pagels, 1995) Two authors: Juedes and Curry (1999) concluded… OR (Juedes & Curry, 1999) Three to five authors – first citation: Smiler, Kay, and Harris (2008) examined the history… -- more references to the same source (first author followed by et al.): Smiler et al. (2008) found… Six or more authors: The first author followed by et al for all citations. If there is more than one article with the same lead author, see the manual for directions. Multiple works cited together: List alphabetically by first author. Several studies (Balda, 1995; Kamil, 1988; Pepperberg & Funk, 1990)… Personal Communications (e.g., e-mail, personal interviews): These are included for in-text citations, but are not included in the reference list because they are not recoverable. …as described by R. Gerstner (personal communication, November 12, 2001). Secondary Source (use sparingly): The secondary source, Claiborne, is the one included in the reference list. Strangelove and Manic’s study (1990, as cited in Clairborne, 1999) …
  • 2. The REFERENCE LIST is a list of all resources cited in your paper. There are several general guidelines to use, regardless of the type of resource. There are many examples on the following pages. Double space between all lines. This guide shows entries single spaced to save paper. Use a hanging indent, with all lines after the first indented. List entries alphabetically. List all authors of a work, up to and including seven authors. Use authors’ initial(s), not first name. Put the date of publication after the author's name(s). If no date use: n.d. If author is unknown, alphabetize by first significant title word. Capitalize only the first word of a book or article title, the subtitle, and all proper names. For a periodical title capitalize as on the source (i.e., journal or magazine title). Italicize periodical titles and volume number, and book titles. For unusual formats add note in brackets. Example: [DVD] For ELECTRONIC RESOURCES use the same elements as for comparable print materials. Add enough retrieval information to enable others to find the source, preferably the digital object identifier (DOI). BOOKS General Format Author1, A. A., & Author2, B. B. (date). Title etc: Subtitle goes here (edition). Place of publication: Publisher. For online books or chapters, include retrieval information instead of place of publication and publisher. o use a DOI (digital object identifier) if available. o if no DOI, use a brief url One Author Pagels, E. H. (1995). The origin of Satan. New York: Random House. Two to Seven Authors/ Second Edition Blackwood, E., & Wieringa, S. (1999). Female desires: Same-sex relations and transgender practices across cultures (2nd ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Book Chapter or Encyclopedia Article Golding, D. (2002). Vulnerability. In A. Goudie & D. Cuff (Eds.), Encyclopedia of global change (Vol. 2, pp. 483486). New York: Oxford University Press. Book Chapter or Encyclopedia Article Online Diecchio, R. (2007). Geothermal energy. In P. Robbins (Ed.), Encyclopedia of environment and society (Vol. 2, pp.759-760). Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com Edited Book Brown, J. E., & Stephens, E. C. (Eds.). (1998). United in diversity: Using multicultural young adult literature in the classroom. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
  • 3. No Author – online reference source List alphabetically by article title. Heuristic. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster Online. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster. com/dictionary/ heuristic Group Author American Psychiatric Press. (1998). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. ARTICLES General Format Author1, A. A., & Author2, B. B. (Date). Article title. Journal Title, vol # (issue #), start page-end page. doi:xx.xxxxxx Include the year for all articles; month/day only for magazines and news publications. Include the issue number only if each issue begins with page 1. Include the DOI (digital object identifier), if available, for all formats. o Look for the DOI on the first page of the article, or in the database from which you linked. o http://www.crossref.org/guestquery/ is helpful for finding article DOI numbers. o If no DOI: For paper omit, for online see below. For electronically retrieved (online) articles only: o If no DOI is available then substitute the URL of the journal’s homepage in this way: Retrieved from http://www.xxxxx o Include retrieval date only if the source may change over time (e.g., wikis, draft paper). Journal - One Author Sargent, D. M. (1996). On-line computers in psychology: Laboratory course for advanced psychology majors. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments and Computers, 28(3), 17-26. Journal Article – online Russo, E. (2001). Forging a place for research on aging. The Scientist, 15(3), 135-146. doi: 10.1037/00029432.76.4.482 Journal Article – online, no doi Young, C., & Rasinski, T. (2009). Implementing readers theatre as an approach to classroom fluency instruction. Reading Teacher, 63(1), 4-13. Retrieved from http://www.reading.org/General/Publications/ Journals/RT.aspx Journal – 2 - 7 Authors Curry, I. E., Peters, C. P.V., & Ree, C. (2001). Growing up in the company of stress dependent librarians: A psychological perspective. Journal of Adult Development, 126, 154157. Magazine Article Busby, C. (2001, May). Beautiful girls, ugly disease. Teen Magazine, 45, 98-102. Newspaper Article – online source Associated Press. (2002, January 30). Investigators to sue White House for access to Energy Task Force list. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www. nytimes.com
  • 4. OTHER Government Document – group author Online National Institute of Mental Health. (2008). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (NIH Publication No. 083572). Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/ health/publications/attention-deficit-hyperactivitydisorder/adhd_booklet.pdf Legislative Hearing Chimpanzee health improvement, maintenance and protection General format: Title, xxx Cong. (date). act: Hearing before the Subcommittee of Health and Include beginning page before date, if available. Environment of the Committee on Commerce, House of Representatives, 106th Cong. 35 (2000). Videorecording LeRoy, M. (Producer), & Fleming, V. (Writer/Director). (1999). Wizard of Oz [DVD]. United States: MetroGoldwyn-Mayer. Podcast Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www. shrinkrapradio.com Internet document From personal or institutional website, informally published Greater New Milford (Ct) Area Healthy Community, Task Force on Teen and Adolescent Issues. (2000). Who has time for a family meal? You do! Retrieved from http://www.familymealtime.org Message from listserv Simons, D. J. (2000, July 14). New resources for visual cognition [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from http://groups.yahoo.com/ group/visualcognition/ message/31 * Note: The primary mission of the APA Publication Manual is to meet the publishing needs of scientists. Your professor may modify the citation requirements for your particular course or assignment. If you have any questions about what is expected, check with your professor. BAS 01/10 Penfield Library • State University of New York at Oswego