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52463084 levi-s-research-report 52463084 levi-s-research-report Document Transcript

  • Final Research Report Advertising Research / ADV3500 / Sect. 9212 Team Secta Michael Cheng / Jamie Daigle / Danny D’Apuzzo Dayana Falcon / Chris Kaman / Corry Salm Submitted: April 19th, 2010
  • Table of Contents Executive Summary…………………………………………………………………………….…1 Situation Analysis…………………………………………………………………………………3 Industry Analysis………………………………………………………………………….3 Brand Analysis…………………………………………………………………………….3 Competitive Analysis……………………………………………………………………...7 Consumer Analysis………………………………………………………………..……..10 Macro-Environmental Analysis………………………………………………….………12 SWOT……………………………………………………………………………………………14 Opportunity Recommendation for Research…………………………………………….………15 Research Problem Statement…………………………………………………………….………15 Proposed Questions for Qualitative Research…………………………………………………....16 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………....…18 Problem Statement……………………………………………………………………...….…….18 Research Objectives……………………………………………………………………...…...….19 Research Method…………………………………………………………………………..….…20 Justification for Qualitative Research……………………………………………………20 Justification for Focus Group……………………………………………………….……21 Procedure………………………………………………………………………….….…..21 Instruments……………………………………………………………………………….22 Participants……………………………………………………………………………….23 Findings……………………………………………………………………….…………….……24 Theme 1: Fit plays the largest role in the purchasing decision for jeans…………...……24
  • Theme 2: Versatility in jeans is important to consumers…………………………..…….25 Theme 3: Consumers do not consider shopping for jeans a fun experience………….….25 Theme 4: Consumers will purchase jeans on an incidental basis…………………..……25 Theme 5: College students are influenced by what their peers are wearing…..……..….26 Theme 6: Participants view Levi’s traditional image in a positive manner…..………….27 Theme 7: The “Go Forth” campaign is raising awareness of the Levi’s brand….....…....27 Future Quantitative Research………………………………………………………………....….28 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………..…....….30 Problem Statement……………………………………………………………………….………31 Research Objectives………………………………………………………………………….…..31 Concepts of Interest…………………………………………………………………………...…32 Research Method…………………………………………………………………………...……34 Justification for Quantitative Research……………………………………………..……34 Justification for Web Survey…………………………………………………………….35 Procedure……………………………………………………………………………...…35 Instruments………………………………………………………………………...…….36 Participants……………………………………………………………………………....37 Findings……………………………………………………………………………………….....37 Purchasing and Shopping Experience……………………………………………………38 Usage of Jeans…………………………………………………………………………...38 Preferences Toward Jeans…………………………………………………………….....39 Attitudes Toward Levi’s and Competitors……………………………………..……….41 Qualities of a Spokesperson…………………………………………………………….41
  • Digital Media Usage Patterns…………………………………………………….……42 Research Conclusions……………………………………………………………………...…..43 Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………….…..47 Appendix A: Time Cost Tables…………………………………………….……………….…50 A.1 Secondary Research…………………………………………………….………...50 A.2 Qualitative Research……………………………………………………………...51 A.3 Quantitative Research………………………………………………………...…...52 Appendix B: Comparison of Competition……………………………………………………..53 Appendix C: Comparison of Media Spent………………………………………………...…..54 Appendix D: Pre-Screeners…………………………………………………………………....55 D.1 Qualitative Research………………………………………………………….…..55 D.2 Quantitative Research………………………………………………………….…56 Appendix E: Informed Consent Forms………………………………………………………..57 E.1 Qualitative Research………………………………………………………….…..57 E.2 Quantitative Research…………………………………………………………….58 Appendix F: Moderator Guide………………………………………………………………..59 Appendix G: Participant Jean Categories………………………………………………….…66 Appendix H: Participant Brand Categories……………………………………………..…….69 Appendix I: Cognitive Map……………………………………………………………..……75 Appendix J: Survey Questionnaire……………………………………………………..…….76 Appendix K: Results of Statistical Analysis of Quantitative Research…………………..…..83
  • Executive Summary Since the invention of blue jeans in 1873, Levi’s has prided itself on providing their consumers with unparalleled quality in jeans resulting in a longstanding traditional image. Team Secta has identified the importance of Levi’s rich history and traditional image, but recognizes the need to adapt it to a more contemporary society. Team Secta conducted secondary research, qualitative research and quantitative research to gain a greater understanding of the 18-24 year old target market in Gainesville, Florida. By relying on judgment alone to make advertising decisions, Levi’s runs the risk of not effectively targeting this market and inadequately spending its $10 million advertising budget. The research will find out what college students desire in jeans, their attitudes toward Levi’s and competitors, and the types of people they expect to wear Levi’s and competing jeans brands. Through research we will also identify in which situations they wear jeans, their digital media usage patterns, and the type of spokesperson that would best appeal to them. Overall, the goal of the research was to uncover data to answer these informational needs in order to determine the most effective way to communicate with 18-24 year old college students. The objectives of secondary research were to determine Levi’s current position in the jeans industry and potential opportunities for their brand. Team Secta conducted a company analysis, competitive analysis and consumer analysis as well as identifying macro environmental trends that were relevant to the industry. Objectives of the qualitative research were to gain an understanding of the target’s perceptions of Levi’s brand image in comparison to what they desire in jeans. We conducted a focus group to gain in-depth information from recruited participants on their motivations and attitudes toward jean shopping and different jean brands. After administering the focus group and analyzing the data, we determined seven themes that 1
  • summarized participants’ attitudes and behaviors including: the desire for fit, the desire for versatility, negative feelings towards shopping for jeans, opportunistic purchasing habits, peer influence, Levi’s being traditional, and attitudes toward the “Go Forth” campaign. Next, we conducted quantitative research based on these themes in order to refine and support the findings from the qualitative research. We created a Web survey with 34 questions relating to the concepts of interest based on the four meta-themes from the focus group which were: ideal jeans, purchase environment, Levi’s image and peer influence. We recruited participants to respond to the survey, and then analyzed the data. After analyzing the aforementioned research, we present and recommend the following findings to Levi’s: The participants view fit as the most important factor when purchasing jeans. This is a key finding and driving factor in the purchasing decision and should be the focus of Levi’s advertising message. Even though consumers have differing definitions regarding the perfect fit, Levi’s should emphasize that customers can find their perfect fit due to the wide variety of cuts and styles that are offered by Levi’s. Advertising should also incorporate the traditional brand image, which participants view positively, but relate this to a more contemporary setting. A spokesperson for Levi’s should be relatable because participants are more influenced by friends and people similar to themselves than by celebrities. Advertising needs to be placed in digital media such as Facebook and Twitter in order to complement traditional advertising in other mediums. By utilizing these recommendations, Levi’s will be able to position itself as a genuine, relatable and iconic brand that offers the perfect fitting pair of jeans that appeal to the consumer’s individualized style. 2
  • Project 1: Secondary Research
  • Situation Analysis Industry Analysis The apparel industry is comprised of clothing, accessories and shoes. It can be segmented into menswear, womenswear and childrenswear. In the United States there are about 10,000 companies that combine to have a total annual revenue of $20 billion (“Apparel Manufacture” Jan. 2010). Of the womenswear segment, clothing held 68.4% market share in 2008 (“Womenswear in the United States: Industry Profile” Sept. 2009). Clothing in menswear held 53.8% market share (“Menswear in the United States: Industry Profile” Sept. 2009). From 2002 to 2007 the jeans market grew 28%; growth is expected to be 18% from 2007 to 2012, just a little faster than inflation (“Jeans” Mar. 2008). The same report believes that the growth in 2002 to 2007 was “above trend” while the growth expected between 2007 and 2012 is more “normal”. Premium denim sales rose 24% for women and 45% for men. Sales in 2007 for the jeans market was $16.7 billion, while the projected sales for 2012 is $19.7 billion (“Jeans” Mar. 2008). Key players in the jeans market include Levi Strauss & Company, VF Corporation, The Gap, Tommy Hilfiger Corporation, Liz Claiborne, Inc. and Polo Ralph Lauren Corporation. Levi Strauss led this market in 2007 with a 26.4% market share; The Gap came in second with 23.9 percent (“Jeans” Mar. 2008). In the apparel industry key players include Levi Strauss & Company, Benneton Group, Hugo Boss, The Gap and H&M. Brand Analysis Levi’s jeans are the original authentic jeans brand. Introduced in 1873 Levi’s are the most prosperous, highly recognized and imitated clothing brand in history. Levi’s jeans have been an iconic staple in the lives of many Americans, invented the jeans category and continue to define the market. 3
  • Brand Attributes and Functions Levi’s jeans are known for their high quality and long-lasting products. One of the distinctive characteristics of Levi’s is they are made of a stain resistant material (“Levi Strauss & Co. Overview” Mar. 2009). Another specific attribute is Levi’s Eco brand jeans, which are made of all recycled materials. In 1873 Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis received a patent on the copper rivets that Levi’s still uses to make the jeans durable and long lasting (Levi Strauss & Co. 2009). Their 501 Series jeans are the best selling and most popular type of jeans that Levi’s makes. The jeans can be worn in almost every day-to-day situation. They are great work pants that provide the protection needed in tough situations, but they are also stylish enough to wear in social situations. There are 117 different types of men’s jeans and 123 women’s jeans targeted towards people of all ages (“Levi Strauss & Co. Overview” Mar. 2009). Positioning and Brand Personality Levi’s strives to provide the world's casual workday wardrobe. The brand is synonymous with quality. It is the brand of originality, individuality and nonconformity. There are four core values at the heart of Levi’s: empathy, originality, integrity and courage. The core values are the source of Levi’s success (Levi Strauss & Co. 2009). Levi’s website states, “People love our clothes and trust our company. We will market and distribute the most appealing and widely worn apparel brands. Our products define quality, style and function. We will clothe the world” (Levi Strauss & Co. 2009). However, Levi’s did not change their positioning towards premium jeans when the rest of their competitors did. Now they are trying to rectify that with their new campaign. 4
  • Cost and Margins Levi Strauss & Company’s net revenues have decreased six percent in the last quarter and net income has decreased 41 percent (Colbert 2009). The company’s reported results reflected the challenging global economy and the adverse effect of currency exchange rates compared to the prior year. Levi’s reported a liquidity position of approximately $386 million of cash, cash equivalents and availability under its credit facility. The company’s cash position reflected operating cash flows of $15 million in the quarter (Colbert 2009). Gross profit in the third quarter decreased to $494 million compared to $532 million for the same period in 2008. Operating income for the third quarter decreased to $98 million compared to $144 million for the same period of 2008, largely due to continued costs of retail expansion and unfavorable currency impact (Colbert 2009). Price Levi’s jeans vary widely in price from around $20 to over a hundred dollars. The classic men’s 501 Series jeans are $60 and the female counterparts are between $50 and $80 (Levi Strauss & Co. 2009). Distribution Levi Strauss & Company is a worldwide corporation organized into three geographic divisions: Levi Strauss Americas (LSA), Levi Strauss Europe, Middle East and North Africa (LSEMA) and Asia Pacific Division (APD) (Levi Strauss & Co. 2009). Levi's jeans are sold in numerous different outlets. They are sold in department stores, such as JC Penney and Macy’s, specialty and flagship stores and discount retailers, such as Target. 5
  • Promotions Used Current and Past In 1984 Levi’s introduced their “501 Blues” Campaign, which emphasized famous blues singers. Then in 1988 the amusing and clever “Is your fly buttoned?” ads came out. These ads focused on the button-fly jeans, and featured “real people”. In the 1990s Levi’s advertised their loose-fitting jeans by depicting glamorous bodies in mid-air showing the benefits of the loosefitting jeans (Stevenson Oct. 2009). The Levi’s ads running now are the “Go forth” ads from the Wieden + Kennedy advertising firm. A neon sign that says “America” is half-submerged in floodwater. Walt Whitman recites his poem “America” in the background. We see fireworks, children playing in run-down neighborhoods, an embattled business executive surrounded by an angry mob and young people frolicking in blue jeans. Two people hold a banner reading “Go Forth” as they run (Stevenson Oct. 2009). The strategy behind the campaign is to inspire the target to uphold a pioneering spirit and to move the brand forward into the future without forgetting their prominence from the past. Because the “Go Forth” ads are aimed at people under 30 who are sensitive about being manipulated, it is unsure whether the ads will resonate with the target market (Garfield July 2009). Media Spent Levi Strauss spent $1.387 billion on advertising in 2006 and $1.39 billion in 2007 in the United States. This is the third highest amount of money spent on advertising following VF Corporation with $2.173 billion and Liz Claiborne, Inc. with $1.521 (“Jeans” Mar. 2008). 6
  • Competitive Analysis Overview of Competition Levi's jeans has many direct competitors; however, the main competitors are Wrangler, The Gap and Faded Glory. These brands have the highest percentage of purchases among jeans buyers (“Jeans” Mar. 2008). Indirect competitors include any company that sells other types of trousers such as khakis, slacks and corduroys, as well as shorts, dresses, skirts, etc. Because all these types of clothing serve the same purpose and basically have the same attributes besides materials and brand name, differences between the direct and indirect competitors of Levi's can be found through the product positioning and personality. Jeans are no longer seen as exclusively casual but can also be worn for more formal settings therefore making khakis, slacks, skirts and dresses indirect competition. See Appendix B for a comparison of direct competitors. Product Attributes, Functions, Positioning and Personality Levi's has always been a traditional brand in the jean industry but is beginning to position itself as a more contemporary, sexy and high-quality brand (Levi Strauss & Co. 2009). Wrangler is a Western and rugged company and claims to be “made for the outdoors” (Wrangler 2009). Faded Glory is a fashion-forward brand, which is positioned to move other products such as tshirts and outerwear (“Jeans” Mar. 2008). The Gap is an iconic brand for casual basics and uses the phrase “wearing your passion.” (The Gap 2010). Price Levi's and The Gap have similar price ranges and are slightly more expensive than Wrangler Jeans. Walmart's Faded Glory brand, however, is almost half the price of the other competitors. Levi's Strauss made $4.4 billion in revenue last year, a .9% increase from the 7
  • previous year. Its total operating profits was $525 million, an approximately 18% decline from the previous year (“VF Corporation Overview” May 2009). VF Corporation, which owns Wrangler Jeans, made total revenues of $7.6 billion, a 5.9% increase from the previous year, and operating profits of $932 million, a 2.7% decrease from the previous year. Of this revenue 36.2% was through its jeanswear brands, including Wrangler ($2.8 billion, a 4.6% decrease from the previous year) (“VF Corporation Overview” May 2009). The Gap recorded revenues of $15.8 billion, a decrease of 1% from the previous year; however, operating profits totaled $1.3 billion, a 7.4% increase. (“Gap, Inc. Overview” Sept. 2009). Distribution The Gap and Faded Glory both sell in one specific location. The Gap’s jeans are sold only within their specialty stores. Faded Glory jeans, because it is a Walmart brand, is sold only at Walmart locations. Wrangler and Levi's, on the other hand, have a very wide distribution channel and use similar strategies in disseminating their product. They both sell their jeans at mass merchandisers such as Walmart and Target. With increased interest in their flagship brands, like Faded Glory, these merchandisers are beginning to decrease shelf space devoted to these premium denim brands and allocate more to their own flagship brands. This is a key reason why Faded Glory is considered a major direct competitor to Levi's. In addition Levi's and Wrangler both sell at department and national brand stores such as Macy's and JC Penney. Lastly, they both have their own flagship specialty stores located around the country exclusively selling their own brand of jeans. Because of their very similar strategies of distribution, Wrangler and Levi's can be considered very major competitors with each other (“Jeans” Mar. 2008). 8
  • Promotions While these companies continue to advertise through traditional media, they are starting to shift attention toward new media by tapping social networking sites, product placements, digital advertisements and celebrity endorsements. Apparel works well in product placement because a certain type of lifestyle can be portrayed through the storyline. In January 2008 the Levi’s 501 Series brand was the focus of a Project Runway episode where contestants were given a challenge to create a cutting-edge look by using Levi’s Jeans. Levi’s was also featured on the hit comedy series The Office where the lead character tells his employees to wear jeans for casual Fridays and later says, “I love my new Levi’s.” The Gap has partnered with iTunes for a promotion called “Find Your Favorite Fit.” This cross promotion offered free downloads from iTunes to customers who tried on a pair of jeans and featured print and TV spots with actors performing in The Gap jeans. Levi’s and Wrangler also make use of celebrity endorsements by choosing individuals who are consistent with the brand personality. Wrangler employs individuals such as football quarterback Brett Favre and NASCAR driver Dale Earnhardt Jr. while Levi’s endorsed the rock band INXS to promote its “Rock Star” jeans. Though Walmart does not have advertisements featuring the Faded Glory brand, they have just launched a website for the brand that promotes its price/value positioning which is consistent with Walmart’s retail philosophy Levi’s 501 Series ads target a younger audience by showing the jeans as a gateway to a sexy and exciting lifestyle, whereas Wrangler tends to present their jeans as tough and rugged. Walmart has recently redesigned its Faded Glory brand, positioning it as a fashion-forward jean design. As stated before the success of this revamped brand has affected Levi’s because the 9
  • shelf space that was once allocated for Levi’s is shifting to Faded Glory products (“Jeans” Mar. 2008). Media Spent Levi Strauss & Company spent less on media than the VF Corporation in both 2006 and 2007. The difference between spending in 2006 and 2007 increased by $257 million. See Appendix C for a chart on media spent. Consumer Analysis Levi’s is currently targeting two prominent segments. Levi’s first current target market is 35-44 year olds who prefer premium jeans (“Jeans” Mar. 2008). Consumers are drawn to premium denim due to its upscale image, as opposed to function purposes. The current target market is attracted by the vintage appearance of Levi’s jeans. Levi’s targets the Home and Family profile of the American population (“Home and Family” 2008). They live in suburban areas where they own their own homes. This segment enjoys entertaining people in their home and spoiling their kids. Their lifestyle resembles the American Dream. Levi’s consumers earn a middle income salary and can afford pricier jeans. Consumers in the Home and Family profile like clothes that last a long time. Quality is the most important factor to them in a product. They are family-centered and prefer to be informed in all of their purchasing decisions. They prefer to shop at department stores and mass merchandisers when purchasing jeans. Home and Family consumers schedule their life around their favorite TV shows like SOAPnet. They watch a lot of cable network stations, read magazines on a regular basis and use the Internet at home. These consumers visit photo sharing sites and engage in text messaging; however, they do not use new media as heavily as other consumers do (“Home and Family” 2008). 10
  • The second segment consists of a trendier, younger market. Levi’s hired couture fashion designers to change their brand to please the growing demographic of younger customers. Therefore, they have rolled out with flagship stores with premium denim Levi’s lines to capture the youth market’s attention. For example they plan to go after the slouch fit jeans for men with an urban culture skater feel and perfectly slimming jeans for women. They have decided to take out their jeans out of traditional stores into their very own retail stores (“Jeans” Mar. 2008). Levi’s is the classic tale of the jean industry. Times are changing and the current market drivers are not thinking of Levi’s as their top jean pick. According to our macro-environmental research, we found that the Millennial Generation is rising in population making it the new market driver. Levi’s potential target market is college students between 18 and 24 in Gainesville, FL. This potential target market falls under the “Pop Culture” segment (“Pop Cultures” 2008). They are young ambitious adults who enjoy the extremes of studying and kicking back and having fun. They are currently enrolled in college and aspire to be the cream of the crop. They are motivated to buy the latest fashions based on what their favorite celebrities are wearing. A spokesperson that will appeal to this demographic is someone who is considered trendy and has appeal that is recognized by both men and women. Celebrities like Meagan Fox and Ryan Reynolds will grab their attention. The factors they consider when purchasing are to stand out in a crowd and appeal to the opposite sex. Their point of view on clothing is valuable wardrobe over casual wear (“Jeans” Mar. 2008). They are the first among their friends to try unique new styles because they enjoy taking risks. However, they enjoy shopping with friends because they are also secretly approval seekers. They buy the latest fashions every season and look for their favorite brands first. Their media usage pattern has Internet written all over it. They like to hear about products 11
  • and services through their personal email and use the Internet to mingle with others. They enjoy blogging, instant messaging, video sharing, talking through online forums, photo sharing websites and gaming consoles. Cable network stations such as MTV2, VH1, Fuse, Comedy Central, TBS and E! are their favorites. They enjoy reading Seventeen and US Weekly. (“Pop Cultures” 2008). Macro-Environmental Analysis Economic Trends Since December 2007, the United States economy has been in a recession (“Determination of the December 2007 Peak in Economic Activity” Dec. 2008). This recession is forcing consumers to spend less money and save what they can. The unemployment rate reached 10.2% in October 2009, the highest since 1982 (“American Lifestyles” Jan. 2010). This caused disposable income to decrease, causing consumers to shop more at mass merchandisers to look for bargains and comparing prices between stores. Environmental/Sustainability Trends Due to new information about global warming and sustainability, consumers have become interested in acting more environment friendly. The “green” market, which is growing in size, is expected to influence the apparel market (“Jeans” Mar. 2008). Currently, “12% of the population (35 million Americans) can be classified as ‘True Greens’-individuals who are passionate consumers of green products. Some 68% (200 million Americans) are ‘Light Greens’individuals who purchase green products” (“Green Marketing” May 2008). Demographic Trends The Hispanic market is now the largest minority group. With a population of 37 million people, they surpassed the African-American population in 2003. Because of their size, 12
  • Hispanics are beginning to define what is mainstream. Hispanics enjoy wearing jeans at work or going out. In 2005, about 42 million Hispanics spent $8.8 million on denim products. The average Hispanic woman reported owning more than 12 pairs of jeans (“Jeans” Mar. 2008). Age is another changing demographic. The population of people aged 12-17 is increasing. This age group has traditionally driven the sale of jeans because of their preference of shopping at specialty stores. However, the group’s overall spending is down and only a specific segment of the teen market can afford premium priced jeans. Millennials, those aged 14-31 (born between 1977 and 1994), are also growing and are expected to represent the largest U.S. age group by 2012, a 4.8% change from 2002. Eventually this group will define what is popular (“Jeans is Mar. 2008). Other Trends Ethical trends- While category sales for Jeans fell in 2008 due to the recession, the amount of money given to charities only declined two percent in 2008 (“American Lifestyles” Jan. 2010). This shows that although people are cutting back on spending, they still feel inclined to help others who are less fortunate. Obesity- “According to the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) in 2007, more than 60% of Americans aged 20 years and older were classified as overweight; a quarter of these American adults were classified as obese” (“Jeans” Mar. 2008). Since people are growing larger in size, clothing companies have to accommodate styles to the heavier population. “62% of the U.S. women’s apparel market is plus-sized, and total U.S. sales of plus-size clothing are predicted to increase 37% at current prices” (“Jeans” Mar. 2008). Location- Brands of jeans are no longer only offered in department stores. Due to its popularity, various manufacturers have decided to open flagship stores for their premium jeans in 13
  • locations that will appeal to teens who are fashion conscious (“Jeans” Mar. 2008). This will also allow the brands to control aspects of the marketing process. Brands which have started doing this include: Levi’s, Tommy Hilfiger, Liz Claiborne and VF Corporation. Production- Manufacturing has started moving out of the United States and into foreign countries that can produce clothing at a lower price. This has caused various companies to start just designing and wholesaling rather than actually producing clothing (“Men’s & Boys Apparel Manufacturing in the US” Jan. 2010). To keep a good name, brands avoid being associated with sweatshops in foreign countries and are demanding better workers rights in overseas factories. In 2007, it was made illegal in the United States for companies to import products made in sweatshops (Apparel 2008). SWOT Strengths Weaknesses − Has environmentally friendly jeans, Levi’s Eco − Produces a wide variety of jeans product lines − Has several distribution channels − Jeans made of stain resistant fabrics − Patented copper riveting makes jeans stronger Opportunities − “Go Forth” campaign is not expected to be effective with target − Levi’s late in joining trend of switching to premium jeans − Net revenue has decreased by six percent in the last quarter − Jeans industry expected to grow 18% between 2007 and 2012 − Hispanic marketing is fastest growing market from 14.7% to 15.9% of population − Companies are using new media to reach consumers − Mass merchandiser private labels (i.e. Faded Glory) are becoming more popular due to cheaper prices − Popular mass merchandiser private labels are taking more shelf space − Currency exchange rates are unstable − New companies filled the void created because Levi’s and others lacked innovation Threats 14
  • Opportunity Recommendation for Research After conducting secondary research we have found that Levi’s already began to target 18-24 year old college students. That age group falls under the Millennial generation, ages 14-31, which is expected to represent the largest U.S. age group and define future mainstream trends. Currently, Levi's is struggling to differentiate their premium jeans from their long standing traditional styles. Because of this lack of differentiation, the young market still associates their products with the dated tastes of a previous generation. By conducting this research Levi's can figure out what the target looks for in jeans. As a result they can position themselves more correctly in order to attract their target consumers. Research Problem Statement Previously, Levi's jeans were most popular with older generations because of their traditional styled jeans; however, the industry trend favors more premium jeans targeting a younger market. Although Levi's is trying to target these younger consumers, their overall image is still considered dated by this new potential target market. In essence, Levi's is having a problem separating their old brand image from their new, more contemporary one. By doing research, Levi's will gain a better understanding of how to target this demographic by researching college age students. Research is needed because there is insufficient information available on college students' attitudes towards premium jeans. By making a decision based on judgment alone, Levi's runs the risk of not effectively attracting college students. Doing so will help avoid the skepticism that was associated with the “Go Forth” campaign. Because the college student demographic is part of the Millennial generation, which is expected to become the largest age group by 2012, the potential benefits gained by going after these consumers could have lasting significance for Levi's. Research will need to find out what college students desire in 15
  • jeans, their attitudes towards Levi's and its competitors, in which situations they wear jeans, their digital media usage patterns, and their preferences for a spokesperson. Proposed Questions for Qualitative Research − What Websites do you visit most often? − How do you use social networking sites? − Which television programs do you watch? − Do you prefer purchasing jeans online or in traditional brick and mortar locations, and why? − Do you prefer shopping for jeans at department stores, mass merchandisers, or specialty stores and why? − How would you define premium jeans? − In which settings do you typically wear jeans? − What factors determines how much you pay for jeans? − Why do you buy new jeans? − What substitutes do you buy for jeans? − What is most important factor to you when buying jeans (i.e. price, fit, style, brand, etc.)? − How does wearing jeans make you feel? − Where do you think it is inappropriate to wear jeans? − What type of person would most influence you most to buy jeans? (i.e. peers, celebrities, etc.) − What type of celebrity would most influence you to purchase jeans? − What are your perceptions of current clothing advertisements? 16
  • − Name a jeans advertisement that is memorable to you, and why. − What do you associate with the brand Levi's? Wrangler? Faded Glory? The Gap? − How would you describe a typical Levi's consumer? Wrangler? Faded Glory? The Gap? 17
  • 18
  • Project 2: Qualitative Research
  • Introduction Team Secta has conducted secondary research and has identified reasons why Levi’s needs to conduct primary qualitative research. Through our situation analysis we examined information pertaining to the industry, brand, competitors, consumers and trends. With this information Team Secta compiled a SWOT analysis for Levi’s to identify factors relevant to the product and future opportunities that Levi’s can pursue. Through this, Team Secta has identified an opportunity to tap into the 18-24 year old male and female college market. Through our secondary research we have identified key findings affecting Levi’s, including the trend towards premium jeans, which Levi’s did not immediately follow. Also, we found our target market, part of the Millennial Generation, is the fastest growing age group in the United States. They have a strong preference in premium denim, and will determine what is considered mainstream in the future. As a result Levi’s competitors have jumped ahead and filled the gap for consumers’ desires. From our secondary research Team Secta recommends targeting both male and female 18-24 year old college students, a segment of the Millennial Generation. This target market is ambitious, follows the latest fashion trends, and seeks peer approval. They are heavy Internet users and enjoy blogging, social networking, and instant messaging. As mentioned before, this group will be the largest demographic in the country in the near future, making them the most attractive market for Levi’s. Problem Statement Previously, Levi's jeans were most popular with older generations because of their traditional styled jeans; however, the industry trend favors more premium jeans targeting a younger market. Although Levi's is trying to target these younger consumers, their overall image 18
  • is still considered dated by this new potential target market. In essence, Levi's is having a problem separating their old brand image from their new, more contemporary one. By doing research, Levi's will gain a better understanding of how to target this demographic by researching college age students. Research is needed because there is insufficient information available on college students' attitudes towards premium jeans. By making a decision based on judgment alone, Levi's runs the risk of not effectively attracting college students. Because the college student demographic is part of the Millennial generation, which is expected to become the largest age group by 2012, the potential benefits gained by going after these consumers could have lasting significance for Levi's. The $10 million budget for Levi’s advertising campaign would be at risk if there was no research conducted to support an advertising decision. Research will need to find out what college students desire in jeans and their attitudes towards Levi's and its competitors. We will also identify the types of people they expect to wear Levi’s and competing jeans brands, in which situations they wear jeans, their digital media usage patterns, and the type of spokesperson that would best appeal to them. Research Objectives The objective of our qualitative research is to find out what college students desire in jeans and their attitude toward Levi’s and its competitors. The research will help us to determine in which situations they wear jeans, the factors that drive them to purchase new jeans, and their digital media usage patterns. Research will correctly identify the best type of spokesperson for Levi’s. By analyzing these informational needs, Team Secta can determine the most appropriate way to communicate with our target market. 19
  • Team Secta will conduct a focus group in order to gain a stronger understanding of the target market’s perception of Levi’s brand image and how this compares to what they desire in jeans. The findings from this research will allow us to identify themes that will help us make an informed recommendation for Levi’s to effectively target this new segment. Research Method Justification for Qualitative Research After completing secondary research, Team Secta conducted qualitative research to gain consumer insights about their attitudes towards Levi’s jeans and competing brands, their digital media usage patterns, in which situations they wear jeans and the factors that drive them to purchase jeans. Qualitative research is the next logical step because our secondary research identified that Levi’s was not effectively targeting the 18-24 year old college student market. We do not have any information on why the Levi’s message is not resonating with the target; therefore, qualitative research will give us insights into consumer attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. Conducting qualitative research at this point in our study is more beneficial than quantitative research because of its exploratory nature. It leads to background information that our moderator will be able to use further probe to get more in-depth information. Qualitative research will help us gain consumer insights so that we can understand their motivations and answer our informational needs. Through qualitative research Team Secta can observe first-hand the consumers’ verbal and nonverbal reactions to our 20
  • questions. The open-ended questions lead to rich, in-depth information. Responses to these open-ended questions are descriptive rather than just statistical. Information obtained from the qualitative research will help us to develop future research and refine our problem definitions. Qualitative research is quicker and less costly because of the smaller the sample size of eight to 12 people. Justification for Focus Group Team Secta conducted a focus group as a part of our secondary research. In our focus group, a moderator assisted the group in discussion on the subjects relevant to Levi’s informational needs. A focus group was chosen over in-depth interviews as the best form of qualitative research for several reasons. A focus group was better because it is less costly than indepth interviews. Focus groups generate deeper and richer discussions between participants, and group dynamics stimulate thoughts in participants which cause them to view things differently. A focus group causes spontaneity in participants in that there is an active exchange of opinions, a reduction of defense mechanisms and a decrease in made up answers. Though in-depth interviews work well for highly sensitive subjects, the topic of jeans is not very confidential or embarrassing. It is also necessary to keep our discussion highly structured and meet certain time criteria, so Team Secta decided a focus group is the best route for qualitative research. Procedure 21
  • After our secondary research Team Secta decided to conduct qualitative research to better understand the needs and wants of our target consumer. We decided to conduct a focus group that consisted of both male and females who are jean consumers and have purchased new jeans within the past year. Team Secta met on February 18, 2010 to create the moderator guide and discuss the logistics of our focus group. The moderator guide included the objective for research and informational needs, guidelines for the moderator, and the discussion guide. We decided on the date and location of the focus group, the refreshments to be served and delegated the assignments and responsibilities of each member during the focus group. Each team member distributed three pre-screening questionnaires to friends and acquaintances, and we chose 10 people based upon their questionnaires in order to get a group of participants that were representative of the target market. The focus group was held in Room 1074 of Weimer Hall at 7:00 p.m. and lasted for approximately one hour. The tables were arranged in a semicircle with the participants facing the moderator and the projector screen. An audio device was used to record the conversation, and all members of Team Secta were present to make observations. We met on Friday, February 26, to analyze and discuss the findings from the focus group (refer to Appendix A.2 for a time cost table). Instruments A pre-screening questionnaire was used to select appropriate candidates for the focus group. It asked questions on their personal 22
  • information along with other questions about their jeans usage patterns (refer to Appendix D.1 for the pre-screener). The purpose of this pre-screener was to help select the correct participants for our focus group by ensuring they were qualified and representative of our target market. Participants were not told the brand that we were studying at any point in the prescreener. After selecting participants Team Secta provided an informed consent form to them. This form included information about the purpose and procedures of the study. They were also told that there were no risks involved by taking part in this study and that their opinions would be kept confidential. Dr. Kim’s contact information was provided in case participants had any questions or concerns. After reading and agreeing to the terms of the consent form, members of the focus group were asked to sign and date the document (refer to Appendix E.1 for the informed consent form). For the actual focus group study, a moderator guide was given to facilitate and direct the focus group. The moderator used it to gain an understanding of the objectives and informational needs of the study. It included directions for the moderator to follow in order to ensure impartiality as well as rules for the members of the focus group to follow. Also, an introduction, including an icebreaker, was provided to get the focus group members acclimated and comfortable with the moderator and the environment. The moderator then reminded the participants of the purpose of the study. The most important part of the moderator guide was the 23
  • questions provided to help gain insights into the participants’ behavior, attitudes, and beliefs towards jeans and digital media. These 29 questions were designed for the members to answer in great detail, which would help Team Secta get a better idea of factors that could affect Levi’s current situation and future solutions (refer to Appendix F for the moderator guide). Participants Team Secta obtained participants by distributing a pre-screener to friends and acquaintances at the University of Florida to see if they were in our target market and if they were jeans consumers. From all of the prescreeners, we selected 10 participants who were not only jeans consumers, but would provide a diverse representation of the target market. They consisted of five females and five males. The demographics of the participants were broad and diverse. Everyone who participated was between the ages of 18 and 24, owned a pair of jeans and purchased jeans within the past year. On average the participants said that they wear jeans four times a week. Because they all had purchased jeans in the past year, every member of the focus group was familiar with the product category. A majority of the participants currently own Lucky Brand Jeans and American Eagle. Their majors range from psychology to environmental science. Findings After conducting a focus group and analyzing the participants’ responses, Team Secta 24
  • determined seven recurring themes. During the focus group the participants categorized different styles of jeans by their own criteria. This information helped Team Secta identify which factors are most important to them in purchasing jeans. A different activity conducted during the focus group had the participants sort pictures of brand logos into categories of their choosing. Team Secta analyzed this information to determine current consumer perceptions towards jeans brands (refer to Appendices G and H for participant categories). Though the participants discuss jeans in general, they do not emphasize strong brand loyalties. The findings show that they have a set criterion for a pair of jeans that they could potentially buy. In our secondary research we cite the word “premium” having to do with the fit, quality, style and cuts of jeans offered by brands. In our focus group consumers like the attributes of premium jeans; however, they thought “premium” only described more exclusive and expensive designer brands. Our findings reflect these sentiments and how they relate to the Levi’s brand. Team Secta has also identified four overlying meta-themes from the qualitative research (refer to Appendix I for the cognitive map). Theme 1: Fit plays the largest role in the purchasing decision for jeans. During the focus group most of the participants emphasized that fit was the most important factor when purchasing jeans. Though they had differing opinions on what styles and cuts defined a perfect fit, they all agreed that a perfect fit was one that felt good and was their primary concern in purchasing jeans. This is a key reason why they prefer to go to brick and mortar locations as opposed to purchasing online. When purchasing a pair of jeans, fit means more than the brand name. “When you put them on they feel good.” “If I found another brand that fits better, I don’t care where they are from.” “There are few jeans that your body adapts to.” 25
  • “If I try them on and they fit good, I’d buy them.” Theme 2: Versatility in jeans is important to consumers. The participants indicated they prefer jeans that can be worn in any situation. Due to a fast paced lifestyle, they are looking for jeans that are appropriate for various settings from casual to formal. All purpose jeans would be ideal for them. you can’t go throw your the bars.” “I think the perfect jeans are both daytime and nighttime jeans at the same time. Daytime jeans are: maybe it’s a little chilly out, the sun didn’t pop out so want them warm and comfortable. You’re at the library all day, so you home and change. But you’re going on a date that night so you just backpack in the trunk and wear your jeans to the date and then to “[Jeans can be worn in] Any and all situations.” Theme 3: Consumers do not consider shopping for jeans a fun experience. Members of the focus groups emphasized their negative attitudes toward the jean shopping experience. They see it as a long and stressful process that they do not enjoy. With consumers’ specific preferences and the large variety of jeans, the shopping experience can be intimidating and adds a challenge to finding the perfect pair. In order to find this perfect pair, it is necessary for the consumer to try on many pairs of jeans which can be a frustrating process. “[Shopping for jeans] can be a big ordeal.” “You have to go with the mindset ‘I’m going to go buy jeans today’.” “Buying jeans is not a fun experience. You have to try on so many.” “I only buy jeans when I have to.” Theme 4: Consumers will purchase jeans on an incidental basis. The participants expressed that they find jean shopping to be unfavorable; however, if the opportunity presented itself while shopping for other items, they would try on a pair of jeans. In 26
  • the focus group members mentioned that sales and promotions would influence them to try on the jeans. This could lead to a purchasing decision. They prefer purchasing jeans when it is not their primary objective. “[Buying jeans] is a spur of the moment thing.” “If they’re really cheap and I’m looking for other things, I’ll try them on.” “If there was a ridiculous sale, I would definitely gobble up some jeans.” Theme 5: College students are influenced by what their peers are wearing. The specific research we found in our focus group showed us that the participants found more influence in their style from their peers rather than from celebrities. They relate more to their peers rather than celebrities and are more attracted to images of regular people with a lifestyle similar to theirs. Participants noticed what brands of jeans their peers are wearing and lately have observed more people wearing Levi’s. They identify the brand of jeans by the way the stitching on the back pockets are designed. For Levi’s they also noticed the trademarked red tag in addition to the V-shaped stitching on the back pocket. This theme is consistent with the profile Team Secta created for the target consumer as secret approval seekers in secondary research. “I can recognize what the pockets look like.” “Recently I have been seeing a lot of more people wearing Levi’s.” “The more you see people wearing a certain thing, you kind of veer that way.” “[I like to see] people wearing jeans that look like me and doing fun stuff I myself would do.” 27
  • Theme 6: Participants view Levi’s traditional image in a positive manner. The participants in our focus group repeatedly associated the word traditional with the Levi’s brand. They did not think that traditional had a negative connotation nor viewed Levi’s as being outdated. Participants felt that the traditional image was a good attribute for Levi’s to have and associated this with being an all-American brand. “Levi’s, the American jeans.” “Polo and Tommy are what I think of as [what] my dad’s generation wears.” of jeans. “I feel like Wrangler and Levi’s are the Coors Light and Bud Light They’re simple, straight-forward, interchangeable.” Theme 7: The “Go Forth” campaign is raising awareness of the Levi’s brand. Contrary to our secondary research, the “Go Forth” campaign seems to be resonating with our focus group members. Participants were drawn to the imagery and message of the Levi’s campaign. They feel it positively reinforces the character of Levi’s as being traditional. Members of the focus group connected with the campaigns attempt to reach out to a younger generation while still holding their position as a long-standing American brand. The campaign served as a reminder of the Levi’s brand by effectively connecting its past with the possibilities of the future. Not only has it raised awareness, the campaign also sparked interest to try on a pair of Levi’s jeans. 28
  • “[The ‘Go Forth’ campaign] embodies the Levi’s brand.” “It kind of embodies the timelessness of Levi’s, and it kind of conjures up images of the past and classic American images. It also makes the point of being revolutionary and going forth in the past and into the future.” “It kind of reminds me that they exist.” “I’m curious and I want try on a pair now.” “Back in the day Levi’s was the only brand, but recently these other ones have taken a lot of market share so this is going to hopefully help revitalize Levi’s and bring them back in the mix with the upper level jeans.” “That’s the only jean commercial I can think of right now.” Future Quantitative Research After conducting both secondary and primary qualitative research, Team Secta believes there are additional opportunities for research. The seven themes extrapolated from our focus group (fit, versatility, negative feelings towards shopping for jeans, opportunistic purchasing habits, peer influence, Levi’s being traditional, and the attitudes towards the “Go Forth” campaign) need to be researched further to gain a better understanding of consumer insights. Primary quantitative research through surveys will help refine the themes mentioned previously and help clarify any remaining informational needs, such as digital media usage patterns. By using the results of the qualitative research we conducted, we can compose an effective survey to distribute. As mentioned before in our findings, fit, versatility, and peer influence were major factors when 29
  • consumers purchased jeans. Our survey will ask participants how important these factors, amongst others, are to them. It was also stated that going to purchase jeans is not a fun experience, and consumers do not necessarily buy jeans only when they are looking for them. Quantitative research will help reveal the ideal conditions for the consumer to purchase jeans. Participants in our focus group also mentioned how they saw Levi’s as being a traditional brand of jeans. This attribute was seen as positive for Levi’s jeans. Using quantitative research will help paint a clearer picture to see whether other consumers feel the same way. According to secondary research many experts felt the “Go Forth” campaign would not resonate with the target market. The focus group contradicted this belief and thought the campaign was appealing. It should be noted that the moderator did not bring up the subject of the campaign, but rather the group participants mentioned it during a discussion of another topic. In this case quantitative research will help clarify the contradiction between secondary and primary qualitative research. Overall, quantitative research is highly recommended because it will show the best way to target 18-24 year old college students. Unlike qualitative research, the findings from quantitative research can be generalized from a random sample to a broader population which reduces the risk of incorrectly applying findings to the whole target market. Team Secta is confident that conducting this research will not only help illuminate any vague information, but also strengthen arguments found in our previous research. In essence quantitative research can 30
  • build upon the blueprint provided by previous secondary and qualitative research and offer more statistically consistent data to ensure reliable future recommendations. 31
  • Project 3: Quantitative Research
  • Introduction Team Secta has conducted secondary and primary qualitative research relating to 18-24 year old college students’ attitudes toward Levi’s and its competitors, what they desire in jeans and their digital media usage patterns. We chose to target 18-24 year old college students who are a part of the Millennial generation, which will be the largest age group by 2012 and will decide mainstream trends. Secondary research gave us an idea of Levi’s position in the jeans market. It also provided us with information on the Levi’s brand, the competitors in the jeans industry, the consumers and the macro environmental trends. Through this research, we found that consumers’ preferences in styles and cuts of jeans changed to favor premium denim. However, since Levi’s did not immediately follow this trend they fell behind in the marketplace. Primary qualitative research was the next step in our research process. We needed to conduct further research in order to gain insights into what college students desire in jeans and their attitudes toward Levi’s and its competitors. After conducting a focus group, we uncovered seven themes relating to Levi’s and the jeans industry, including the desire for fit and versatility, positive attitude toward Levi’s traditional image and opportunistic purchasing behaviors. From these themes we developed four broader meta-themes: ideal jeans, purchase environment, Levi’s image and peer influence. We learned that participants like the attributes of premium jeans, such as fit, quality, style and cut. However, they did not like the term “premium” in describing jeans due to the interpretation of the word as a more expensive designer jean. 30
  • Problem Statement Previously, Levi's jeans were most popular with older generations because of their traditional styled jeans; however, the industry trend favors more premium jeans targeting a younger market. Levi's is having a problem separating their old brand image from their new, more contemporary one. By conducting primary quantitative research, Levi's will gain a better understanding of how to target the market. Primary quantitative research is needed because there is insufficient information available on college students' attitudes towards premium jeans. By making a decision based on judgment alone, Levi's runs the risk of not effectively attracting college students. Because the college student demographic is part of the Millennial generation, which is expected to become the largest age group by 2012, the potential benefits gained by going after these consumers could have lasting significance for Levi's. The $10 million budget for Levi’s advertising campaign would be at risk if there was no research conducted to support an advertising decision. Research will need to find out what college students desire in jeans and their attitudes towards Levi's and its competitors. We will also identify the types of people they expect to wear Levi’s and competing jeans brands, in which situations they wear jeans, their digital media usage patterns, and the type of spokesperson that would best appeal to them. Research Objectives Team Secta will use quantitative research to further support and refine the themes and findings gathered in the qualitative research. By conducting research we will gain further insight into what factors drive college students, aged 18-24 years old, to buy their jeans and how consumers feel about the Levi’s brand. The first meta-theme discovered through qualitative research was the different factors that consumers looked for in their ideal pair of jeans. Through quantitative research we can 31
  • finally see the relative importance and rating of each of these factors, such as fit and versatility. By quantifying the results of our consumer’s responses, we can gain a proper ranking of what is most important to consumers when they are purchasing jeans. Another topic that can be further explored is the importance of the purchasing environment for consumers. In the qualitative research we found participants dislike shopping for jeans. Quantitative research will better specify the ideal shopping setting and what factors would improve their experience. Levi’s can use this information to understand what they can do to provide their customers with a better purchasing experience. Thirdly, we will find out who influences the consumer to buy a pair of jeans. Quantitative research will find characteristics that consumers find appealing in a jeans spokesperson. In the qualitative research certain factors, such as peer influence, were also brought up. Conducting quantitative research will allow Team Secta to better understand this and other influences on the target. Levi’s can use this information to decide the most appropriate and ideal spokesperson that will resonate with the target market. In addition, the target’s digital media usage patterns will be surveyed so that Levi’s can gain an understanding in how to most effectively communicate with the consumer. Lastly, quantitative research will specifically show current attitudes toward the Levi’s brand. While qualitative research seemed to indicate a positive view of Levi’s, these results cannot be generalized to the entire target population. Quantitative research, however, will provide results and insights that can be applied to the whole target market. Concepts of Interest From the results of the qualitative research, Team Secta uncovered four meta-themes that we used to create six concepts of interest. Gaining further understanding of these concepts of 32
  • interest will allow us to obtain the most accurate information so that it can be generalized to the entire target market. Purchasing and Shopping Experience In the qualitative research, we identified a number of factors consumers consider when purchasing jeans, including a stressful shopping experience and how sales affect their purchasing habits. Through the survey, we can measure to what extent this is true, and this will validate the previous findings on this concept. Usage of Jeans As our focus group participants stated, there are many instances in which they find it appropriate to wear jeans. The survey will provide specific data on when, where and why they wear jeans. Preferences Toward Jeans In our focus group we found that there are many factors people look for in their jeans. The five most important preferences we found are versatility, style, fit, brand name and price. Questions in the survey will find out the most important preferences to the consumer, so Levi’s can utilize this in their message. Attitude Toward Levi’s and Competitors Every consumer has specific brands that they are accustomed to buying. Previous research has identified the top competitors in the jeans industry for the 18-24 year old college market. Quantitative research will provide information on what consumers think about the brands that are currently competing with Levi’s. In relation to Levi’s, the focus group found that 33
  • consumers have a positive view of the brand, and we want to find out if this is true to the general population. Qualities of a Spokesperson In our focus group, participants gave insight into what they were looking for in a jeans spokesperson and who influenced their style. Responses generally sided toward a speaker who was relatable and most similar to the demographic, not necessarily a famous celebrity. By conducting a survey, we can generalize who the target market identifies as their biggest influence and what qualities they seek in a spokesperson for Levi’s. By doing so, Levi’s can be confident in choosing the correct person to carry the message of the brand to the target market. Digital Media Usage Patterns Previous research has not gone in depth about the target’s digital media usage patterns. Through quantitative research we will identify and quantify which mediums are most utilized by the target market. Determining this will help Levi’s find the most viable digital mediums in which to place advertising, thus effectively reaching the target consumers. Research Method Justification for Quantitative Research After completing qualitative research, Team Secta conducted quantitative research relating to what factors drive 18-24 year old college students to buy their jeans and how consumers feel about the Levi’s brand. The previous research we conducted has given us a basis to focus the quantitative research. Secondary research gave us a background through the previously available information on Levi’s. Qualitative research gave us in-depth information about consumers in relation to Levi’s that was not already available. 34
  • Conducting this form of research complements the findings from qualitative research. Quantitative research confirms the answers of the qualitative research for a larger sample. We conducted quantitative research in order to obtain exact and quantifiable answers from the broad themes found during the focus group. Quantitative research is a structured process that allows Team Secta to obtain statistically reliable and objective data. The questions in quantitative research are close-ended, which give us definite answers. Justification for Web Survey Team Secta will conduct Web surveys for quantitative research. In the surveys we will gain primary, empirical research in which the data are numerical. This is a formal, objective, systematic process in which data is utilized to obtain information about the new target market. The Web survey is the best option for this stage of the research. Personal interviews are the highest quality surveys, but they are extremely expensive and time consuming. Telephone interviews would also not be a good fit because they must consist of simple questions, and they have a high refusal rate. A mail survey is not appropriate because of the extended time the data collection takes. However, Web surveys combine elements from both personal interviews and mail surveys. A Web survey is our best option because it is very convenient for the respondent and is of low cost to us as the researchers. Though Web surveys require special programming skills, Team Secta will have access to Qualtrics, a Web survey research program. Qualtrics makes creating surveys simple and straightforward. The program also allows for complex skip patterns throughout the questionnaire. Procedure 35
  • The first step in quantitative research was to create a Web survey based on the concepts of interest. Team Secta created this survey by writing questions related to the concepts of interest and informational needs. After thinking of questions to put in the survey, we created a Web survey on Qualtrics. The survey began with the informed consent form and followed with the questionnaire and screener questions. Once the survey was put together and a link was created, we sent the link to friends over Facebook and to a professor to offer his students extra credit. The survey launched on Qualtrics on April 1st, 2010 and closed on April 7th, 2010. It took approximately 10 minutes for respondents to complete. After the survey was closed, we were left with 106 completed surveys. 93 of these were deemed usable after eliminating surveys that did not follow the screening criterion. We cannot be certain of a response rate because the survey was distributed through Facebook and a professor. Due to this, we cannot accurately measure how many people elected not to take the survey. Once we determined which surveys were usable, Team Secta analyzed the data and organized it into findings. The final report was submitted on April 19th, 2010 (refer to Appendix A.3 for a time cost table). Instruments To carry out the quantitative research, we used three tools: a pre-screener questionnaire, informed consent form and a Web survey. A pre-screener was necessary to ensure the correct people in the target market were taking the survey. It included questions about their personal information as well as whether or not they purchased jeans in the past year (refer to Appendix D.2 for the pre-screener). 36
  • An informed consent from was also included at the beginning of the survey. It stated the purpose of the survey as well as any additional information the participant would need to know. After reading the information, the user was asked to agree to all terms and conditions. Such agreements were needed from all participants before they continued the survey to ensure it was ethical (refer to Appendix E.2 for the informed consent form). The Web survey Team Secta made was used to compile crucial data to be analyzed after all the surveys were collected. The survey contained thirty-four questions and took about ten minutes to complete. Questions were categorized based on what concept of interest was being addressed. The survey went live on April 1st, 2010 and 106 surveys were collected, 93 of which were usable (refer to Appendix J for the survey questionnaire). Participants Members of Team Secta distributed a link to the survey via Facebook to fellow University of Florida students. These students are between the ages of 18 and 24 and are consistent with the qualifications of the target market. Although 106 surveys were completed, only 93 were considered usable after filtering out the surveys that did not meet the pre-screening requirements. The remaining surveys were deemed unusable due to various reasons, including non-University of Florida students and not having purchased jeans within the last year. Out of the 93 usable surveys, 32 were male and 61 were female and all have purchased jeans within the past year. The mean age of respondents was 20.3 and the median was 20. The most common age of participants was 21. Findings 37
  • Team Secta created a survey designed to address the concepts of interests on the target market, including the purchasing and shopping experience, usage of jeans, preferences toward jeans, attitudes toward Levi’s and competitors, qualities of a spokesperson, and digital media usage patterns. To analyze the findings from this survey, Team Secta conducted summary reports on the collected responses. We computed frequencies, proportions, and percentages for the nominal and ordinal questions through Qualtrics. We chose some of the nominal and ordinal questions and conducted cross tabulations to compare responses. We also computed mean, median, and mode for the interval and ratio questions through Qualtrics. These are the most advanced statistics possible for each of the types of question. It should be noted that the findings cannot be generalized to the entire 18-24 year old target market because we could not recruit a random sample for the Web survey. Purchasing and Shopping Experience In conjunction with our qualitative research, an overwhelming majority of the respondents shop for jeans in brick and mortar stores as opposed to online or in catalogs. Despite the target market’s heavy internet usage, 98% of the participants purchase jeans in store most of the time (refer to Appendix K, Q.6). When asked if they consider shopping for jeans a stressful experience, participants tend to disagree. This is contradictory to the findings in our qualitative research where most of the respondents discussed shopping for jeans as a stressful experience. After reviewing the tapes from the focus group a second time, it is possible that participants of the focus group may have expressed this sentiment due to groupthink. Additional results from the survey confirm that participants are not stressed, but instead show excitement when shopping for jeans. 38
  • In support of the findings from our qualitative research, participants express that when they go buy jeans it is the main focus of their shopping trip. However, if they are shopping for something other than jeans and a pair of jeans grabs their attention, participants state that they will sometimes try them on (refer to Appendix K, Q.20 and Q.21). Usage of Jeans We then asked participants about their jeans wearing habits. The largest percentage of respondents, at 44.09%, says that they wear jeans three to four times per week (refer to Appendix K, Q.3). 32.26% of participants currently own between five and six pairs of jeans, and of these jeans, the top three brands are American Eagle (26.15%), Levi’s (11.28%), and Lucky Brand Jeans (11.28%). These three brands alone account for 48.71% of the responses. In reference to consumers’ jean wearing habits, 32% of respondents say that they wear jeans to class and 31% say that they wear jeans when they go out at night. These are the top two situations in which the target market wears jeans. The average consumer also agrees that the jeans they wear out at night are different than the jeans they wear during the day (refer to Appendix K, Q.13). Since students go to class during the day and out at night, it can be inferred that they are wearing more than one pair of jeans per day. This is contrary to the qualitative research and shows that versatility in a pair of jeans is not one of the most important factors to the target market. Preferences Toward Jeans Team Secta broke down the five factors people look for in jeans that we identified from the qualitative research: versatility, style, fit, brand name and price. The 18-24 year old target consumer places more emphasis on quality over price. When asked if they mind paying extra for a quality pair of jeans, participants strongly agree (refer to Appendix K, Q.11). The target market does not buy the cheapest pair of jeans they can find nor do they go straight toward the sales rack 39
  • when shopping for jeans. 56.99% of respondents say that a good fit is the most important factor to them. While the mode shows that most disagree that they would sacrifice comfort for style, the mean of the data indicates that if the jeans look good on the consumer, they do not necessarily have to be the most comfortable (refer to Appendix K, Q.17). Participants ranked the five factors they look for in jeans, which we established in qualitative research, in order from most important to least important. Out of the 93 respondents, 53 ranked fit as their most important preference. Style was next at 39 respondents choosing it as their second most important factor. Price followed with 36 respondents ranking it as their third most important preference, versatility with 38 respondents as their fourth preference, and finally brand name with 41 respondents ranking it as their least important preference (refer to Appendix K, Q.15). In the open-ended question regarding their ideal pair of jeans, the majority of respondents talked about fit and/or comfort. We asked the respondents about what factors would deter them from repurchasing a brand of jeans. The top three factors are that they tear, shrink in the wash, and are scratchy. These findings are significant to Levi’s because the 501 Original Shrink to Fit jeans shrink in the wash. Therefore, this may not be one of the appropriate series of jeans to target toward the 18-24 year old college consumer. The average consumer has a neutral attitude toward wearing designer jeans. However, when comparing this to the responses of the statement “if a pair of jeans looks good on me they do not necessarily have to be the most comfortable”, those who agreed had a preference to wear designer jeans, whereas those who disagreed with the statement had no preference based on the recorded means (refer to Appendix K, Q.7 and Q.17). We conducted a Z test to determine if the difference of opinion was statistically significant or if it was due to chance. Since the sample size was greater than 30 participants, we conducted a Z test rather than a t test. After conducting the 40
  • test to see if these two perceptions were statistically different, we found a p-value of .0153, which is less than the .05 level of significance (refer to Appendix K, Q.7 and Q.17 Z test). Therefore, we can reject the null hypothesis that there is no statistical significance between preference to wear designer jeans and preference to wear jeans that look good on the consumer in exchange for comfort. We can conclude there is a statistical difference between these two groups’ opinions. This is important to Levi’s because those who disagree with the statement “if my jeans look good on me, they do not necessarily have to be the most comfortable” do not prefer to wear designer jeans. This compliments the other findings in the quantitative research that comfort and fit are important factors to the participants. Attitudes Toward Levi’s and Competitors To gain an understanding of consumers’ attitudes toward various brands, we asked questions about the top competitors in the jeans industry that were identified through the focus group. These key players include Levi’s, Wrangler, The Gap, Lucky Brand Jeans, Diesel and American Eagle. The results indicated that the most positive attitudes are toward Lucky Brand Jeans, American Eagle, and Levi’s, respectively (refer to Appendix K, Q.18). Team Secta determined which brands the target consumer currently identifies themselves with. According to the results, the participants associate themselves with American Eagle (31%), Lucky Brand Jeans (27%), The Gap (17%) and Levi’s (16%). When analyzing more in depth, consumers perceive Levi’s as being a more traditional and a mid-priced to inexpensive jean. This is consistent with the findings from the focus group where participants believed Levi’s to be a traditional brand, and it is important to note that the word traditional was viewed in a positive manner during the qualitative research. Using this same criterion, participants viewed Lucky Brand Jeans as more expensive and stylish. 41
  • Respondents thought of Wrangler as a more unstylish, traditional and inexpensive brand (refer to Appendix K, Q.24, Q.25 and Q.26). Qualities of a Spokesperson Through the qualitative research, Team Secta uncovered that the participant’s style is not strongly influenced by celebrities. In the survey, 73% of the respondents feel their style is most influenced by friends and 58% are influenced by other people who are like them. When cross atabulated by gender, there is little difference between males and females on this viewpoint (refer to Appendix K, Q.27 and Q.38 Cross Tabulation). This correlates with the fact that out of the four spokesperson characteristics, “relatable” scored the highest. These results match the comments of our focus group members who stated that they were more influenced by someone who was similar to themselves than by celebrities. However, when asked which celebrities they identified themselves with, respondents of the survey preferred Ryan Reynolds and Meagan Fox who are considered physically attractive. Digital Media Usage Patterns In order to determine where to best advertise, we asked participants how much time they spend per week using different media, including surfing the Web, watching television, reading newspapers/magazines, using social media and listening to the radio. Surfing the Web accounts for the longest time spent per week and social media ranked second. However, 82 out of the 89 responses included Facebook as one of the Web sites they most frequently visit. This contradicts their social media usage patterns, therefore, it should be noted that participants may not fully understand the definition of social media. Watching television ranked next followed by listening to the radio and reading newspapers/magazines, respectively. The highest of the most frequently visited Web sites include Facebook, Google and Twitter. Music Web sites such as Pandora, 42
  • Grooveshark and FratMusic, are also popularly mentioned in the open-ended question. The most watched TV networks are MTV, Fox, ABC and ESPN. Concerning newspapers, 57 out of the 89 responses show that they read The Independent Florida Alligator and 10 out of 89 responses show that they read the New York Times (refer to Appendix K, Q.30). Research Conclusions Team Secta used secondary, qualitative, and quantitative research to determine the important factors that Levi’s should take into consideration to better position their brand image to their consumers. Secondary research revealed that premium jeans are considered the newest trend in the market. Levi’s, however, delayed in pursuing this trend; therefore, the competition was able to capture a greater market share. Research also revealed that the Millennial generation, ranging from 14 years old to 31 years old, will become the largest age group in the United States by 2012. This group will also define what is mainstream; therefore, Team Secta determined it would be best for Levi’s to target 18-24 year old college students at the University of Florida because they fit within this growing demographic and Levi’s is within the growing jeans industry. Qualitative research was needed to find out how to best pursue this target market. After conducting qualitative research through a focus group, we gained insight into the motivations and attitudes of the target market. Seven major themes were uncovered: the desire for fit and versatility, negative feelings towards shopping for jeans, opportunistic purchasing habits, peer influence, Levi’s being traditional, and attitudes toward the “Go Forth” campaign. From these themes, we created four broader meta-themes: ideal jeans, purchase environment, 43
  • Levi’s image and peer influence. Though they liked the characteristics of premium jeans, such as fit, quality, style, and cut, the focus group had negative perceptions of the word “premium”. Instead, they thought it only referred to expensive, designer brand jeans. Additional information needed to be gathered through quantitative research to refine these themes and to clarify the remaining informational needs. A survey was conducted to provide statistically reliable data pertaining to the concepts of interest that were developed from the meta-themes. Quantitative research showed that consumers did not consider buying jeans a stressful experience. The top three brands the participants owned were American Eagle, followed by a tie between Levi’s and Lucky Brand Jeans. Participants showed that they wear jeans to class and out at night most often, but wear different styles of jeans in each situation. We found that consumers preferred quality over low prices. Overall, fit is the most important factor they consider when purchasing jeans. One of the major factors that would deter consumers from repurchasing the same brand of jeans is if the jeans shrank in the wash. Preference toward designer jeans depends on the willingness of the respondents to sacrifice comfort for style. Out of the top players that we identified in the jeans industry, participants have the most positive attitudes toward Lucky Brand Jeans, American Eagle, and Levi’s, respectively. Participants think of Levi’s as a more traditional brand that carries midpriced to inexpensive jeans. It should be noted that being traditional was seen as a positive during our qualitative research. The respondent’s style is most influenced by their friends and those who are similar to them as opposed to celebrities. They also want a jeans spokesperson to be relatable. Team Secta found that participants use the Internet and social media most often, with Facebook, Google, Twitter, and music Web sites being the most frequently visited. Television is another medium that the target market uses frequently, watching MTV, Fox, ABC 44
  • and ESPN most often. Although they do not read newspapers as frequently as other mediums, a larger percentage read The Independent Florida Alligator. Based on this analysis, Levi’s needs to implement an advertising strategy that will regain the market share it has lost to its competitors. Levi’s advertising should avoid positioning itself as a designer jean because the target does not prefer to wear designer jeans. Instead, the message in the advertising should concentrate on the fact that the consumers will be able to find a pair of jeans that offers them the perfect fit. While everyone has a different definition of what constitutes a perfect fit, consumers will be able to find it through the many styles and cuts of jeans that Levi’s offers. Because the participants appreciate the fact that Levi’s is a traditional brand, advertising should not ignore or omit this characteristic. Instead, Levi’s needs to embrace their roots, but relate them to a contemporary setting. To supplement this message, Levi’s needs to choose the correct spokesperson for their advertising. Research indicated that friends and people they consider similar to themselves influence the target over celebrities. Also, the target market feels it is most important, out of the four choices given to them, for a jeans spokesperson to be relatable. Based on these conclusions, the advertising should showcase ordinary people who are considered similar to the target market group. In addition to utilizing traditional media, Levi’s needs to increase their presence digitally. The target market spends the most time on the Internet and nearly all of the respondents stated Facebook as being their most frequently visited Web site; therefore, Team Secta recommends that Levi’s use Facebook to complement their campaign. Also, we strongly recommend that Levi’s increase their efforts on Twitter to reach their consumer. Lastly, to target University of Florida students Levi’s should advertise in The Independent Florida Alligator. Research 45
  • participants stated that this is the news publication they read most often. Also, this newspaper is highly focused toward the target market. By using these strategies, Levi’s will solve their image problem by evolving their old image to modern times. It will appeal to the target market by being seen as a jeans company that not only makes products with their consumers’ preferences in mind, but also has a rich and unique history that other jeans companies cannot claim. They will then be ready to surpass the competition and reestablish themselves as the leader in the jeans industry. They will appeal to the target market through their new positioning, which is: “To 18-24 year old college students at the University of Florida who want a pair of jeans tailored toward them, Levi’s offers the perfect fitting pair of jeans at the highest quality due to a wide selection that appeals to your individualized style. Levi’s is a genuine, relatable, and iconic brand.” 46
  • Bibliography Abercrombie & Fitch. Web. 01 Mar. 2010. <http://www.abercrombie.com>. American Eagle Outfitters. Web. 01 Mar. 2010. <http://www.ae.com/>. “American Lifestyles-US.” Mintel. Jan. 2010. Web. 30 Jan. 2010. “Apparel.” Gale Group. 2008. Web. 24 Jan. 2010. “Apparel Manufacture.” First Research. 11 Jan. 2010. Web. 24 Jan. 2010. Beatty, Sally. “Levi Strauss Sells Low-Cost Jeans To Target in Bid to Increase Sales.” Wall Street Journal. 4 Dec. 2003, Eastern ed. ProQuest. Web. 9 Feb. 2010. Calvin Klein. Web. 01 Mar. 2010. <http://www.calvinklein.com/>. Colbert, Catherine. “Levi Strauss & Co.” Hoovers. 2009. Web. 23 Jan. 2010. “Determination of the December 2007 Peak in Economic Activity.” NBER.org. 11 Dec. 2008. Web. 25 Jan. 2010. <http://www.nber.org/cycles/dec2008.html>. Diesel. Web. 01 Mar. 2010. <http://www.diesel.com/>. DKNY. Web. 01 Mar. 2010. <http://www.dkny.com/>. Ecko Unlimited. Web. 01 Mar. 2010. <http://www.eckounltd.com/>. “Gap, Inc. Overview.” Marketline. 25 Sept. 2009. Web. 24 Jan. 2010. Garfield, Bob. “Levi's Target Unlikely to ‘Go Forth’ and Buy Its Jeans.” Advertising Age. 6 July 2009. Web. 2 Feb. 2010. <http://adage.com/garfield/post?article_id=137733>. “Green Marketing-US.” Mintel. May 2008. Web. 27 Jan. 2010. Guess. Web. 28 Feb. 2010. <http://www.guess.com/>. “Home and Family.” SMRB. Nielsen, Fall 2008. Web. 25 Jan. 2010. <http://www.smrb.com/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=6609e702-dcbb-46f4-8c65ac4dca30c6e4&groupId=10125>. 47
  • “How Levi Strauss Rekindled the Allure of Brand America.” World Trade. 1 Mar. 2005: ABI/INFORM Global, ProQuest. Web. 9 Feb. 2010. “Jeans-US.” Mintel. Mar. 2008. Web. 27 Jan. 2010. Levi's Jeans. Web. 28 Feb. 2010. <http://www.levi.com>. Levi Strauss & Co. 2009. Web. 22 Jan. 2010. <http://www.levistrauss.com>. “Levi Strauss & Co. Overview.” Marketline. 13 Mar. 2009. Web. 2 Feb. 2010. <http://www.marketlineinfo.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/library/DisplayContent.aspx?N= 4294836099>. “Levi Strauss; Levi's to Open Largest Store in Times Square.” Entertainment & Travel 26 May 2008: ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry, ProQuest. Web. 5 Feb. 2010. Levi.com: The Official Levi's. 2009. Web. 28 June 2010. <http://us.levi.com/home/index.jsp>. Lucky Brand Jeans. Web. 28 Feb. 2010. <http://www.luckybrand.com/>. “Men’s & Boys’ Apparel Manufacturing in the US- Industry Report.” IBISWorld. ProQuest, 19 Jan. 2010. Web. 25 Jan. 2010. <http://www.ibisworld.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/industry/marketcharacteristics.aspx?in did=342>. “Menswear in the United States: Industry Profile.” Datamonitor. One Source, Sept. 2009. Web. 24 Jan. 2010. Michael Cheng's Mobile Uploads. Web. 28 Feb. 2010. <http://www.facebook.com/home.php? #!/photo.php?pid=30862065&id=1107360086>. Mossimo. Web. 28 Feb. 2010. <http://www.mossimo.com/>. 48
  • “News Roundup: Wal-Mart Brushes Up Faded Glory Label with Web Debut.” Brandweek (2009). AllBusiness.com. 17 Sept. 2001. Web. 9 Feb. 2010. <http://www.allbusiness.com/marketing-advertising/branding-brand-development/46706941.html>. Old Navy. Web. 28 Feb. 2010. <http://www.oldnavy.com>. “Pop Cultures.” SMRB. Nielsen, Fall 2008. Web. 25 Jan. 2010. <http://www.smrb.com/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=c950f224-9954-4afd-b3350ce6c0dd2a1b&groupId=10125>. Qualtrics Survey Software. Web. 14 Apr. 2010. <http://www.qualtrics.com/>. Ralph Lauren. Web. 28 Feb. 2010. <http://www.ralphlauren.com/>. Stevenson, Seth. “Walt Whitman Thinks You Need New Jeans.” Slate Magazine. 26 Oct. 2009. Web. 22 Jan. 2010. <http://www.slate.com/id/2233597/>. The Gap. 2010. Web. 22 Jan. 2010. <http://www.gap.com>. “The Jeans Genie.” LexisNexis. 19 Aug. 2009. Web. 27 Jan. 2010. Tommy Hilfiger. Web. 28 Feb. 2010. <http://www.tommy.com/>. “VF Corporation Overview.” Marketline. 22 May 2009. Web. 25 Jan. 2010. “Womenswear in the United States: Industry Profile.” Datamonitor. One Source, Sept. 2009. Web. 24 Jan. 2010. Wrangler. 2009. Web. 25 Jan. 2010. <www.wrangler.com>. 49
  • Appendix A: Time Cost Tables A.1 Secondary Research A c t ivit ie s P e rs o n J a n u a ry F e b ru a ry C o s t5 6 7 8 9 1 01 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 92 02 12 22 32 42 52 62 72 82 93 03 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 01 1 1 T e a m B u ild in g 6 2 D e c is io n o n t e a m n a m e 6 3 C o m p le t i n g t e a m i n fo fo r m 6 4 C o l l e c t i n g t e a m m e m b e r s c h e d u l e s6 5 B r a i n s t o r m i n g o n p o t e n t i a l p r o je c t b r a n d s 6 6 S u b m i t t i n g t e a m i n fo fo r m 6 7 P r o je c t 1 P la n n in g 6 8 R e vie w in g p r o je c t in s t ru c t io n s 6 9 A s s ig n m e n t o f t a s k s 6 1 0 D is c u s s io n o f d u e d a t e s 6 1 1In d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h fo r s i t u a t i o n a l a n a l y6s is 1 2F i r s t d r a ft o f s i t u a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s 6 1 3C o m p l i n g b i b l i o g r a p h y 6 1 4T e a m d i s c u s s i o n 6 1 5 Id e n t i fy i n g k e y S W O T s 6 1 6 B r a i n s t o r m i n g o n b r a n d 's p r o b l e m s 6 & o p p o r t u n i t i e s 1 7 Id e n t i fy i n g r e s e a r c h o p p o r t u n i t ie s 6 1 8 B r a i n s t o r m i n g o n e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n 6t s o f p r o b l e m s t a t e m e n t 1 9F i r s t d r a ft o f: 6 2 0 S W O T a n a ly s is 6 2 1 P r o b lm e s & o p p o r t u n i t i e s 6 2 2 P r o b le m s t a t e m e n t 6 2 3T e a m d i s c u s s i o n 6 2 4 R e v i e w i n g a l l s e c t i o n s o f t h e r e p o r t6 2 5 Id e n t i fy i n g a n y n e e d s fo r r e v i s i o n 6 2 6S e c o n d d r a ft o f t h e r e p o r t 6 2 7E d i t in g & fo r m a t t i n g t h e r e p o r t 6 2 8T e a m d i s c u s s i o n 6 2 9 P r e p a r i n g fo r p r e s e n t a t i o n 2 3 0 B ra in s t o rm in g o n k e y a n a ly s e s t o p re s e n t 6 3 1D e s in i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n s l i d e s & a n y h a 3 d o u t s n 3 2T e a m d i s c u s s i o n 6 3 3 R e vie w in g p r e s e n t a t io n s lid e s 6 3 4 P r a c t i c i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n r u n - t h r o u g h2s 3 5S u b m i t t h e r e p o r t a n d p r e s e n t a t i o n s l i d e s t o E - L e a r n i n g 1 3 6S u b m i t t h e r e p o r t a n d p r e s e n t a t i o n s l i d e s i n t h e c l a s s 1 3 7In - c l a s s p r e s e n t a t i o n 2 50
  • A.2 Qualitative Research A c tivities 1 R ec eive P rojec t A s s ignm ent 2 R eview ed P rojec t G uidelines in C las s 3 R eview R evis ions of S ec ondary R es earc h 4 A s s ign parts of M oderat or G uide & M aterials 5 W ork on Individual P ortions & S ec . R evis ions 6 M eeting 1 7 D is c us s ion of Due D ates 8 B rains torm M oderator Q ues tions 9 D is c us s ion of F oc us G roup Ideas 10 W rote our Introduc tion and P roblem S t at em ent 11 B rains torm ing/ W rote R es earc h O bjec tives 12 M eeting 2 13 D eterm ine F oc us G roup P roc edures 14 W rote out the M oderator G uide 15 C hos e M oderator 16 M eeting 3 17 R eview ed M oderator G uide 18 C om piled F oc us G roup C ons ent F orm 19 C om piled P re-S c reener 20 P as s ed our P re-S c reeners 21 C alled F oc us G roup P artic ipants 22 P repared M aterials for the F oc us G roup 23 H eld our foc us group 24 M eeting 4 25 D is c us s ion of F oc us G roups and Them es 26 Trans c ribed F oc us G roup D ialogue 27 A s s ign R em aining P arts of P rojec t 28 Individual W ork on S pec ific P arts 29 M eeting 5 30 W rite Res earc h M ethod Content 31 S olidify Them es 32 C om pile Individual P arts 33 B egin F orm att ing 34 F uture Q uantative R es earc h D is c us s ion 35 W ork on A ppendix 36 E dit ing of entire report 37 W ork on P owerpoint P res entation 38 M eeting 6 39 P rac tic e P res entation 40 F inal Revis ions of P rojec t 41 F inal Relevanc e of A ppendix 42 S ubm it P ow erpoint S lides on E learning 43 P rint R eport 44 P res entation 45 R eport S ubm is s ion P ers on F ebruary M arc h C os t 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 1 2 3 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 6 6 1 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 6 6 2 6 3 3 2 6 2 6 6 1 1 2 1 51
  • A.3 Quantitative Research A c t ivitie s P e rs o n M a rc h C o s 5t 6 7 8 9 1 01 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 92 02 12 22 32 42 52 62 72 82 93 03 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 01 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 92 0 1T e a m M e e ti n g # 1 6 2 A s s i g n S p e c i f i c T a s k s6 3D e t e rm in e Q u a n t itive S u rve y M e t h o d 6 4 S e t u p m i n i - d e a d l i n e s 6a n d g o a l s 5T e a m M e e ti n g # 2 6 6 G o t t r a i n e d i n Q u a l t r i c 6s 7 D e v e l o p e d I n t r o d u c t i o n2 8 M o d i f i e d P r o b l e m S t a t2e m e n t 9 D e l i n i a t e d R e s e a r c h O2 b j e c t i v e s 1 0E x p l a i n e d o u r c o n c e p t6 s o f i n t e r e s t 1 1T e a m M e e t i n g # 3 6 1 2B r a i n s t o r m e d s u r v e y q6 u e s t i o n s 1 3S e t u p Q u a l t r i c s T e a m 1 S e c t a A c c o u n t 1 4T e a m M e e t i n g # 4 6 1 5F i n a l i z e d s u r v e y q u e s t6 i o n s 1 6C a t e g o r i z e d s u r v e y q u 1e s t i o n s 1 7C r e a t e d i n f o r m c o n s e n1 t fo r m 1 8T e a m M e e t i n g # 5 6 1 9D e v e l o p e d p r e - s c r e e n i2n g c r i t e r i a 2 0D e v e l o p e d w e b s u r v e y 2 2 1D i s t r i b u t i o n o f s u r v e y 6 2 2T e a m M e e t i n g # 6 6 2 3C h e c k e d b a c k o n s u r v1e y r e s p o n s e s 2 4W r o t e R e s e a r c h M e t h 2o d 2 5T e a m M e e t i n g # 7 6 2 6A n a l y z e d a n d d i s c u s s 6e d t h e r e s u l t s 2 7C o n d u c t e d s t a t i s t i c a l 6a n a l y s i s 2 8G e n e r a t i n g g r a p h s a n d3 t a b l e s 2 9C o n d u c t s p e c i fi c f i n d i n6 g s 3 0T e a m M e e t i n g # 8 6 3 1D i s c u s s e d p r e s e n t a t i o2 n g u i d e l i n e s 3 2P u t t o g e t h e r p r e s e n t a t2 i o n 3 3R e v i s e a n d e d i t r e p o r t 6 3 4S u b m i t r e p o r t 1 3 5P r e s e n t t o c l a s s 2 52 A p ril
  • Appendix B: Comparison of Competition 53
  • Appendix C: Comparison of Media Spent 2006 2007 $ Millions $ Millions Levi Strauss & Company* 1,345 1,387 VF Corporation* 1,874 2,173 *These figures represent advertising and marketing spent for the entire corporation. This does not represent individual brands owned by the company. 54
  • Appendix D: Pre-Screeners D.1 Qualitative Research Screener Pre-Screen – Focus Group We are students who attend the University of Florida, and we are looking for students to participate in a focus group about jeans wardrobe. The focus group will last for approximately an hour. We acknowledge that time is of the essence and will provide pizza to all the participants. Before we conduct our focus group, we need additional information from you, our potential participants. Name: ____________________________________ Major: _____________________________ 1. Are you a student at UF? _____ Yes 2. Are you 18-24 years old? _____ Yes _____No _____No 3. What is your gender? _____ Male _____Female 4. Do you own a pair of jeans? _____ Yes _____No 5. Have you bought jeans within the past year? _____ Yes _____No 6. On average, how many times a week do you wear jeans? _____ 7. Circle which brands of jeans you currently own. Wrangler Lucky Faded Glory Abercrombie & Fitch Gap Diesel DKNY American Eagle Levi’s Other:_______________ 8. Do you feel comfortable being recorded during the focus group session? _____ Yes _____No Our focus group session will take place on Tuesday, February 23rd at 7:00 pm in Weimer ______ If your schedule allows you to participate in our focus group session, please fill out the following. Phone #: (____)______-_________ Email Address: __________________________________ 55
  • D.2 Quantitative Research Screener Thank you for participating in our survey. We need you to answer the following questions in order to acquire some basic demographic information. 1. How old are you? _______ 2. What is your gender? a. Male b. Female 3. Do you attend the University of Florida? a. Yes b. No 4. Have you purchased jeans in the last year? a. Yes b. No 5. (Open-Ended) For extra credit purposes, please provide us with your name and UF Student ID. ___________________________________ 56
  • Appendix E: Informed Consent Forms E.1 Qualitative Research Purpose of this Study The purpose of this study is to gain insights into perceptions, lifestyles and attitudes of male and female college students, age 18-24, toward jeans brands. Expectations of Study Participants Participants in this study will be asked to engage in a focus group to discuss various aspects of their lifestyle, as well as their opinions and knowledge of jeans brands. The focus group will consist of eight to twelve participants led by one moderator. It will be audio taped and will last between forty-five and ninety minutes. Potential Risks There is not any health or stress related potential risks involved in this study. If any participant feels uncomfortable during any time in the study, the participant is free to leave at any time, with no penalty. Compensation and Benefits This study does not provide its participants with compensation. Involvement is voluntary. Refreshments will be available. Confidentiality All information collected during the session will be available to only the moderator and Team Secta. No statement made during the session will be linked to an individual participant. Participants are free to leave at any time during the study for any reason. Questions/Contact Information If you have any questions or comments regarding the focus group session, contact Dr. Hyojin Kim in the Advertising Department of the University of Florida. Her office is located in Weimer 2093 and you may contact her by telephone at (352) 392-0675 or by e-mail at hkim@jou.ufl.edu. Agreement I have read and understand all of the above information and agree to participate in the focus group study. I understand that my participation is completely voluntary. Signature: _______________________________________________ Date:_________________ 57
  • E.2 Quantitative Research Purpose of this Study The purpose of this study is to gain insights into perceptions, lifestyles and attitudes of male and female college students, age 18-24, toward jeans brands. Expectations of Study Participants Participants in this study will be asked to engage in a web survey to discuss various aspects of their lifestyle, as well as their opinions and knowledge of jeans brands. This web survey will consist of fifty-sixty participants. Potential Risks There is not any health or stress related potential risks involved in this study. If any participant feels uncomfortable during any time in the study, the participant is free to stop the survey at any time, with no penalty. Compensation and Benefits This study does not provide its participants with compensation. Involvement is voluntary. Extracredit may apply depending on your professor. Confidentiality All information collected during the session will be available to only Team Secta. No statement made during the session will be linked to an individual participant. Participants are free to stop at any time during the study for any reason. Questions/Contact Information If you have any questions or comments regarding the web survey session, contact Dr. Hyojin Kim in the Advertising Department of the University of Florida. Her office is located in Weimer 2093 and you may contact her by telephone at (352) 392-0675 or by e-mail at hkim@jou.ufl.edu. Agreement I have read and understand all of the above information and agree to participate in the focus group study. I understand that my participation is completely voluntary. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE 58
  • Appendix F: Moderator Guide Objectives and Informational Needs The main purpose of our qualitative research is to find out what college students desire in jeans and their attitude toward Levi’s and its competitors. We will also identify the type of person that our target expects to wear Levi’s and their competitors’ jeans, in which situations they wear jeans, and their digital media usage patterns. By conducting this research we will be able to appropriately target Levi’s jeans toward this younger demographic and better position the brand in the minds of this consumer. We will also try to specify what type of spokesperson would be attractive to this target market. By finding out specific media usage patterns of the participants we will be able to determine which mediums will best reach these consumers. Moderator Guidelines 1. Welcome the participants to the focus group and introduce yourself. 2. Make sure that they have filled out the pre-screener and sign the informed consent form. 3. Let the participants know that they can leave the focus group at any time and if they have any questions about the focus group they can contact Dr. Kim at hkim@jou.ufl.edu. 4. Use the moderator guide to lead the focus group and be prepared to ask additional questions when needed. 5. Remain unbiased in your body language and responses to participants’ answers. 6. Encourage everybody to actively participate in the discussion and try not to leave anybody out. 7. Make sure everyone feels comfortable within the group and that no one person leads the conversation. 8. Don’t approve or disapprove of any statements made by participants, respond with neutral statements. 9. Be sure to hand out visuals or direct the participant’s attention to the projector screen for specified questions. 10. Try to keep focus group discussion under 90 minutes. Discussion Guide Introduction Hello, my name is Jamie Daigle and thank you for taking the time to participate in our focus group. This discussion is part of our primary research for our advertising research class. I will be your moderator for this focus group and the other members of my team will be sitting in on this discussion. If you have any questions you can contact Dr. Kim at hkim@jou.ufl.edu. Purpose 59
  • The purpose of this study is to gain insights into the lifestyles, attitudes and perceptions of 18-24 year old college students on different brands of jeans, and you have been chosen to participate because you all fit this demographic. Discussion Rules Throughout this discussion, I will be asking you questions about the jeans industry. Please feel free to speak openly about your opinions and feel free to ask me to clarify any questions that may be unclear. Keep in mind that there are no right or wrong answers to these questions. This research is purely for educational purposes; we are trying to gain insights into your motivations, lifestyles and attitudes toward this industry. We will record this discussion in order to accurately report your responses. Please do not talk over one another and be courteous to the other participants. Everything said in this group is confidential and if you feel uncomfortable at anytime then please feel free to step out. I will try my best to keep us on track and within the specified time limit and I will inform you when the discussion has concluded. Ice Breaker Let’s go around the room and say your name and major. Then tell us what power you would have if you were a superhero and why. Media Usage 1. (Direct/Factual) What social networking sites do you use? On average, how many hours per week do you use them? 2. (Direct/Factual) Other than social networking sites, which Web sites do you visit most often? How often do you visit them? 3. (Direct/Factual) What time of the day do you typically watch TV? 4. (Direct/Factual) What magazines do you read? How often do you read them? 5. (Hypothetical) Imagine you see an ad for a pair of jeans and you now want to buy them. Where did you see this advertisement? What about it made you want to buy the jeans? 6. (Third Person) In our last focus group, participants said that they learned about jeans through Internet advertising. What are your thoughts? 60
  • 7. (Cartoon Test) Present the participants with an image of two people watching a commercial on TV. The first one says “Hey, I really liked that jeans commercial!” The other one responds with “Me too. I liked it because…” Fill in what you think the person liked about the jeans commercial. (Image will be on a PowerPoint) Consumer 8. (Direct/Factual) Who influences your style? 61
  • 9. (Structural) How do you know what types of jeans your peers are wearing? 10. (Role Playing) Why do you think that college students feel pressured to wear the same fashions as their friends? 11. (Grand Tour) Tell me about your most recent jeans purchase, starting with when you decided that you needed a pair of jeans and continue through your post purchase feelings. Describe what you were feeling and thinking during the process. a. Probing: Price? Fit? Style? Etc. 12. (Hypothetical) Imagine that you are talking to the head designer of a new jeans company targeting you and your peers. What suggestions would you have for him/her in designing the jeans? 13. (Shopping List) Consumer A − − − − − Consumer B − − − − − Premium gas Flip flops Levi’s jeans Retro sunglasses DVD movie Premium gas Flip flops Abercrombie & Fitch jeans Retro sunglasses DVD movie 14. (Collage) Make a collage. Why did you arrange the pictures the way you did? Usage Patterns 15. (Direct/Factual) In which settings do you wear jeans? a. Probing: In which situations is it inappropriate to wear jeans? 16. (Contrast) What are the differences between a pair of jeans that you wear during the day and a pair of jeans that you wear on an evening out? 62
  • Purchasing Behavior 17. (Picture Projection) Michael’s drawing of two people buying jeans. Describe the dialogue that you think is occurring in this scene. (Image will be on PowerPoint) 18. (Direct/Factual) Why do you buy new jeans? 19. (Structural) What are the different factors you consider when buying jeans? (Third Person) 20. (Third Person) In a previous focus group, some of the participants strongly emphasized that they only buy jeans when they are on sale. Do you agree with this opinion? How important is it to you to buy jeans that are on sale? 63
  • 21. (Direct/Factual) Do you prefer purchasing jeans online or in traditional brick and mortar locations and why? Industry 22. (Word Association) What comes to mind when I say premium jeans? 23. (Picture Sort) Sort these different styles of jeans into categories. Why did you categorize them this way? (Pass out pictures) a. Probing: Which category do you like the best? Which aspects do you like best about it? Female 1: Perfect Waist 525 Female 2: Styled Slim Flare Female 3: Perfectly Slimming Boot Cut 512 Female 4: Low Skinny 531 1 2 3 4 Female 5: Mariner Pant Female 6: Tilted Flare 542 Female 7: Defined Waist Boot Cut 580 Female 8: Capital E 501 5 6 7 8 Male 1: Comfort Fit 560 Male 2: Original 501 Male 3: Super Skinny 510 Male 4: 501 Chipped Ridge 64
  • 1 2 3 4 Male 5: Relaxed Boot Cut 527 Male 6: Boot Cut 517 8 Male 7: 514 Slim Straight Male 8: Fenom 505 5 6 7 Brand Perceptions 24. (Picture Sort) Sort these jeans logos into different categories. Why did you categorize them this way? Be sure to only think about their lines of jeans when answering the question. (Pass out pictures) 65
  • 25. (Personification/Anthropomorphism) If Diesel was a celebrity, who would it be? a. Probing: (Personification/Anthropomorphism) If (most popular brand mentioned) was a celebrity, who would it be? b. Probing: (Personification/Anthropomorphism) If The Gap’s was a celebrity, who would it be? 26. (Sentence/Story Completion) People that wear Lucky jeans are __________. a. Probing: (Sentence/Story Completion) People that wear Levi’s jeans are __________. b. Probing: (Sentence/Story Completion) People that wear Wrangler jeans are __________. c. Probing: (Sentence/Story Completion) People that wear (most popular brand) jeans are __________. 27. (Word Association) Among jeans, what brands do you associate with each of the follow words: Stylish? Casual? Inexpensive? Expensive? Vintage? Traditional? Trendy? 28. (Contrast) What qualities have opposite characteristics of Faded Glory? Is there a brand that you think matches this? 66
  • 29. (Idealization) Describe your ideal pair of jeans. How does this compare to Levi’s? To Wrangler? To Gap? Conclusion Is there anything that anybody would like to add before we end the session? This concludes our focus group. Thank you taking the time to participate in this discussion, and please leave your envelopes on the desk for my teammates to pick up. 67
  • Appendix G: Participant Jean Categories Participant #1(Female) Participant #2 (Female) Liked (1, 2, 4, 6) Liked (1, 4, 6) Horrible (3, 5, 7, 8) Disliked (2, 3, 5, 7, 8) Participant #3 (Female) Participant #4 (Female) Would go looking for (4, 6) Would try on (4, 6, 8) 68
  • Would try on (1, 2, 3) Maybe try on (1, 3) Never wear (5, 7, 8) Wouldn’t wear (2, 5, 7) Participant #5 (Female) Participant #6 (Male) Liked (1, 2, 4, 6) Liked (1, 3, 5, 7) 69
  • Horrible (3, 5, 7, 8) Disliked (2, 4, 6, 8) Participant #7 (Male) Participant #8 (Male) Liked (3, 6, 8) Probably get (6, 7, 8) Agricultural (1, 5, 7) Never get (1, 2, 5) Didn’t like (2. 4) Tight (3, 4) 70
  • Participant #9 (Male) Participant #10 (Male) Liked (3, 4, 6, 8) Casual lighter (1, 5) Liked, but too worn out (7) Casual dark (6, 8) Guess they would wear them (5) Less casual lighter (7) 71
  • Agricultural (1) Less casual darker (2, 3, 4) Riff Raff (2) 72
  • Appendix H: Participant Brand Categories Participant #1 Jeans they would wear Jeans they would not wear Participant #2 Always wear Probably would wear 73
  • Know styles, but would never wear Participant #3 Go to their store Rugged 74
  • Go to department store Not familiar with brand Participant #4 Expensive Moderately priced 75
  • Cheaper Participant #5 Ones that fit Would not wear Unsure if they fit 76
  • Don’t fit Participant #6 All-purpose jeans, classy and good price Trying too hard to reach consumers and expensive 77
  • Classy, splurge Don’t like them in general Participant #7 Preppy old people Not familiar with brand Crazy and fancy 78
  • Young and trendy All American Edgy Simple 79
  • Participant #8 Would try on and consider Chill jeans Horseback riding jeans Favorites 80
  • Participant #9 Would wear Would not wear Not familiar with brand 81
  • Participant #10 Like brand and wear them Bad quality No experience with brand 82
  • Appendix I: Cognitive Map 83
  • Appendix J: Survey Questionnaire The following questions relate to your purchasing decisions on jeans. 1. (Nominal/Dichotomous) Have you purchased jeans in the last year? c. Yes (1) d. No (2) 2. (Nominal/Multiple Choice) How often do you wear jeans? a. 1-2 times a week (1) b. 3-4 times a week (2) c. More than 5 times a week (3) 3. (Nominal/Multiple Choice) How many pairs of jeans do you currently own? a. 1-2 (1) b. 3-4 (2) c. 5-6 (3) d. 7-8 (4) e. 9-10 (5) f. 11+ (6) 4. (Nominal/Checklist) Which brands of jeans do you currently own? (Select all that apply by holding the CTRL key as you click your responses.) Unchecked 0, Checked 1. a. Lucky ______ b. Levi’s ______ c. Faded Glory ______ d. Diesel ______ e. Wrangler ______ f. Abercrombie & Fitch ______ g. DKNY ______ h. American Eagle ______ i. Other ______ 5. (Nominal/Multiple Choice) Where do you purchase jeans most often? a. Catalog (1) b. In Store (2) c. Online (3) 6. (Interval/Likert) I prefer to wear designer jeans. ___________ ___________ ___________ Strongly Disagree Neutral Disagree ___________ ___________ Agree Strongly Agree 84
  • (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 7. (Interval/Itemized Rating Scale) I consider shopping for jeans a stressful experience. ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ Strongly Disagree Agree Strongly Disagree Agree (1) (2) (3) (4) 8. (Interval/Itemized Rating Scale) I go straight to the sales rack when shopping for jeans. ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ Strongly Disagree Agree Strongly Disagree Agree (1) (2) (3) (4) 9. (Interval/Itemized Rating Scale) When shopping for jeans, I buy the cheapest pair I can find. ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ Strongly Disagree Agree Strongly Disagree Agree (1) (2) (3) (4) 10. (Interval/Itemized Rating Scale) I don’t mind paying extra for a quality pair of jeans. ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ Strongly Disagree Agree Strongly Disagree (1) Agree (2) (3) The following questions are related to your usage of jeans. 85 (4)
  • 11. (Nominal/Checklist) I wear my jeans when I: (Select all that apply by holding the CTRL key as you click your responses.) Unchecked 0, Checked 1. a. Go to class ______ b. Attend formal events ______ c. Go out at night ______ d. Go to work ______ e. Relax at home ______ 12. (Interval/Itemized Rating Scale) The jeans I wear out at night are different from the jeans I wear during the day. ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ Strongly Disagree Agree Strongly Disagree (1) Agree (2) (3) 86 (4)
  • The following questions relate to your preferences towards jeans. 13. (Open-Ended) Describe the perfect pair of jeans. ___________________________ 14. (Ordinal/Rank Order Scaling) Rank the following factors on how important they are to you in your purchasing decision, 1 being the most important preference to you and 5 being the least. a. Versatility ______ b. Style ______ c. Fit ______ d. Brand Name ______ e. Price ______ 15. (Interval/Likert) A good fit is important to me when purchasing jeans. ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ Strongly Disagree No Opinion ___________ Agree Strongly Disagree (1) Agree (2) (3) (4) (5) 16. (Interval/Itemized Rating Scale) If my jeans look good on me, they do not necessarily have to be the most comfortable. ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ Strongly Disagree Agree Strongly Disagree Agree (1) (2) (3) (4) 17. (Interval/Itemized Rating Scale) Place a mark on the line below to indicate your attitude of the following brands: I have a positive attitude toward LEVI’S ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ Strongly Disagree Agree Strongly Disagree Agree 87
  • (1) (2) (3) (4) I have a positive attitude toward WRANGLER ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ Strongly Disagree Agree Strongly Disagree Agree (1) (2) (3) (4) I have a positive attitude toward GAP ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ Strongly Disagree Agree Strongly Disagree Agree (1) (2) (3) (4) I have a positive attitude toward LUCKY ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ Strongly Disagree Agree Strongly Disagree Agree (1) (2) (3) (4) I have a positive attitude toward DIESEL ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ Strongly Disagree Agree Strongly Disagree (1) Agree (2) (3) 88 (4)
  • I have a positive attitude toward AMERICAN EAGLE ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ Strongly Disagree Agree Strongly Disagree Agree (1) (2) (3) (4) The following questions relate to your jean shopping experience. 18. (Interval/Stapel) I am ____________ when shopping for jeans. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Stressed -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 Excited -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 Exhausted -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 Frustrated 19. (Interval/Likert) When I go buy jeans, it is the main focus of my shopping trip. ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Disagree (1) Strongly Agree (2) (3) 89 (4) (5)
  • 20. (Interval/Itemized Rating Scale) If a pair of jeans grab my attention while I am shopping for other things, I will try them on. _________________ _________________ _________________ Never Sometimes Always (1) (2) (3) 21. (Ratio/Constant Sum) Distribute 100 points among the following to indicate what would deter you from repurchasing the same brand of jeans. The more points you give something, the more weight it has. You can give as many or as few points as you wish to each. Please use only whole numbers and make certain that your total equals 100 points. a. Shrinks in the wash ______ b. Maintains fit ______ c. Fades ______ d. Scratchy ______ e. Tears ______ Total ______ The following questions relate to attitudes toward jeans brands. 22. (Nominal/Multiple Choice) Which brand images do you most associate yourself with? a. Gap (1) b. Lucky (2) c. Levi’s (3) d. Diesel (4) e. Wrangler (5) f. American Eagle (6) 23. (Interval/Semantic Differential) Levi’s brand is: Traditional 1 2 3 Untraditional Inexpensive 1 2 3 Expensive Stylish 1 2 3 Unstylish 3 Untraditional 24. (Interval/Semantic Differential) Lucky brand is: Traditional 1 2 90
  • Inexpensive 1 2 3 Expensive Stylish 1 2 3 Unstylish 25. (Interval/Semantic Differential) Wrangler brand is: Traditional 1 2 3 Untraditional Inexpensive 1 2 3 Expensive Stylish 1 2 3 Unstylish The following questions relate to how you are influenced. 26. (Nominal/Check List) Who influences your style? Unchecked 0, Checked 1. a. Family b. Friends c. Celebrities d. People who are similar to myself e. No one influences my style f. Other _________ 27. (Nominal/Multiple Choice) Which celebrity do you most identify yourself with? a. Ryan Reynolds (1) b. Megan Fox (2) c. Michael Cera (3) d. Tina Fey (4) 28. (Interval/Graphic Rating Scale) Drag the bar below to rate each quality a spokesperson for jeans should possess: a. Trustworthy 0-100 b. Dependable 0-100 c. Physically Attractive 0-100 d. Relatable 0-100 91
  • The following questions relate to your media usage patterns. 29. (Nominal/Multiple Choice) How much time do you spend a week: Surfing the web a. b. c. d. e. f. 1-2 hours (1) 3-4 hours (2) 5-6 hours (3) 7-8 hours (4) 9-10 hours (5) 11 + hours (6) Watching television a. b. c. d. e. f. 1-2 hours (1) 3-4 hours (2) 5-6 hours (3) 7-8 hours (4) 9-10 hours (5) 11 + hours (6) Reading newspapers/magazines a. b. c. d. e. f. 1-2 hours (1) 3-4 hours (2) 5-6 hours (3) 7-8 hours (4) 9-10 hours (5) 11 + hours (6) Using social media a. b. c. d. e. f. 1-2 hours (1) 3-4 hours (2) 5-6 hours (3) 7-8 hours (4) 9-10 hours (5) 11 + hours (6) Listening to the radio a. 1-2 hours (1) 92
  • b. c. d. e. f. 3-4 hours (2) 5-6 hours (3) 7-8 hours (4) 9-10 hours (5) 11 + hours (6) 30. (Open-Ended) What Websites do you visit more frequently?__________________ 31. (Open-Ended) What TV stations do you watch most frequently?_______________ 32. (Open-Ended) Which newspapers do you read, if any?_______________________ 33. (Open-Ended) Which magazines do you read, if any?________________________ 34. (Open-Ended) What radio stations do you listen to, if any?____________________ Thank you for participating in our survey. We need you to answer the following questions in order to acquire some basic demographic information. 35. (Ratio/Open-Ended) How old are you? _______ 36. (Nominal/Dichotomous) What is your gender? c. Male (1) d. Female (2) 37. (Nominal/Dichotomous) Do you attend the University of Florida? c. Yes (1) d. No (2) 38. (Open-Ended) For extra credit purposes, please provide us with your name and UF Student ID. ___________________________________ 93
  • Appendix K: Results of Statistical Analysis of Quantitative Research Q.3-How often do you wear jeans? # Answer Respon se % 1 1-2 times a week 26 27.96% 2 3-4 times a week 41 44.09% 3 More than 5 times a week 26 27.96% 93 100.00% Total Q.4-How many pairs of jeans do you own? Respon se % 1 1-2 3 3.23 % 2 3-4 24 25.81 % 3 5-6 30 32.26 % 4 7-8 25 26.88 % 5 9-10 5 5.38 % 6 11+ 8 8.60 % # Answ er Q.5-Which brands of jeans do you currently own? # Answer Respon se % 1 Gap 0 0.00% 2 Lucky 22 11.28 % 3 Levi's 22 11.28 % 4 Faded Glory 1 0.51% 5 Diesel 3 1.54% 6 Wrangler 3 1.54% 7 Abercombie & Fitch 18 9.23% 8 DKNY 4 2.05% 94
  • 9 American Eagle 51 26.15 % 1 0 Other 71 36.41 % Total 195 100.00 % Q.6-Where do you purchase jeans most often? # Answ er Respon se % 1 Catal og 0 0% 2 In Store 91 98% 3 Onlin e 2 2% Total 93 100 % Q.7-I prefer to wear designer jeans. # Answer Respon se % 1 Strongly Disagree 2 2% 2 Disagree 24 26% 3 Neutral 34 37% 4 Agree 29 31% 5 Strongly Agree 4 4% Total 93 100 % Statistic Value Mean 3.10 Variance 0.83 Standard Deviation 0.91 95
  • Total Responses 93 Q.7 (I prefer to wear designer jeans) and Q.17(If my jeans look good on me, they do not necessarily have to be the most comfortable) Z test Statistic Strongly Disagree Disagr ee Agre e Strongly Agree Mean 0.00 2.89 3.33 2.50 Variance 0.00 0.81 0.68 4.50 Standard Deviation 0.00 0.90 0.83 2.12 Total Responses 0 46 45 2 z-Test: Two Sample for Means Mean Known Variance Observations Hypothesized Mean Difference z P(Z<=z) one-tail z Critical one-tail P(Z<=z) two-tail z Critical two-tail Disagree 2.89 0.81 46 0 -2.432469 0.00749814 1.64485363 0.01499628 1.95996398 Agree 3.33 0.68 45 Q.8-I consider shopping for jeans a stressful experience. # Answer Respon se % 1 Strongly Disagree 12 13% 2 Disagree 45 48% 3 Agree 29 31% 4 Strongly Agree 7 8% Total 93 100 % Statistic Value Mean 2.33 Variance 0.64 Standard Deviation 0.80 Total Responses 93 96
  • Q.9-I go straight to the sales rack when shopping for jeans. # Answer Respon se % 1 Strongly Disagree 4 4% 2 Disagree 45 48% 3 Agree 34 37% 4 Strongly Agree 10 11% Total 93 100 % Statistic Value Mean 2.54 Variance 0.56 Standard Deviation 0.75 Total Responses 93 Q.10-When shopping for jeans I buy the cheapest pair I can find. # Answer Respon se % 1 Strongly Disagree 15 16% 2 Disagree 60 65% 3 Agree 18 19% 4 Strongly Agree 0 0% Total 93 100 % Statistic Mean Value 2.03 97
  • Variance 0.36 Standard Deviation 0.60 Total Responses 93 Q.11-I don’t mind paying extra for a quality pair of jeans. # Answer Respon se % 1 Strongly Disagree 1 1% 2 Disagree 9 10% 3 Agree 67 72% 4 Strongly Agree 16 17% Total 93 100 % Statistic Value Mean 3.05 Variance 0.31 Standard Deviation 0.56 Total Responses 93 Q.12-I wear jeans when I: # Answer Respon se % 1 Go to Class 82 32% 17 7% 3 Go out at night 80 31% 4 Go to work 44 17% 5 Relax at home 34 13% 257 100 % 2 Attend Formal Events Total Q.13-The jeans I wear out at night are different from the jeans I wear during the day. # Respon se Answer 98 %
  • 1 Strongly Disagree 4 4% 2 Disagree 39 42% 3 Agree 37 40% 4 Strongly Agree 13 14% Total 93 100 % Statistic Value Mean 2.63 Variance 0.60 Standard Deviation 0.78 Total Responses 93 Q.15-Rank the following factors on how important they are to you in your purchasing decision, 1 being the most important preference and 5 being the least. # Answer 1 2 3 4 5 Respons es 1 Versatility 1 5 1 1 1 5 3 8 1 4 93 2 Style 8 3 9 2 5 1 4 7 93 3 Fit 5 3 1 1 5 8 1 6 93 1 2 9 1 2 1 9 4 1 93 5 2 3 3 6 1 4 1 5 93 4 Brand Name 5 Price 99
  • Total 9 3 9 3 9 3 9 3 9 3 Q.16-A good fit is important to me when purchasing jeans. # Answer Respon se % 1 Strongly Disagree 2 2% 2 Disagree 0 0% 3 No Opinion 1 1% 4 Agree 22 24% 5 Strongly Agree 68 73% Total 93 100 % Statistic Value Mean 4.66 Variance 0.51 Standard Deviation 0.71 Total Responses 93 Q.17-If my jeans look good on me, they do not necessarily have to be the most comfortable. # Answer Respon se % 1 Strongly Disagree 0 0% 2 Disagree 46 49% 3 Agree 45 48% 4 Strongly Agree 2 2% Total 93 100 % Statistic Value Mean 2.53 Variance 0.30 Standard Deviation 0.54 Total Responses 93 100
  • Q.18- Place a mark on the line below to indicate your attitude on the following brands: Strongly Disagree 1 I have a positive attitude towards LEVI'S I have a positive 2 attitude towards WRANGLER Disagr ee Agre e Strongly Agree Respons es Mea n 2 18 62 11 93 2.88 8 # Question 49 32 4 93 2.34 3 I have a positive attitude towards GAP 5 31 43 14 93 2.71 4 I have a positive attitude towards LUCKY 1 15 52 25 93 3.09 5 I have a positive attitude towards DIESEL 4 26 53 10 93 2.74 3 20 50 20 93 2.94 I have a positive 6 attitude towards AMERICAN EAGLE Q.19-I am _______ when shopping for jeans. # Questio n -5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Respons es Mea n 1 Stresse d 1 0 8 8 2 2 1 7 1 4 1 3 9 8 1 92 5.91 2 Excited 1 0 3 5 0 1 5 7 1 6 2 3 1 4 8 92 7.96 3 Exhaust ed 8 1 9 8 4 2 2 6 2 1 4 7 2 92 6.08 4 Frustrat ed 8 1 8 6 8 1 6 1 2 9 1 1 7 6 92 6.36 Q.20-When I go buy jeans, it is the main focus of my shopping trip. 101
  • # Answer Respon se % 1 Strongly Disagree 3 3% 2 Disagree 19 21% 3 Neutral 21 23% 4 Agree 37 40% 5 Strongly Agree 12 13% Total 92 100 % Statistic Value Mean 3.39 Variance 1.12 Standard Deviation 1.06 Total Responses 92 Q.21-If a pair of jeans grab my attention while I am shopping for other things, I will try them on. # Answer Respon se % 1 Never 5 5% 2 Sometimes 64 70% 3 Always 23 25% Total 92 100 % Statistic Value Mean 2.20 Variance 0.27 Standard Deviation 0.52 Total Responses 92 Q.22- Distribute 100 points among the following to indicate what would deter you from repurchasing the same brand of jeans. The more points you give something, the more weight it has. # Answer Average Value Standard Deviation 102
  • 1 Shrinks in the wash 23.13 15.85 2 Maintains Fit 17.78 21.95 3 Fades 14.32 11.39 4 Scratchy 21.26 15.60 5 Tears 23.51 15.34 100.00 80.14 Total Q.23-Which brand images do you most associate yourself with? # Answer Respon se % 1 Gap 18 17% 2 Lucky 29 27% 3 Levi's 17 16% 4 Diesel 9 8% 5 Wrangler 2 2% American Eagle 33 31% Total 108 100 % 6 Q.24-Levi’s brand is: # Question 1 2 3 Respons es Mea n 1 Traditional:Untraditi onal 7 6 1 3 2 91 1.19 2 Inexpensive:Expens ive 3 4 5 2 5 91 1.68 2 0 5 2 1 9 91 1.99 3 Stylish:Unstylish Q.25-Lucky’s brand is: 1 2 3 Respons es Mea n Traditional:Untradi onal 1 7 3 9 3 5 91 2.20 2 Inexpensive:Expen 1 2 6 91 2.71 # Question 1 103
  • sive 3 Stylish:Unstylish 4 6 4 6 2 2 5 91 1.35 Q.26-Wrangler’s brand is: # Question 1 2 3 Respons es Mea n 1 Traditional:Untraditi onal 6 6 2 1 4 91 1.32 2 Inexpensive:Expens ive 5 1 3 3 7 91 1.52 8 3 9 4 4 91 2.40 3 Stylish:Unstylish Q.27-Who influences your style? # Answer Respon se % 1 Family 30 33 % 2 Friends 66 73 % 3 Celebrities 31 34 % 4 People who are similar to myself 52 58 % 5 No one influences my style 14 16 % 1 1% 6 Other Q.27 (Who influences your style?) and Q.38 (What is your gender?) Cross Tabulation 104
  • Q.28-Which celebrity do you most identify yourself with? Respon se # Answer % 1 Ryan Renolds 25 28% 2 Meagan Fox 35 39% 3 Michael Cera 8 9% 4 Tina Fey 22 24% Total 90 100 % 105
  • Q.29-Drag the bar below to rate each quality a spokesperson for jeans should possess. # Answer Average Value Standard Deviation 1 Trustworthy 54.02 28.26 2 Dependable 55.02 26.23 Physically Attractive 66.38 25.19 4 Relatable 76.68 21.82 252.10 101.50 3 Total Q.30-How much time do you spend a week: # Question 1-2 hour s 3-4 hour s 5-6 hour s 7-8 hour s 9-10 hour s 11+ hour s Respons es Mea n 1 Surfing the Web 5 16 18 20 14 16 89 3.79 30 20 19 11 7 2 89 2.45 Reading 3 newspaper/magazi nes 58 16 10 4 1 0 89 1.58 4 Social Media 24 22 18 8 5 12 89 2.82 49 17 14 5 2 2 89 1.88 2 5 Watching Television Listening to the Radio 106