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SUPPLY AND DEMAND I: HOW MARKETS WORK
4
The Market Forces of
Supply and Demand
Trade and Markets
• In the last chapter we saw that trade can be a
good thing
• But, when trade takes place, at what price...
Why are Prices Important?
• To try to predict the economic effect of some
specified event you would ultimately have to
und...
MARKETS AND COMPETITION
• A market is a group of buyers and sellers of a
particular good or service.

• The terms supply a...
Competitive Markets
• This chapter discusses a theory of prices. But
the theory discussed here is true only when
markets a...
Imperfect Competition
• Monopoly
• One seller, and seller controls price

• Oligopoly
• Few sellers
• Not always aggressiv...
Prices Under Perfect Competition
• The Theory of Supply and Demand is a simple
way of predicting the effect of a specified...
DEMAND
• Quantity demanded is the amount of a good
that buyers are willing and able to purchase
• Demand is a full descrip...
Demand: schedule and curve
• There are two common ways of representing
demand:
• The demand schedule
• The demand curve
The Demand Schedule: The Relationship
between Price and Quantity Demanded
• The demand schedule is a table that shows the
...
Catherine’s Demand Schedule
The Demand Curve: The Relationship
between Price and Quantity Demanded
• The demand curve is a graph of the
relationship b...
Figure 1 Catherine’s Demand Schedule and Demand
Curve
Price of
Ice-Cream Cone
$3.00
2.50
1. A decrease
in price ...

2.00
...
Demand and Quantity Demanded

Quantity
Demanded
when Price is
$0.50.

Quantity
Demanded
when Price is
$2.50.
Demand and Quantity Demanded
• Note that Quantity Demanded changes when
the Price changes
• But Demand, being the entire t...
Demand and Quantity Demanded
Price of
Ice-Cream Cone
$3.00
2.50
2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50

Quantity
Demanded,
when Price is
$2.5...
Demand and Quantity Demanded
• Note that Quantity Demanded changes when
the Price changes
• But Demand, being the entire c...
Law of Demand
• The law of demand states that, other things
equal, the quantity demanded of a good falls
when the price of...
“Other things equal”
• That’s an important phrase in the wording of the Law
of Demand
• The quantity demanded of a consume...
The Law of Demand—Explanations
• There are two ways to explain the Law of
Demand
• Substitution effect
• Income effect
Substitution Effect
Income Effect
Market Demand versus Individual Demand
• Market demand refers to the sum of all
individual demands for a particular good o...
Figure 2 Market Demand as the
Sum of Individual Demands
A Shift in Mary’s Demand
Price
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00

Quantity Demanded
Situation A Situation B
12
20
10
16
8...
Shifts in the Market Demand Curve
• … are caused by changes in:
•
•
•
•
•

Consumer income
Prices of related goods
Tastes
...
Figure 3 Shifts in the Demand Curve
Price of
Ice-Cream
Cone
Increase
in demand

Decrease
in demand

Demand curve, D3
0

De...
Shifts in the Demand Curve
• Consumer Income
• As income increases the demand for a normal good
will increase
• As income ...
Consumer Income
Normal Good
Price of IceCream Cone

$3.0
0
2
.50
2
.00
1
.50
1
.00
0
.50

An increase
in income...
Increas...
Consumer Income
Inferior Good
Price of IceCream Cone

$3.0
0
2
.50
2
.00
1
.50
1
.00
0
.50

An increase
in income...
Decre...
Shifts in the Demand Curve
• Prices of Related Goods
• When a fall in the price of one good reduces the
demand for another...
Table 1 Variables That Influence
Buyers
Figure 4 Shifts in the Demand
Curve versus Movements along the
Demand Curve
SUPPLY
• Quantity supplied is the amount of a good that
sellers are willing and able to sell
• Law of Supply
• The law of ...
The Supply Curve: The Relationship between
Price and Quantity Supplied
• Supply Schedule
• The supply schedule is a table ...
Ben’s Supply Schedule
The Supply Curve: The Relationship between
Price and Quantity Supplied
• Supply Curve
• The supply curve is the graph of t...
Figure 5 Ben’s Supply Schedule and Supply Curve
Price of
Ice-Cream
Cone
$3.00
1. An
increase
in price ...

2.50
2.00
1.50
...
Market Supply versus Individual Supply
• Market supply refers to the sum of all
individual supplies for all sellers of a p...
Figure 6 Market Supply as the Sum
of Individual Supplies
Figure 6 Market Supply as the Sum
of Individual Supplies
Shifts in the Supply Curve
•
•
•
•

Input prices
Technology
Expectations
Number of sellers (short run)
Shifts in the Supply Curve
• Change in Quantity Supplied
• Movement along the supply curve
• Caused by a change in anythin...
Change in Quantity Supplied
Price of IceCream
Cone

S
C

$3.0
0

1.00

0

A rise in the price
of ice cream
cones results i...
Law of Supply—Explanation
• The Law of Supply comes from the assumption
called Decreasing Returns or Increasing Costs.
Shifts in the Supply Curve
• Change in Supply
• A shift in the supply curve, either to the left or right
• Caused by a cha...
Figure 7 Shifts in the Supply Curve
Price of
Ice-Cream
Cone

Supply curve, S3

Decrease
in supply

Supply
curve, S1

Suppl...
Table 2 Variables That Influence Sellers
SUPPLY AND DEMAND
TOGETHER
• Equilibrium refers to a situation in which the
price has reached the level where quantity
sup...
SUPPLY AND DEMAND
TOGETHER
• Equilibrium Price
• The price that balances quantity supplied and
quantity demanded
• On a gr...
SUPPLY AND DEMAND
TOGETHER
Demand
Schedule

Supply
Schedule

At $2.00, the quantity demanded
is equal to the quantity supp...
Figure 8 The Equilibrium of Supply and Demand

Price of
Ice-Cream
Cone

Supply

$2.00

Equilibrium

Equilibrium price

Equ...
Figure 9 Markets Not in Equilibrium

(a) Excess Supply
Price of
Ice-Cream
Cone

Supply
Surplus

$2.50
2.00

Demand

0

4
Q...
Equilibrium
• Surplus
• When price exceeds equilibrium price, then quantity
supplied is greater than quantity demanded
• T...
Equilibrium
• Shortage
• When price is less than equilibrium price, then
quantity demanded exceeds the quantity supplied
•...
Figure 9 Markets Not in Equilibrium
(b) Excess Demand
Price of
Ice-Cream
Cone

Supply

$2.00
1.50
Shortage
Demand

0

4
Qu...
Equilibrium
• Law of supply and demand
• The claim that the price of any good adjusts to bring
the quantity supplied and t...
Three Steps to Analyzing Changes in
Equilibrium due to some specified event
• Decide whether the event shifts the supply o...
Figure 10 How an Increase in Demand Affects the
Equilibrium
Price of
Ice-Cream
Cone

1. Hot weather increases
the demand f...
Three Steps to Analyzing Changes in
Equilibrium
• Shifts in Curves versus Movements along
Curves
• A shift in the supply c...
Figure 11 How a Decrease in Supply Affects the
Equilibrium
Price of
Ice-Cream
Cone
S2

1. An increase in the
price of suga...
Figure 12 A Shift in Both Supply and
Demand
Table 4 What Happens to Price and Quantity When Supply
or Demand Shifts?
Summary
• Economists use the model of supply and
demand to analyze competitive markets.
• In a competitive market, there a...
Summary
• The demand curve shows how the quantity of a
good depends upon the price.
• According to the law of demand, as t...
Summary
• The supply curve shows how the quantity of a
good supplied depends upon the price.
• According to the law of sup...
Summary
• Market equilibrium is determined by the
intersection of the supply and demand curves.
• At the equilibrium price...
Summary
• To analyze how any event influences a market,
we use the supply-and-demand diagram to
examine how the even affec...
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Transcript of "12946634 supply-demand"

  1. 1. 2 SUPPLY AND DEMAND I: HOW MARKETS WORK
  2. 2. 4 The Market Forces of Supply and Demand
  3. 3. Trade and Markets • In the last chapter we saw that trade can be a good thing • But, when trade takes place, at what price will the trade take place • What are the factors that determine the price • These are the questions that this chapter is about
  4. 4. Why are Prices Important? • To try to predict the economic effect of some specified event you would ultimately have to understand how the behavior of individual consumers and firms would be affected • These changes in behavior depend largely on changes in prices • Therefore, if you can’t predict the event’s effect on prices you’ll get stuck
  5. 5. MARKETS AND COMPETITION • A market is a group of buyers and sellers of a particular good or service. • The terms supply and demand refer to the behavior of people . . . as they interact with one another in markets.
  6. 6. Competitive Markets • This chapter discusses a theory of prices. But the theory discussed here is true only when markets are perfectly competitive • A competitive market is a market in which • there are many buyers • many sellers • And all sellers sell the exact same product • As a result, each buyer and seller has a negligible impact on the market price
  7. 7. Imperfect Competition • Monopoly • One seller, and seller controls price • Oligopoly • Few sellers • Not always aggressive competition • Monopolistic Competition • Many sellers • Slightly differentiated products
  8. 8. Prices Under Perfect Competition • The Theory of Supply and Demand is a simple way of predicting the effect of a specified event on the price of some specified commodity… • …provided the market for that commodity is perfectly competitive
  9. 9. DEMAND • Quantity demanded is the amount of a good that buyers are willing and able to purchase • Demand is a full description of how the quantity demanded changes as the price of the good changes.
  10. 10. Demand: schedule and curve • There are two common ways of representing demand: • The demand schedule • The demand curve
  11. 11. The Demand Schedule: The Relationship between Price and Quantity Demanded • The demand schedule is a table that shows the relationship between the price of the good and the quantity demanded
  12. 12. Catherine’s Demand Schedule
  13. 13. The Demand Curve: The Relationship between Price and Quantity Demanded • The demand curve is a graph of the relationship between the price of a good and the quantity demanded
  14. 14. Figure 1 Catherine’s Demand Schedule and Demand Curve Price of Ice-Cream Cone $3.00 2.50 1. A decrease in price ... 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Quantity of Ice-Cream Cones 2. ... increases quantity of cones demanded. Copyright © 2004 South-Western
  15. 15. Demand and Quantity Demanded Quantity Demanded when Price is $0.50. Quantity Demanded when Price is $2.50.
  16. 16. Demand and Quantity Demanded • Note that Quantity Demanded changes when the Price changes • But Demand, being the entire table inside the red border, does not
  17. 17. Demand and Quantity Demanded Price of Ice-Cream Cone $3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 Quantity Demanded, when Price is $2.50 … 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Quantity of Ice-Cream Cones … and when Price is $0.50.
  18. 18. Demand and Quantity Demanded • Note that Quantity Demanded changes when the Price changes • But Demand, being the entire curve inside the red border, does not
  19. 19. Law of Demand • The law of demand states that, other things equal, the quantity demanded of a good falls when the price of the good rises
  20. 20. “Other things equal” • That’s an important phrase in the wording of the Law of Demand • The quantity demanded of a consumer good such as ice cream depends on • • • • • The price of ice cream The prices of related goods Consumers’ incomes Consumers’ tastes Consumers’ expectations about future prices and incomes, etc • The Law of Demand says that the quantity demanded of a good is inversely related to its price, provided all other factors are unchanged
  21. 21. The Law of Demand—Explanations • There are two ways to explain the Law of Demand • Substitution effect • Income effect
  22. 22. Substitution Effect
  23. 23. Income Effect
  24. 24. Market Demand versus Individual Demand • Market demand refers to the sum of all individual demands for a particular good or service. • Graphically, individual demand curves are summed horizontally to obtain the market demand curve.
  25. 25. Figure 2 Market Demand as the Sum of Individual Demands
  26. 26. A Shift in Mary’s Demand Price 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 Quantity Demanded Situation A Situation B 12 20 10 16 8 12 6 8 4 6 2 4 0 2 • How can we explain the difference in Mary’s behavior in situations A and B? • Why does she consume more in situation B at any given price?
  27. 27. Shifts in the Market Demand Curve • … are caused by changes in: • • • • • Consumer income Prices of related goods Tastes Expectations Number of buyers
  28. 28. Figure 3 Shifts in the Demand Curve Price of Ice-Cream Cone Increase in demand Decrease in demand Demand curve, D3 0 Demand curve, D1 Demand curve, D2 Quantity of Ice-Cream Cones
  29. 29. Shifts in the Demand Curve • Consumer Income • As income increases the demand for a normal good will increase • As income increases the demand for an inferior good will decrease
  30. 30. Consumer Income Normal Good Price of IceCream Cone $3.0 0 2 .50 2 .00 1 .50 1 .00 0 .50 An increase in income... Increase in demand D1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 D2 Quantity of IceCream Cones
  31. 31. Consumer Income Inferior Good Price of IceCream Cone $3.0 0 2 .50 2 .00 1 .50 1 .00 0 .50 An increase in income... Decrease in demand D2 0 1 D1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Quantity of Ice-Cream Cones
  32. 32. Shifts in the Demand Curve • Prices of Related Goods • When a fall in the price of one good reduces the demand for another good, the two goods are called substitutes • When a fall in the price of one good increases the demand for another good, the two goods are called complements
  33. 33. Table 1 Variables That Influence Buyers
  34. 34. Figure 4 Shifts in the Demand Curve versus Movements along the Demand Curve
  35. 35. SUPPLY • Quantity supplied is the amount of a good that sellers are willing and able to sell • Law of Supply • The law of supply states that, other things equal, the quantity supplied of a good rises when the price of the good rises
  36. 36. The Supply Curve: The Relationship between Price and Quantity Supplied • Supply Schedule • The supply schedule is a table that shows the relationship between the price of the good and the quantity supplied
  37. 37. Ben’s Supply Schedule
  38. 38. The Supply Curve: The Relationship between Price and Quantity Supplied • Supply Curve • The supply curve is the graph of the relationship between the price of a good and the quantity supplied
  39. 39. Figure 5 Ben’s Supply Schedule and Supply Curve Price of Ice-Cream Cone $3.00 1. An increase in price ... 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Quantity of Ice-Cream Cones 2. ... increases quantity of cones supplied.
  40. 40. Market Supply versus Individual Supply • Market supply refers to the sum of all individual supplies for all sellers of a particular good or service. • Graphically, individual supply curves are summed horizontally to obtain the market supply curve.
  41. 41. Figure 6 Market Supply as the Sum of Individual Supplies
  42. 42. Figure 6 Market Supply as the Sum of Individual Supplies
  43. 43. Shifts in the Supply Curve • • • • Input prices Technology Expectations Number of sellers (short run)
  44. 44. Shifts in the Supply Curve • Change in Quantity Supplied • Movement along the supply curve • Caused by a change in anything that alters the quantity supplied at each price
  45. 45. Change in Quantity Supplied Price of IceCream Cone S C $3.0 0 1.00 0 A rise in the price of ice cream cones results in a movement along the supply curve. A 1 5 Quantity of Ice-Cream Cones
  46. 46. Law of Supply—Explanation • The Law of Supply comes from the assumption called Decreasing Returns or Increasing Costs.
  47. 47. Shifts in the Supply Curve • Change in Supply • A shift in the supply curve, either to the left or right • Caused by a change in a determinant other than price
  48. 48. Figure 7 Shifts in the Supply Curve Price of Ice-Cream Cone Supply curve, S3 Decrease in supply Supply curve, S1 Supply curve, S2 Increase in supply 0 Quantity of Ice-Cream Cones
  49. 49. Table 2 Variables That Influence Sellers
  50. 50. SUPPLY AND DEMAND TOGETHER • Equilibrium refers to a situation in which the price has reached the level where quantity supplied equals quantity demanded
  51. 51. SUPPLY AND DEMAND TOGETHER • Equilibrium Price • The price that balances quantity supplied and quantity demanded • On a graph, it is the price at which the supply and demand curves intersect • Equilibrium Quantity • The quantity supplied and the quantity demanded at the equilibrium price • On a graph it is the quantity at which the supply and demand curves intersect
  52. 52. SUPPLY AND DEMAND TOGETHER Demand Schedule Supply Schedule At $2.00, the quantity demanded is equal to the quantity supplied!
  53. 53. Figure 8 The Equilibrium of Supply and Demand Price of Ice-Cream Cone Supply $2.00 Equilibrium Equilibrium price Equilibrium quantity 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Demand 9 10 11 12 13 Quantity of Ice-Cream Cones
  54. 54. Figure 9 Markets Not in Equilibrium (a) Excess Supply Price of Ice-Cream Cone Supply Surplus $2.50 2.00 Demand 0 4 Quantity demanded 7 10 Quantity supplied Quantity of Ice-Cream Cones
  55. 55. Equilibrium • Surplus • When price exceeds equilibrium price, then quantity supplied is greater than quantity demanded • There is excess supply or a surplus • Suppliers will lower the price to increase sales, thereby moving toward equilibrium
  56. 56. Equilibrium • Shortage • When price is less than equilibrium price, then quantity demanded exceeds the quantity supplied • There is excess demand or a shortage • Suppliers will raise the price due to too many buyers chasing too few goods, thereby moving toward equilibrium
  57. 57. Figure 9 Markets Not in Equilibrium (b) Excess Demand Price of Ice-Cream Cone Supply $2.00 1.50 Shortage Demand 0 4 Quantity supplied 7 10 Quantity of Quantity Ice-Cream demanded Cones
  58. 58. Equilibrium • Law of supply and demand • The claim that the price of any good adjusts to bring the quantity supplied and the quantity demanded for that good into balance • Although the Law of Supply and Demand is a good place to start the discussion of prices, it should not be taken to be the gospel truth. In some cases the price might get stuck at some other level and quantity supplied and quantity demanded may not be equal. Example: unemployment
  59. 59. Three Steps to Analyzing Changes in Equilibrium due to some specified event • Decide whether the event shifts the supply or demand curve (or both). • Decide whether the curve(s) shift(s) to the left or to the right. • Use the supply-and-demand diagram to see how the shift affects equilibrium price and quantity.
  60. 60. Figure 10 How an Increase in Demand Affects the Equilibrium Price of Ice-Cream Cone 1. Hot weather increases the demand for ice cream . . . Supply New equilibrium $2.50 2.00 2. . . . resulting in a higher price . . . Initial equilibrium D D 0 7 3. . . . and a higher quantity sold. 10 Quantity of Ice-Cream Cones
  61. 61. Three Steps to Analyzing Changes in Equilibrium • Shifts in Curves versus Movements along Curves • A shift in the supply curve is called a change in supply • A movement along a fixed supply curve is called a change in quantity supplied • A shift in the demand curve is called a change in demand • A movement along a fixed demand curve is called a change in quantity demanded
  62. 62. Figure 11 How a Decrease in Supply Affects the Equilibrium Price of Ice-Cream Cone S2 1. An increase in the price of sugar reduces the supply of ice cream. . . S1 New equilibrium $2.50 Initial equilibrium 2.00 2. . . . resulting in a higher price of ice cream . . . Demand 0 4 7 3. . . . and a lower quantity sold. Quantity of Ice-Cream Cones
  63. 63. Figure 12 A Shift in Both Supply and Demand
  64. 64. Table 4 What Happens to Price and Quantity When Supply or Demand Shifts?
  65. 65. Summary • Economists use the model of supply and demand to analyze competitive markets. • In a competitive market, there are many buyers and sellers, each of whom has little or no influence on the market price.
  66. 66. Summary • The demand curve shows how the quantity of a good depends upon the price. • According to the law of demand, as the price of a good falls, the quantity demanded rises. Therefore, the demand curve slopes downward. • In addition to price, other determinants of how much consumers want to buy include income, the prices of complements and substitutes, tastes, expectations, and the number of buyers. • If one of these factors changes, the demand curve shifts.
  67. 67. Summary • The supply curve shows how the quantity of a good supplied depends upon the price. • According to the law of supply, as the price of a good rises, the quantity supplied rises. Therefore, the supply curve slopes upward. • In addition to price, other determinants of how much producers want to sell include input prices, technology, expectations, and the number of sellers. • If one of these factors changes, the supply curve shifts.
  68. 68. Summary • Market equilibrium is determined by the intersection of the supply and demand curves. • At the equilibrium price, the quantity demanded equals the quantity supplied. • The behavior of buyers and sellers naturally drives markets toward their equilibrium.
  69. 69. Summary • To analyze how any event influences a market, we use the supply-and-demand diagram to examine how the even affects the equilibrium price and quantity. • In market economies, prices are the signals that guide economic decisions and thereby allocate resources.
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