View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!Introducing SlideShare for AndroidExplore all your favorite topics in the SlideShare appGet the SlideShare app to Save for Later — even offline
View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new Android app!View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!
When you're directing something, you absolutely have to be involved in all layers of the process.
GARDEN CITY COLLEGE FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FUNDAMENTALS OF MANAGEMENT DIRECTING GROUP 5 28 November,20121 Khartoum Prepared by of MBA students batch (9)
TEAM MEMBER Limya Abdel Aziz Mohamed Omer Awad Elkarim Asma Alfatih Altigani Afrah Omer Zeinelabdeen Abbas Mohamed ElBahari Nafisa Mokhtar 2
OMER “Management is nothing more than Directing other people” 3
LIMYA "Motivation is the art of getting people to do what you want them to do because they want to do it." 4
ZAIN "Leadership is the activity of influencing people to cooperate toward some goal which they come to find desirable." 5
ASMA “ Performance Management is our approach to excellent business performance and developing employees.We are only as good as our people.” 6
AFRAH “Self respect is the fruit of Discipline” 7
NAFISA “Conversation is the simplest form of human communication” 8
ManagementManagement in all business and organizational activitiesis the act of getting people together to accomplish desiredgoals and objectives using available resources efficientlyand effectively“Management is the process of getting things done throughthe efforts of other people in order to achieve thepredetermined objectives of organization”. Management brings together all Six Ms i.e. Men and Women, Money, Machines, Materials, Methods and Markets. They use these resources for achieving the objectives of the organization such as high sales, maximum profits, business expansion, etc. 9
DIRECTINGDirecting / Direction is giving instructions, guiding,counseling, motivating and leading the staff in anorganization for doing work to achieve Organizationalgoals.Directing is a key managerial function to be performedby the manager along with planning, organizing, staffingand controlling.Directing consists of the process and techniques used inissuing instructions and making sure that operations arecarried as originally planned.Directing is a continuous process initiated at top leveland flows to the bottom through organizational chain 13of command.
Importance of Directing Directing initiates actions to get the desired results in an organization.Directing attempts to get maximum out of employees byidentifying their capabilities.Directing is essential to keep the elements likeSupervision, Motivation, Leadership and Communicationeffective. 14
It ensures that every employee work for organizational goals.Coping up with the changes in the Organization ispossible through effective directing.Stability and balance in the organizationcan be achieved through directing 15
Process of DirectingoDefining the objectiveoOrganizing the effortsoMeasuring the workoDeveloping the people 16
ELEMENTS OF DIRECTING Leadership Communication Motivation Conflict Resolution Performance appraisal Discipline Others… (Efforts, Provides Stability, Initiates Actions, Coping up with the changes, Efficient 18 Utilization of Resources)
LEADERSHIP Leadership is essentially a continuous process ofinfluencing behavior. A leader breathes life into the group and motivates it towards goals. 19
THE TOP 5 LEADERSHIP SKILLS FORSUSTAINED INNOVATION 1. Challenge your assumptions 2. Change your perspective 3. Ask the right questions 4. Question the right answer 5. Stop jumping to solutionsCall to action: Pick one of these leadership skills and work on it 20 for the next month.
THE CHARACTERISTIC OF LEADERSHIP – 8 IMPORTANT TRAITSHere are some of the most common traits in the characteristic of leadership: Empathy(sympathy/understanding). Consistency. Honesty. Direction. Communication. Flexibility. Conviction/Confidence. 21 Charisma.
LEADERSHIP STYLES Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. Kurt Lewin (1939) led a group of researchers to identify different styles of leadership. This early study has been very influential and established three major leadership styles. The three major styles of leadership are Authoritarian or autocratic Participative or democratic Delegative or Free Reign 22
Although good leaders use all three styles, with one of them normally dominant, bad leaders tend to stick with one style. Authoritarian (autocratic) 23 I want both of you to. . .
Participative (democratic) Lets work together to solve this. . . 24
Delegative (free delagation)You two take care of the problem while I go. . 25
o A good leader uses all three styles, depending on what forces are involved between the followers, the leader, and the situation. Some examples include:-o Using an authoritarian style on a new employee who is just learning the job. The leader is competent and a good coach. The employee is motivated to learn a new skill. The situation is a new environment for the employee.o Using a participative style with a team of workers who know their job. The leader knows the problem, but does not have all the information. The employees know their jobs and want to become part of the team. 26
Using a delegative style with a worker who knows more about the job than you. You cannot do everything and the employee needs to take ownership of his job! In addition, this allows you to be at other places, doing other things. Using all three: Telling your employees that a procedure is not working correctly and a new one must be established (authoritarian). Asking for their ideas and input on creating a new procedure (participative). Delegating tasks in order to implement the new procedure (delegative). 27
FORCES OR FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THESTYLE TO BE USED INCLUDED: How much time is available? Are relationships based on respect and trust or on disrespect? Who has the information — you, your employees, or both? How well your employees are trained and how well you know the task. Internal conflicts. Stress levels. 28
COMMUNICATION Communication is the transfer of information from one person to another by transmitting ideas, facts, thoughts, feelings and values. In its absence organization would cease to exist. In an organization, supervisors transfer information to managers. 29
Proper communication result in clear massage received , while incorrect communication can cause problems due to miss understanding between high managerial level and staff. It is not necessary that the communication be from supervisors to managers, it can be reverse also. 30
IMPORTANT OF COMMUNICATION It helps employees to understand their role clearly. It helps achieving the goals of the organization. It improve managerial efficiency and increase staff corporate. It means delegation of authority is successfully applied. It gives good feedback. Message is clear between supervisors and managers. 31
CustomersFLOW OF INFORMATION Top level management Government Middle level Communication General management public Shareholder Lower level management Suppliers Other 32
MOTIVATION The internal and external driving force that leads the person to take an action which he considers meaning full. Motivation = expectation of success + desirability of reword + open communication Motivation: depend on what the employee expect to get out of it 33
What Motivate the Employee Esteem Social Safety Physiological Org. transformation Org. success Org. survival 35
1. Money is most important motivator because it satisfies physiological and security need, money even affects social esteem, power, self esteem and achievement.2. Social esteem, status or prestige “Job position and title have influence on social esteem”. 36
4. Directors usually use incentive only to motivate the staff but some employees can respond negatively due to: I. Worker do not trust that manager will continue to pay the extra money II. Additional money can be useless if worker produces more living the other with less work to do and so there may be fired 37
EFFECTIVE MOTIVATION1. Employee should trust management in order to respond positively to incentive2. Management should keep it promises to win trust3. Directors should activate other rewards “Promotion, Title, public and privet praise”.4. Job enrichment (improvement) fixed tasks can be burring, so rearranging the tasks to have more variety giving greater responsibility and flexibility of work schedule and method. 38
Complete satisfaction is impossible, people onesbecome satisfied with something there are not withanother, so there should be enrichment, even praisemost not be given all time to everyone regardless of results. 39
LAWS OF MOTIVATION We have to be motivated to motivate Motivate requires a goal Motivations once established, Never lasts. (we must all understand what really de-motivate us and then take steps to prevent it happening as frequently as possible) Seeing ourselves progressing Motivate us, (it’s the fear of wondering what else can go wrong or can happen that cause the demotivated feeling) Challenge only Motivates if you can WIN, (Those who should be participating must believe that they have chance to win) Every body have Motivated fuse, ( every body have a fuse and can be sparked into life) Group belonging Motivates 40
Conflict ResolutionConflict and stress are very common in live betweenindividual and groupsPeople depend on one another forassistance, communication….., these can be incentive forcooperation but at the same time produce conflict.Conflict is not always negative, and not always anorganizational failure, so conflict can be beneficial if itpromotes people to facing challenges or performingharder, Negative conflict is uncontrolled one that 43produces chaos.
IN ORGANIZATION CONFLICT USUALLYTAKES PLACE: Between individual Between individual and groups Between groups 44
SOME REASON OF CONFLICT Mistrust between individual and between groups Disagreement on objective and goal Lack of flexibility Failure to appreciate diversity such as age, culture, religion, education, exposure etc Unmanaged introduction of personal differences such as jealousy, competition etc. Dependency of different parties on the same resources. Fear of loss agitates and breed conflict. 45
CONFLICT RESOLUTIONThere are different means for managing conflict: The most common one is delaying and postponing conflict “temporary avoidance” Dominance: conflict can be avoided when one party becomes a majority, be more powerful, or stronger than the other party. Example “a manager can exercises dominance by fairing on or more of the conflicting parties” 46
Hierarchical decision Making: conflict can be solved by shifting it to the hierarchical superior to resolve Solving conflict by system restructuring this can be done by- Rotating personnel “periodical rotation of people reduces narrow loyalties and misunderstanding.- The directors reduces the dependency of the conflicting parties on the common resources “providing extra separate resources for each party. 47
PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Directing said to be a process in which managers instruct, guide and oversee the performance of the workers to achieve desired goals. 48
What is the Purpose of Performance Appraisal ? Performance Improvement and Employee Development Understand what work should be done Plan how the work should be done Assess how well the work was done 49
PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Performance Appraisal is the process of planning, organizing, monitoring, and appraising employees performance to ensure their meaningful contribution to the achievement of the Business Objectives. Staff appraisal can be also described as a process whereby the manager/supervisor measures the actual contribution of each employee against the agreed objectives, documenting the review and delivering the review verbally in a face -to-face meeting. 50
MANAGEMENT HR FUNCTIONBefore the OrganizingStart of thePerformancePeriodAt the start of EMPLOYEE Planning MANAGERThe Performance The heart of P. AppraisalPeriod Monitoring & Giving feedback EMPLOYEE Throughout MANAGER The Performance It is all about communication Period MANAGER / EMPLOYEE At the end of the Appraisal Performance Period 51
WHY APPRAISE PERFORMANCE Good appraisal techniques increase the chances of optimal achievement of business Objectives. Areas of an employee’s performance that require improvement are identified. Appraisal results form the basis of financial rewards, recognition, training & development and planned career development. 52
REWARDING PERFORMANCE Recognizepeople for their annual accomplishment 53
IDENTIFY AND TREAT UNSATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE Discuss Objectives and Responsibilities not yet accomplished and discuss the consequences. 54
HOW CAN WE ACHIEVE THIS? We have to ensure that performance is measured against clear objectives. Individual Objectives should be: S pecific to the job M easurable A ttainable R esult oriented T ime bound MUTUALLY AGREED 55
HOW CAN WE ACHIEVE THIS? We need to align the Performance Objectives to the company Objectives to ensure that the strategy is executed. Cascading of Objectives Strategic Senior Management Objectives Deprtmental Project Procurment Finanace Admin & GS HR ObjectivesIndividual 56Objectives
Performance Managementis our approach to excellent business performance and developing employees. We are only as good as our people. 57
DISCIPLINE A supervisor can undertake many steps to maintain discipline in the concern by regulating checks and measures, strictness in orders and instructions, keeping an account of general discipline of organization, implementing penalties and punishments for the indiscipline workers. 58
CONCLUSION Finally we can say that Directing is said to be all those activities which are designed to encourage the subordinates to work effectively and efficiently. It is the heart of management process. Planning, Organizing, Staffing have got no importance if direction function does not take place. Directing makes an action start or begin. 59