Necropsy Case Number: N059:06-17-2011Date of necropsy: 6-17-2011Time of necropsy: 11:00 amGroup: 9 Robert Bovino, Heather Byrnes, Ninian Cameron-Blake, Omega Cantrell, Valerie CarrilKatherine Cerulli, Will Childress, Brendan Cloonan, Kirstin Cologgi, Anaelys Concepion, Shane CowanAnimal Euthanized: 6-14-2011Name of attending pathologist: Dr. Fernanda CastilloName of Animal: Foo FooClient Number: 11599Gross Description: Our specimen is a 3.2 kg intact male domestic short hair feline named Foo Foo. His estimatedage is twelve months. He was brought to the clinic to be neutered, but tested positive for felineimmunodeficiency virus ( FIV) and was euthanized. Body condition score is 2/5. There are ten red toblack healing facial lesions, 1-3mm in diameter, located around the eyes, muzzle, chin, ears and top ofhead. In the right eye there is a unilateral, centrally located white spot, 1.5mm in diameter. There isbilateral, dark brown to black waxy material in the ear canals. On the left forelimb, within the shavedregion, 4 x 7cm, there is a local area of redness and swelling, 2 x 5cm, centrally located within the areaof redness there is one puncture wound, 1x3mm. In the jejunum there are five white parasites of the following dimensions: 54mm x 3-5mm x1mm, 65mm x 3-5mm x 1mm, 125mm x 3-5mm x 1mm, 130mm x 3-5mm x 1mm, and 180mm x 3-5mmx 1mm. There are several black pinpoint sized particles located on the neck and back. There is a 2 x 1cmfirm area present at the apical portion of the diaphragmatic surface of the right caudal lung lobe. Theright testicle displays diffuse hemorrhage of the vaginal tunic. Bone marrow of the diaphysis of the leftfemur is red.Gross Findings:Lungs: One focal firm area on right caudal lung lobe, diffuse hypostatic congestion of right lung lobesRight Eye: Acute, focal, healed corneal ulceration
Integument: Acute, multifocal, mild skin abrasions and one focal puncture woundJejunum: Diplidyum caninum (presumptive)Ears: Chronic, bilateral otitis externaRight Testicle: diffuse hemorrhage of tunica vaginalisLong bone of femur: red bone marrowGross Diagnosis:EuthanasiaOpenFIV PositiveComments: The cat was humanely euthanized because it tested positive for FIV. This virus is common in freeroaming cats, such as this one, and is usually transmitted through bites of infected animals. This is themost probable cause for how Foo Foo acquired the disease. However, the gross findings in this caseshowed few definitive diagnoses for secondary infections typically associated with FIV infections. It cantherefore be presumed that the disease had not yet progressed to a chronic state of infection. The firm area present on the apical portion of the right caudal lung lobe could be related to aprior incidence of pneumonia. Typically the pneumonia is caused from a secondary bacterial, viral orfungal infection. Cats with FIV are often imunosuppressed leaving them vulnerable to infections such asthese. Although bacterial infections play an important role in the progression of FIV in terms of lungdamage, it has been reported that FIV alone can lead to pulmonary changes. The healed corneal lesion and history in this case is suggestive of trauma, a foreign body or of aviral infection. Viral differentials include FIV and feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1, feline rhinotracheitis).
While this animal tested positive for FIV, leading to the euthanasia, we do not believe FIV was theprimary cause. Given the other facial lesions observed, cat fights would be the most likely cause of thehealed corneal ulcer. Fighting is very common in the feral cat population especially when they are notsurgically altered, this is also a frequent form of horizontal transmission of FIV. The helminth parasites are most likely Diplidium caninum because of the site of infection as wellas the presence of what is believed to be flea dirt in the coat. Fleas, or Ctenocephalides felis /canis arethe intermediate host for this parasite. Two potential sources of the brown waxy exudate in the earsare either dirt from the ground or possibly Otodectes cynotis also known as ear mites. FIV is known tocause states of immunosuppression leaving animals more vulnerable to parasitic, bacterial, and fungalinfections. Therefore, the virus may have contributed to the presence of the helminthes and fleas in thisanimal. The presence of red bone marrow in mature animals is unusual, and has been linked to cellularhyperplasia induced by FIV infections. However, because the body was stored for several days prior tonecropsy, it is inappropriate in this case to make any correlations between the FIV infection and thecondition of the bone marrow. The diffuse hemorrhage in the vaginal tunic of the right testicle issuggestive of blunt force trauma. Although a rare finding, testicular inflammation and vasculitis areclinically seen in cats testing positive for feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Infection with FIV suppressescell-mediated immunity leaving the animal vulnerable to secondary infections such as FIP. However,due to the absence of gross lesions indicative of FIP the most probable cause of hemorrhage in the righttesticle is due to trauma.