1. Warm Up
2. Learning in the 21st Century
3. Upgrading the Curriculum
4. Coaches as System Leaders
5. Learning about System Renewal
Warm Up: What knowledge,
attitudes and skills do you
think are important for leading
21st century learning?
A New Essential Curriculum for a New Time – What
do you think?
“I often wonder if our students feel like they are travelling
through time as they walk through the door to the school
each morning” (p7). Heidi Hayes Jacobs
Old School Vs.
Jacob‟s argues that students feel as
though they‟ve walked into a
simulation of the 1980s.
Thesis: “As educators, our
challenge is to match the needs
of our learners to a world that is
changing with great rapidity. To
meet this challenge we need to
become strategic learners
ourselves by deliberately
expanding our perspectives and
updating our approaches” (p.7).
• Society in the 1800s was becoming less agrarian and more industrial
• It was a contentious time with competing viewpoints:
o critical thinking vs. rote memorization?
o racial and ethnic segregation?
o classic Latin or Greek practices?
• The Committee of Ten issued a report on December 4th, 1893 in New York which
recommended the same curriculum for all students - Designed in a factory model of
• Schooling would take place over 8 elementary years and 4 high school years
o History & Civics
o Biology & Chemistry
Image Source: www.thesummitprep.org
Elementary school was designed to meet goals of High
School (p 9).
“Form should follow function. And now more than ever, we have
genuinely new forms to work with” (p.14). - Heidi Hayes Jacobs
That Jacob’s believes shape our
operational visions of
schools– Agree or
#1 - The good old days are good
#2 - We‟re better off if we think
alike - and not too much
#3 - Too much creativity is
dangerous - and the arts
are frills (p 15).
Image Source incare-k12.com
Jacob’s makes reference to the work of
Wiggins and McTighe (2005) in
“Understanding by Design,” where they
argue that we should determine what
we want students to be able to do
before we start “short sighted activity
writing” for the classroom. This is
referred to as “backward design” by
beginning with the end in mind. This
means being deliberate and forward
“Designing backward does not mean
going backwards” (p. 8).
Running schools on a continuous “replay button” no longer
The word essential is derived from the Latin esse, meaning “to be.” When
combined with the Webster‟s definition, “to distill to the core,” the application
to curriculum making is clear” (p.13). - Heidi Hayes Jacobs
Problem #1: The
Four Key Program
Structures: Need to be
A New Essential
Overemphasis on dated
The schedule - long and
short is dated
Needs actual replacement
of dated content, skills &
Overemphasis on low level
The way we group learners-
we know multi-age groups
Change can feel trendy &
superficial, but growth is
deep & positive
Prevailing myth that
standards prepare students
for the future
Personal configurations -
personnel can be effective
Form should follow function,
and we have so many new
forms to work with
Too much disparity in
interpretation of standards
Physical & virtual space- we
isolate teachers in their
There are signs of
improvement. i.e. Digital
grad portfolios in Rhode
UPGRADING THE CURRICULUM: 21st
CENTURY ASSESSMENT TYPES AND SKILLS
You can’t just replace a
typewriter with a
computer and call it
innovative. We need to
PRACTICES(Jacobs, 2010, p.18).
…..that’s a lot of stuff to upgrade.
Step 1: Figure out what these new
assessments are going to look like!
Hint: The new assessments should
reflect products and performances of
21st century professionals.
Podcasts Films Online
Courses Blogs E-reports
Step 2: Teachers and IT identify what
kinds of technology exist in the
Once that has been determined, differentiated staff
development will be needed so staff can learn new
web design toolswebquests twitter
photoshop web simulations CAD
Step 3: Replace a dated
assessment with a modern one
“We should aggressively
go out of our way to
search for better ways to
help our learners
demonstrate learning with
the types of products and
performances that match
our times” (Jacobs, 2010, p.25).
Step 4: Share the assessment upgrades
with other teachers and students
The original assessment can be compared to the
new and improved one – this allows for
collaborative brainstorming to occur.
Step 5: Embed ongoing sessions and
time into the school calendar for
Teachers need built-in,
recurring time set aside to
upgrade curriculum and
expand their instructional
strategies (Jacobs, 2010, p.26).
Coaches as System Leaders
Michael Fullan and Jim Knight
Good coaching gets results quickly
Coaching has to be part of an overall district
Districts must be organize to create,
develop&sustain conditions for
What does not work
If Coaching is to be successful a focus is required
What does work
“All schools in a
district must be
treated as a part
of a system.
Changing one school
at a time is no
longer an option”
The Coaches role . . .
• lesson planning with classroom teacher
• modeling lessons
• observing instruction
• facilitation of meetings
• reviewing student data
• collaborative marking
Evidence shows successful Coaching requires. . .
• clear articulated professional development goals
for both the coaches and the principal
• supportive and collaborative leadership rather
than top-down (which creates an atmosphere of
• training for coaches
• pedagogic, communication and leadership skills
Principal role . . .
• Instructional leader
• Collaborate with coach and classroom teacher
• School leaders need to understand School
• Allow meaningful change to be realized before
trying something else
• building and increasing system level
• support for system and „change‟ leaders
• emphasis on professional learning rather
North York saw a 20% improvement following the
development and implementation of 14 parameters
• Shared beliefs & vision
• Embedded literacy coaches
• Timetabled literacy blocks
• Principal leadership
• Early & ongoing
• Case management
• Literacy professional
• In-school grade & subject
• book rooms with levelled
books & resources
• Allocation of resources to
• Action research focussed
• parental involvement
• Cross-curricular literacy
• shared responsibility &
Indicate with the clipart tool all the parameters your school district utilizes.
A teacher‟s work has the greatest impact on
student success followed by that of the principal
and finally the coach.
“The work of the coach is squandered if school
principals are not instructional leaders” (p. 55).
Learning About System Renewal
by Ben Levin & Michael Fullan
•The introduction of the Education
Reform Act (ERA) 1988 in
England was a watershed event
not just in that country but
•The educational strategy of ERA
was based on choice and
•Belief that competition drives
efficiency and improvement in
economy so why not schools.
•Parents could choose schools
and would need comparable
measures of students
achievement – based on a single
The article focused on the lessons learned about effective change from international
experience with large-scale reform over the last 20 years.
• Many countries have “moved in
similar directions, though with
highly variable degrees of
boldness and commitment “ (p.
•Along the way there have been
growing concerns about basing an
education strategy on choice and
competition (p. 291).
• Recent reforms in many
countries attempt to address both
excellence and equity through
strategies that focus on improving
the whole system by „raising the
bar and closing the gap‟ for all (p.
Levin & Fullan (2008) state that:
Creating change in education is easy.
Many governments have done it by changing funding or policies or information or
governance structures. However these changes are not necessarily improvements (p. 292).
Found in the
clipart tool box
or not you
to the school
Central Lesson of Large Scale Educational Change
Levin & Fullan (2008) believe that large-scale, sustained
improvement in student outcomes requires a sustained effort
to change school and classroom practices, not just structures
such as governance and accountability.
The heart of improvement lies in changing teaching and
learning practices in thousands and thousands of classrooms,
and this requires focused and sustained effort by all parts of
the education system and its partners(p. 291).
Seven Key Components to Education Reform that are Sustainable
andResult in Better Outcomes for Learners(p. 292-299).
(1) A small number of ambitious yet achievable goals, publicly stated.
(2) A positive stance with a focus on motivation.
(3) Multi-level engagement with strong leadership and a „guiding coalition‟.
(4) Emphasis on capacity building with a focus on results.
(5) Keeping a focus on key strategies while also managing other interests and issues.
(6) Effective use of resources.
(7) Constant and growing transparency including
public and stakeholder communication
The Inhibiting Factors
• The use of change knowledge is increasing internationally, but future
prospects remainmixed because it is hard work!
Please jot down a few of your thoughts on why many attempts at school reform fail to achieve their goals!
The Inhibiting Factors
According to by Ben Levin & Michael Fullan
• Not a quick fix – governments under pressure to
do something now – no patients to stay the course
• High turnover of leaders makes it difficult to have
a guiding coalition of leaders on the same page for
this complex approach
• Deep Cultural Change requires hard, patient,
unrelenting effort over a period of years
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