architecture history - Industrial revolution
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architecture history - Industrial revolution

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this is architectural history slide. not very details but understandable,for more info just msg me.

this is architectural history slide. not very details but understandable,for more info just msg me.

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architecture history - Industrial revolution architecture history - Industrial revolution Presentation Transcript

  • BACHELOR in INTERIOR architecture HISTORY of DESIGN
  • The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE 06 19th CENTURY ART & ARCHITECTURE 1900 1800 1700 2000 2100 Time line The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - 19th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE 2008
  • INTRODUCTION The swift development of architectural technique and form in this century has roots that go as far back as the 18th century. HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE 06 The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - 19th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE The Enlightenment : Enhanced the significance and the social status of every citizen. Fundamental change in political culture. 19th Century : An era of revolutionary changes affecting every aspects of life. The Industrial Revolution : spreads from England to Europe and North America, created a new type of worker : the wage-laborer or proletarian, who earn hard living in the numerous factories.
  • NEW INVENTIONS The Steam Engine : invented by James Watt in 1785, whose proliferation into newly built machine shop and iron foundries engendered an appropriate type of building. HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE 06 Amos Beam Engine 1867 The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - 19th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE
  • The Railway : A meaningful symbol of the new age which in turn had consequences for architecture - stations, bridges, tunnels. NEW INVENTIONS HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE 06 Locomotive : 1813, Christopher Blackett The Rocket : 1829, George & Robert Stephenson The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - 19th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE
  • NEW INVENTIONS HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE 06 The Steam Boat : An important means of transportation which in turn had consequences for mass migration from across the globe. Mississippi Steam boat in 1906 inspired by Robert Fulton’s Clermont : 1807 The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - 19th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE
  • MASS MIGRATION HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE 06 The possibility of travel brought about the migration of population from the countryside to big cities and from nation to nation. Streets of New York City - Mid 1800 The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - 19th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE
  • OTHER NEW INVENTIONS HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE 06 Rover Bicycle: 1888, John Kemp Starley Daimler motorcycle : 1885, Gottlieb Daimler The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - 19th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE
  • OTHER NEW INVENTIONS HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE 06 Motorwagen : 1888, Carl Benz Mercedes Jellinek Quadricycle : 1896, Henry Ford The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - 19th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE
  • OTHER NEW INVENTIONS HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE 06 Thomas Alva Edison Alexander Graham Bell Bell demonstration of the telephone : 1876 The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - 19th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE
  • OTHER NEW INVENTIONS HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE 06 Spinning Jenny Steam power cotton weaving machine : 1850’s The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - 19th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE
  • OTHER NEW INVENTIONS HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE 06 Steam engine power supply : 1876, George Corliss for Machinery Hall - Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition Wallpaper printing machine Kodak Pocket Camera : 1895, George Eastman The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - 19th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE
  • OTHER NEW INVENTIONS HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE 06 First Singer sewing machine : 1851 Singer sewing machine : 1870 First Remington Typewriter : 1874 Remington Typewriter No 10: 1907 The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - 19th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE
  • OTHER NEW INVENTIONS HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE 06 Toilet Bowl catalog : 1898 Consumer Guide, 1897 The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - 19th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE
  • WORLD EXPOSITION HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE 06 Great exhibitions, since their birth in London’s Hyde Park in 1851, have served repeatedly as testing grounds for new architectural ideas . Joseph Paxton’s Crystal Palace soon became the model for other experiment in iron and glass. The Crystal Palace was designed by Joseph Paxton for the Great Exhibition of 1851, held in Hyde Park, London. It was afterwards re-erected on Sydenham Hill, where it stood until accidentally destroyed by fire in 1936. The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - 19th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE
  • WORLD EXPOSITION - Crystal Palace HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE 06 Its iron frame was prefabricated in sections and its glass panels, set into wooden sash-bar, were of standard 4 feet lengths. In 1851, it was the largest building ever constructed, with an area of 770,000 sq.ft. The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - 19th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE Opening Ceremony by Queen Victoria
  • WORLD EXPOSITION - Crystal Palace HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE 06 Facade Floor Plan The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - 19th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE
  • WORLD EXPOSITION - Crystal Palace HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE 06 Main Nave The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - 19th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE Transcept Transcept with fountain
  • WORLD EXPOSITION - Crystal Palace HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE 06 Centhall The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - 19th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE Foreign Exhibit Closing Ceremony
  • Centennial Exhibition 1876, Philadelphia, United States WORLD EXPOSITION - Centennial Exhibition 1876 HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE 06 The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - 19th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE
  • WORLD EXPOSITION - Paris World Exhibition 1889 HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE 06 Paris World Exhibition 1889 The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - 19th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE Paris World Exhibition 1889 : Machine Hall, Charles Dutert (architect) & Victor Contamin (engineer). Eiffel Tower, Paris: Gustave Eiffel
  • IRON STEEL GLASS & CONCRETE HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE 06 New materials were increasingly used. Cast Iron , an essentially brittle material, is approximately four times as resistant to compression as stone. Wrought Iron , which is forty times as resistant to tension and bending as stone, is only four times heavier. It can be form and molded into any shape. Structures consisting of metal columns and girders no longer needed walls for their statics . This marked the onset of the most significant technological revolution in architectural history. Glass can be manufacture in larger sizes and volumes. The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - 19th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE Solid structures could be replaced by skeleton structures, making it possible to erect buildings of almost unrestricted height and width very quickly, using prefabricated elements . Francois Hennebique developed the reinforced concrete construction, particularly in overcoming the weakness which existed in previous reinforced concrete structures.
  • In terms of social structure, the Industrial Revolution witnessed the triumph of a middle class of industrialists and businessmen over a landed class of nobility and gentry. Ordinary working people found increased opportunities for employment in the new mills and factories, but these were often under strict working conditions with long hours of labour dominated by a pace set by machines. However, harsh working conditions were prevalent long before the Industrial Revolution took place. Pre-industrial society was very static and often cruel - child labour , dirty living conditions and long working hours were just as prevalent before the Industrial Revolution SOCIAL EFFECTS
  • SOCIAL EFFECTS Women taking a break in between long working hours City environment and living condition very bad
  • SOCIAL EFFECTS The Industrial Revolution concentrated labour into mills, factories and mines, thus facilitating the organisation of combinations or trade unions to help advance the interests of working people. The power of a union could demand better terms by withdrawing all labour and causing a consequent cessation of production. Employers had to decide between giving in to the union demands at a cost to themselves or suffer the cost of the lost production. The main method the unions used to effect change was strike action . Many strikes were painful events for both sides, the unions and the management. In England, the Combination Act forbade workers to form any kind of trade union from 1799 until its repeal in 1824. Even after this, unions were still severely restricted. Eventually effective political organisation for working people was achieved through the trades unions who, after the extensions of the franchise in 1867 and 1885, began to support socialist political parties that later merged to became the British Labour Party. Strike action
  • Q & A SESSION Thank you The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - 19th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE