Unit 9 Manipulating Dna


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Unit 9 Manipulating Dna

  1. 1. KEY CONCEPT Biotechnology relies on cutting DNA at specific places. <br />
  2. 2. Scientists use several techniques to manipulate DNA. <br />Chemicals, computers, and bacteria are used to work with DNA.<br />Scientists use these tools in genetics research and biotechnology.<br />
  3. 3. Restriction enzymes cut DNA. <br />Restriction enzymes act as “molecular scissors.” <br />come from various types of bacteria<br />allow scientists to more easily study and manipulate genes<br />cut DNA at a specific nucleotide sequence called a restriction site<br />
  4. 4. <ul><li>Different restriction enzymes cut DNA in different ways.
  5. 5. each enzyme has a different restriction site</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>some cut straight across and leave “blunt ends”
  6. 6. some make staggered cuts and leave “sticky ends”</li></li></ul><li>Restriction maps show the lengths of DNA fragments. <br />Gel electrophoresis is used to separate DNA fragments by size.<br />A DNA sample is cut with restriction enzymes.<br />Electrical current pulls DNA fragments through a gel.<br />
  7. 7. <ul><li>Smaller fragments move faster and travel farther than larger fragments.
  8. 8. Fragments of different sizes appear as bands on the gel.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>A restriction map shows the lengths of DNA fragments between restriction sites.
  9. 9. only indicate size, not DNA sequence
  10. 10. useful in genetic engineering
  11. 11. used to study mutations</li></li></ul><li>KEY CONCEPT The polymerase chain reaction rapidly copies segments of DNA. <br />
  12. 12. target sequence of DNA<br />PCR uses polymerases to copy DNA segments.<br />PCR makes many copies of a specific DNA sequence in a few hours.<br /><ul><li> PCR amplifies DNA samples.
  13. 13. PCR is similar to DNA replication.</li></li></ul><li>DNA strands<br />primer1<br />polymerase<br />primer 2<br />nucleotides<br />PCR is a three-step process. <br />PCR uses four materials.<br />DNA to be copied<br />DNA polymerase<br />A, T, C, and G nucleotides<br />two primers <br />
  14. 14. DNA strands<br />primer1<br />polymerase<br />primer 2<br />nucleotides<br /><ul><li>The three steps of PCR occur in a cycle.
  15. 15. heat is used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules
  16. 16. primers bind to each DNA strand on opposite ends of the segment to be copied
  17. 17. DNA polymerase binds nucleotides together to form new strands of DNA </li></li></ul><li>Each PCR cycle doubles the number of DNA molecules.<br />
  18. 18. KEY CONCEPT DNA fingerprints identify people at the molecular level.<br />
  19. 19. A DNA fingerprint is a type of restriction map.<br />DNA fingerprints are based on parts of an individual’s DNA that can by used for identification.<br />based on noncoding regions of DNA<br />noncoding regions have repeating DNA sequences<br />number of repeats differs between people<br />banding pattern on a gel is a DNA fingerprint<br />
  20. 20. (mother) (child 1) (child 2) (father)<br />DNA fingerprinting is used for identification. <br />DNA fingerprinting depends on the probability of a match.<br />Many people have thesame number ofrepeats in a certainregion of DNA.<br />The probability that two people share identicalnumbers of repeats inseveral locations isvery small.<br />
  21. 21. 1 1 1 1<br />500 90 120 5,400,000<br />x<br />x<br />=<br />=<br />1 chance in 5.4 million people<br /><ul><li>Individual probabilities are multiplied to find the overall probability of two DNA fingerprints randomly matching.
  22. 22. Several regions of DNA are used to make DNA fingerprints.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>DNA fingerprinting is used in several ways.
  23. 23. evidence in criminal cases
  24. 24. paternity tests
  25. 25. immigration requests
  26. 26. studying biodiversity
  27. 27. tracking genetically modified crops</li></li></ul><li>KEY CONCEPT DNA sequences of organisms can be changed.<br />
  28. 28. Entire organisms can be cloned.<br />A clone is a genetically identical copy of a gene or of an organism. <br />
  29. 29. <ul><li>Cloning occurs in nature.
  30. 30. bacteria (binary fission)
  31. 31. some plants (from roots)
  32. 32. some simple animals (budding, regeneration)</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Mammals can be cloned through a process called nuclear transfer.
  33. 33. nucleus is removed from an egg cell
  34. 34. nucleus of a cell from the animal to be cloned is implanted in the egg</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Cloning has potential benefits.
  35. 35. organs for transplant into humans
  36. 36. save endangered species
  37. 37. Cloning raises concerns.
  38. 38. low success rate
  39. 39. clones “imperfect” and less healthy than original animal
  40. 40. decreased biodiversity</li></li></ul><li>(bacterial DNA)<br />New genes can be added to an organism’s DNA. <br />Genetic engineering involves changing an organism’s DNA to give it new traits. <br />Genetic engineering is based on the use of recombinant DNA. <br />Recombinant DNA contains genes from more than one organism.<br />
  41. 41. <ul><li>Bacterial plasmids are often used to make recombinant DNA.
  42. 42. plasmids are loops of DNA in bacteria
  43. 43. restriction enzymes cut plasmid and foreign DNA
  44. 44. foreign gene inserted into plasmid</li></li></ul><li>Genetic engineering produces organisms with new traits. <br />A transgenic organism has one or more genes from another organism inserted into its genome. <br />
  45. 45. <ul><li>Transgenic bacteria can be used to produce human proteins.
  46. 46. gene inserted into plasmid
  47. 47. plasmid inserted into bacteria
  48. 48. bacteria express the gene
  49. 49. Transgenic plants are common in agriculture.
  50. 50. transgenic bacteriainfect a plant
  51. 51. plant expressesforeign gene
  52. 52. many crops are nowgenetically modified(GM)</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Transgenic animals are used to study diseases and gene functions.
  53. 53. transgenic mice used to study development and disease
  54. 54. gene knockout mice used to study gene function</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Scientists have concerns about some uses of genetic engineering.
  55. 55. possible long-term health effects of eating GM foods
  56. 56. possible effects of GM plants on ecosystems and biodiversity</li></li></ul><li>KEY CONCEPT Entire genomes are sequenced, studied, and compared. <br />
  57. 57. Genomics involves the study of genes, gene functions, and entire genomes. <br />Genomics is the study of genomes.<br />can include the sequencing of the genome<br />comparisons of genomes within and across species<br />
  58. 58. <ul><li>Gene sequencing is determining the order of DNA nucleotides in genes or in genomes.
  59. 59. The genomes of several different organisms have been sequenced.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>The Human Genome Project has sequenced all of the DNA base pairs of human chromosomes.
  60. 60. analyzed DNA from a few people
  61. 61. still working to identify and map human genes</li></li></ul><li>Technology allows the study and comparison of both genes and proteins. <br />Bioinformatics is the use of computer databases to organize and analyze biological data. <br />DNA microarrays are used to study the expression of many genes at once. <br /><ul><li>Proteomics is the study and comparison of proteins.</li></li></ul><li>KEY CONCEPT Genetics provides a basis for new medical treatments.<br />
  62. 62. DMD<br />N<br />Genetic screening can detect genetic disorders. <br />Genetic screening involves the testing of DNA.<br />determines risk of havingor passing on a geneticdisorder<br />used to detect specificgenes or proteins<br />can detect some genesrelated to an increasedrisk of cancer<br />can detect some genesknown to cause geneticdisorders<br />
  63. 63. Gene therapy is the replacement of faulty genes.<br />Gene therapy replaces defective or missing genes, or adds new genes, to treat a disease.<br />
  64. 64. <ul><li>Several experimental techniques are used for gene therapy.
  65. 65. genetically engineered viruses used to “infect” a patient’s cells
  66. 66. insert gene to stimulate immune system to attack cancer cells
  67. 67. insert “suicide” genes into cancer cells that activate a drug</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Gene therapy has many technical challenges.
  68. 68. inserting gene into correct cells
  69. 69. controlling gene expression
  70. 70. determining effect on other genes</li>