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# Unit 8 Periodic Table of Elements

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### Unit 8 Periodic Table of Elements

1. 1. Atomic Structure<br />Unit 7 – Physical Science<br />
2. 2. Atomic Particles<br />Proton<br />Neutron<br />Electron -<br />+<br />N<br />Protons and Neutrons together are called Nucleons<br />
3. 3. Atomic Number is the number of Protons<br />Atomic Mass is Protons and Neutrons together<br />
4. 4. Proton<br />Positively charged particle<br />Resides in the nucleus<br />Weighs 1 Atomic Mass Unit (AMU)<br />Repel other protons<br />The number of protons determines the element number.<br />+<br />
5. 5. Proton<br />Positively charged particle<br />Resides in the nucleus<br />Weighs 1 Atomic Mass Unit (AMU)<br />Repel other protons<br />The number of protons determines the element number.<br />+<br />Which element would this be?<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />
6. 6. Proton<br />Positively charged particle<br />Resides in the nucleus<br />Weighs 1 Atomic Mass Unit (AMU)<br />Repel other protons<br />The number of protons determines the element number.<br />+<br />Which element would this be?<br />Carbon<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />
7. 7. Too Many Protons<br />Protons repel each other due to the electromagnetic force<br />If an element has too many protons, it will be unstable and will break apart.<br />+<br />+<br />
8. 8. Too Many Protons<br />This is why all elements over #82 Lead are radioactive!<br />In addition, none over #94 Plutonium exist naturally.<br />+<br />+<br />
9. 9. Neutron<br />N<br />A Neutron has a neutral charge<br />Neutrons weigh 1.001 AMU<br />Resides in the nucleus<br />It does not affect the elemental or chemical properties of the atom<br />
10. 10. Neutron<br />A Neutron has a neutral charge<br />Neutrons weigh 1.001 AMU<br />Resides in the nucleus<br />It does not affect the elemental or chemical properties of the atom<br />It does provide additional nuclear force to hold the nucleus together<br />N<br />
11. 11. Isotopes<br />Isotopes result from different numbers of neutrons in an element<br />Isotopes are chemically the same<br />They only differ in their mass and their nuclear stability<br />N<br />+<br />N<br />N<br />+<br />N<br />N<br />+<br />+<br />N<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />N<br />N<br />N<br />N<br />N<br />+<br />N<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />N<br />N<br />Carbon-12 C12<br />Carbon-14 C14<br />
12. 12. Strong Nuclear Force<br />The strong nuclear force is the force that holds the nucleus together.<br />All Nucleons are attracted to each other.<br />Because + protons repel each other (electromagnetic force), the presence of neutrons helps bind the nucleus together.<br />Electromagnetic Force<br />+<br />N<br />N<br />N<br />+<br />+<br />Strong Nuclear Force<br />Strong Nuclear Force<br />Strong Nuclear Force<br />
13. 13. Atomic Stability<br />The more protons there are, the more neutrons are necessary to stabilize the nucleus.<br />Note that Helium has 2p/2n ratio<br />Lead has 82p/125n ratio<br />2<br />82<br />Pb<br />He<br />4<br />207<br />Helium<br />Lead<br />
14. 14. Atomic Mass<br />Atomic mass is the average of all isotopes on Earth together.<br />To figure out the number of neutrons, just go AtomicMass-Atomic # = Neutrons<br />He 4-2=2 neutrons Pb 207-82 = 125 neutrons<br />2<br />82<br />Pb<br />He<br />4<br />207<br />Helium<br />Lead<br />
15. 15. Atomic Stability<br />The more protons there are, the more neutrons are necessary to stabilize the nucleus.<br />
16. 16. Electrons<br />Electrons are negative particles<br />Electrons weight 0.001 AMU<br />They reside outside the nucleus in the electron cloud<br />They usually match the number of protons to make a neutral atom<br />-<br />
17. 17. This is the relative scale<br />+<br />-<br />Except the proton should be 10x bigger!<br />
18. 18. This is Hydrogen<br />Hydrogen<br />+<br />-<br />1<br />H<br />1<br />
19. 19. What is a Neutron Anyways?<br />OK, so you’ve heard that Neutrons are neutral and weigh 1.001 AMU<br />Do you notice any pattern here?<br />
20. 20. What is a Neutron Anyways?<br />Think of a Neutron as a Proton and Electron stuck together.<br />
21. 21. What is a Neutron Anyways?<br />Think of a Neutron as a Proton and Electron stuck together.<br />N<br />
22. 22. Beta Decay?<br />When an isotope has too many neutrons, a neutron will emit a β-particle <br /> (which is basically an electron)<br />This causes the neutron to change from neutral to positive (i.e. a proton).<br />This actually changes the element it is!<br />
23. 23. Beta Decay<br />N<br />19<br />K<br />40<br />Potassium<br />
24. 24. Beta Decay<br />Potassuim-40 with 19 protons becomes Calcium-40 with 20 protons!<br />+<br />β-<br />19<br />20<br />K<br />Ca<br />40<br />40<br />Potassium<br />Calcium<br />
25. 25. What about Electrons?<br />Electrons reside outside the nucleus in the electron cloud<br />
26. 26. Models of ElectronsRutherford Model<br />
27. 27. Models of ElectronsBohr Model<br />Energy Levels<br />
28. 28. Energy Levels<br />When energy is added, electrons can jump to higher energy shells.<br />When that electron returns to its normal state, that energy is released (often as light). <br />That is how a fluorescent or neon light works.<br />Electricity is exciting air molecules<br />
29. 29. Models of ElectronsClouds<br />
30. 30. Heisenburg Uncertainty Principal<br />Heinsenburg realized it is impossible to knkow both an electrons position and velocity at the same time.<br />That is because the moment you detect its position, you have changed its velocity – and vice-versa.<br />
31. 31. Why the uncertainty?<br />
32. 32. Why the uncertainty?<br />You know where it was, but now<br />you have changed its direction and speed.<br />
33. 33. Quantum Mechanics<br />Probability densities<br />The electrons do not appear to move in patterns, but simply seem to flash on and off in different locations.<br />It is described as being almost like a instantaneous transporter<br />
34. 34. Models of ElectronsOrbitals<br />