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Unit 6 Kinetic Theory of Gases

on Feb 08, 2010

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Unit 6 Kinetic Theory of GasesPresentation Transcript

• Unit 6
Kinetic Theory of Gases
• Kinetic Theory
3 Parts to Kinetic Theory
All particles are in constant random motion
• Kinetic Theory
3 Parts to Kinetic Theory
All particles are in constant random motion
The motion of one particle is unaffected by the motion of other particles unless they collide.
• Kinetic Theory
3 Parts to Kinetic Theory
All particles are in constant random motion
The motion of one particle is unaffected by the motion of other particles unless they collide.
Forces of attraction among particles in a gas can be ignored under ordinary conditions.
• Kinetic Theory
The molecules move in straight lines and at constant velocity
They only change directions or speed when they collide with other molecules or the sides of the container
• Boyle’s Law
As the volume of a gas decreases (Squeezing), the pressure increases.
The volume of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure applied.
Temperature and number of particles are held constant.
P1V1= P2V2
• Charles’ Law
As the temperature of a gas increases, the volume increases.
The volume of a gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature.
Pressure and number of particles are held constant.
V1/T1= V2/T2
• Hot Air Balloons work on Charles Law
• Hot Air Balloons work on Charles Law
• Try It At Home!
Seal an empty water bottle
Throw into the freezer.
Wait 20 minutes
• Try It At Home!
Seal an empty water bottle
Throw into the freezer.
Check it out after it gets cold!
Charles Law in effect
• Why do you always launch balloons early in the morning?
• Why do you always launch balloons early in the morning?
Early morning is cooler, so the temperature difference between the air in the balloon and the outside is greater.
Once up high, the air is cooler and you can stay up for a long time.
• Guy-Lussacs’ Law
Guy-Lussacs’ Law. The number of particles of the substance are held constant.
P1/T1= P2/T2
• Why is this a problem?
• The heat will increase the pressure in the tank until it explodes
• Try It At Home!
Seal an empty water bottle on a high mountain road.
Drive down to sea level
• Try It At Home!
Seal an empty water bottle on a mountain road.
Check it out at sea level!
Guy-Lussac’s Law
• Combined Gas Law
Combination of Boyle’s and Charles’ Law. The number of particles of the substance are held constant.
P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
• Why are weather balloons not filled completely at launch?
• Combined Gas Law
Ground:
T = 293 K
P = 1 Atm
V = 100 L
5,000 m:
T = 263 K
P = 0.5 Atm
V = ?
16,000 m
T = 213 K
P = 0.1 Atm
V = ?
P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
• Combined Gas Law
Ground:
T = 293 K
P = 1 Atm
V = 100 L
5,000 m:
T = 263 K
P = 0.5 Atm
V = ?
16,000 m
T = 213 K
P = 0.1 Atm
V = ?
1.0atm*100L/293K = 0.5atm*V2/263K
P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
• Combined Gas Law
Ground:
T = 293 K
P = 1 Atm
V = 100 L
5,000 m:
T = 263 K
P = 0.5 Atm
V = 179 L
16,000 m
T = 213 K
P = 0.1 Atm
V = ?
1.0atm*100L/293K = 0.5atm*V2/263K
V2 = 179 L
P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
• Combined Gas Law
Ground:
T = 293 K
P = 1 Atm
V = 100 L
5,000 m:
T = 263 K
P = 0.5 Atm
V = 179 L
16,000 m
T = 203 K
P = 0.1 Atm
V = ?
1.0atm*100L/293K = 0.1atm*V2/203K
P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
• Combined Gas Law
Ground:
T = 293 K
P = 1 Atm
V = 100 L
5,000 m:
T = 263 K
P = 0.5 Atm
V = 179 L
16,000 m
T = 203 K
P = 0.1 Atm
V = 693 L
1.0atm*100L/293K = 0.1atm*V2/203K
V2 = 693 L
P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
• Why are weather balloons not filled completely at launch?
• Why are weather balloons not filled completely at launch?
The Atmosphere is much thinner, so the balloon expands
• Try It At Home!
Seal an empty water bottle on a mountain road.
Check it out at sea level!
Guy-Lussac’s Law