Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Unit 4 Chemical Energy And Atp
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Unit 4 Chemical Energy And Atp

9,646
views

Published on


1 Comment
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
9,646
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
170
Comments
1
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. KEY CONCEPT All cells need chemical energy.
  • 2. Starch molecule
    Glucose molecule
    The chemical energy used for most cell processes is carried by ATP.
    Molecules in food store chemical energy in their bonds.
  • 3. phosphate removed
    ATP transfers energy from the breakdown of food molecules to cell functions.
    • Energy is released when a phosphate group is removed.
    • 4. ADP is changed into ATP when a phosphate group is added.
  • triphosphate
    adenosine
    tri=3
    adenosine
    diphosphate
    di=2
    Organisms break down carbon-based molecules to produce ATP.
    Carbohydrates are the molecules most commonly broken down to make ATP.
    • not stored in large amounts
    • 5. up to 36 ATP from one glucose molecule
  • Fats store the most energy.
    • 80 percent of the energy in your body
    • 6. about 146 ATP from a triglyceride
    • 7. Proteins are least likely to be broken down to make ATP.
    • 8. amino acids not usually needed for energy
    • 9. about the same amount of energy as a carbohydrate
  • A few types of organisms do not need sunlight and photosynthesis as a source of energy.
    Some organisms live in places that never get sunlight.
    In chemosynthesis, chemical energy is used to build carbon-based molecules.
    similar to photosynthesis
    uses chemical energy instead of light energy
  • 10. KEY CONCEPTThe overall process of photosynthesis produces sugars that store chemical energy.
  • 11. Photosynthetic organisms are producers.
    Producers make their own source of chemical energy.
    Plants use photosynthesis and are producers.
    Photosynthesis captures energy from sunlight to make sugars.
  • 12. chloroplast
    leaf cell
    leaf
    Chlorophyll is a molecule that absorbs light energy.
    • In plants, chlorophyll is found in organelles called chloroplasts.
  • grana (thylakoids)
    chloroplast
    stroma
    Photosynthesis in plants occurs in chloroplasts.
    Photosynthesis takes place in two parts of chloroplasts.
    grana (thylakoids)
    stroma
  • 13. The light-dependent reactions capture energy from sunlight.
    • take place in thylakoids
    • 14. water and sunlight are needed
    • 15. chlorophyll absorbs energy
    • 16. energy is transferred along thylakoid membrane then to light-independent reactions
    • 17. oxygen is released
  • The light-independent reactions make sugars.
    • take place in stroma
    • 18. needs carbon dioxide from atmosphere
    • 19. use energy to build a sugar in a cycle of chemical reactions
  • granum (stack of thylakoids)
    chloroplast
    1
    sunlight
    6H2O
    6O2
    2
    energy
    thylakoid
    stroma (fluid outside the thylakoids)
    6CO2
    1 six-carbon sugar
    C6H12O6
    4
    3
    The equation for the overall process is:
    6CO2 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 + 6O2
  • 20. KEY CONCEPT Photosynthesis requires a series of chemical reactions.
  • 21. The first stage of photosynthesis captures and transfers energy.
    The light-dependent reactions include groups of molecules called photosystems.
  • 22. Photosystem II captures and transfers energy.
    • chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight
    • 23. energized electrons enter electron transport chain
    • 24. water molecules are split
    • 25. oxygen is released as waste
    • 26. hydrogen ions are transported across thylakoid membrane
  • Photosystem I captures energy and produces energy-carrying molecules.
    • chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight
    • 27. energized electrons are used to make NADPH
    • 28. NADPH is transferred to light-independent reactions
  • The light-dependent reactions produce ATP.
    • hydrogen ions flow through a channel in the thylakoid membrane
    • 29. ATP synthase attached to the channel makes ATP
  • The second stage of photosynthesis uses energy from the first stage to make sugars.
    Light-independent reactions occur in the stroma and use CO2 molecules.
  • 30. A molecule of glucose is formed as it stores some of the energy captured from sunlight.
    • carbon dioxide molecules enter the Calvin cycle
    • 31. energy is added and carbon molecules are rearranged
    • 32. a high-energy three-carbon molecule leaves the cycle
    • A molecule of glucose is formed as it stores some of the energy captured from sunlight.
    two three-carbon molecules bond to form a sugar
    • remaining molecules stay in the cycle
  • KEY CONCEPT The overall process of cellular respiration converts sugar into ATP using oxygen.
  • 33. mitochondrion
    animal cell
    Cellular respiration makes ATP by breaking down sugars.
    Cellular respiration is aerobic, or requires oxygen.
    Aerobic stages take place in mitochondria.
  • 34. Glycolysis must take place first.
    • anaerobic process (does not require oxygen)
    • 35. takes place in cytoplasm
    • 36. splits glucose into two three-carbon molecules
    • 37. produces two ATP molecules
  • ATP
    1
    mitochondrion
    matrix (area enclosed
    by inner membrane)
    and
    6CO
    2
    energy
    2
    3
    energy from glycolysis
    ATP
    inner membrane
    and
    and
    6H O
    2
    6O
    2
    4
    Cellular respiration is like a mirror image of photosynthesis.
    The Krebs cycle transfers energy to an electron transport chain.
    takes place inmitochondrial matrix
    breaks down three-carbonmolecules from glycolysis
    Krebs Cycle
    • makes a small amount of ATP
    • 38. releases carbon dioxide
    • 39. transfers energy-carrying molecules
  • ATP
    1
    mitochondrion
    matrix (area enclosed
    by inner membrane)
    and
    6CO
    2
    energy
    2
    3
    Electron Transport
    energy from glycolysis
    ATP
    inner membrane
    and
    and
    6H O
    2
    6O
    2
    4
    • The electron transport chain produces a large amount of ATP.
    • 40. takes place in inner membrane
    • 41. energy transferred to electron transport chain
    • 42. oxygen enters process
    • 43. ATP produced
    • 44. water released as awaste product
  • The equation for the overall process is:
    C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O
    • The reactants in photosynthesis are the same as the products of cellular respiration.
  • KEY CONCEPT Cellular respiration is an aerobic process with two main stages.
  • 45. Glycolysis is needed for cellular respiration.
    The products of glycolysis enter cellular respiration when oxygen is available.
    two ATP molecules are used to split glucose
    four ATP molecules are produced
    • two molecules of NADH produced
    • 46. two molecules of pyruvate produced
  • The Krebs cycle is the first main part of cellular respiration.
    Pyruvate is broken down before the Krebs cycle.
    carbon dioxide released
    NADH produced
    coenzyme A (CoA) bonds to two-carbon molecule
  • 47. The Krebs cycle produces energy-carrying molecules.
  • 48.
    • The Krebs cycle produces energy-carrying molecules.
    NADH and FADH2 are made
    • intermediate molecule withCoA enters Krebs cycle
    • 49. citric acid(six-carbon molecule)is formed
    • 50. citric acid is broken down,carbon dioxide is released,and NADH is made
    • 51. five-carbon molecule is broken down, carbon dioxide is released, NADH and ATP are made
    • 52. four-carbon molecule is rearranged
  • The electron transport chain is the second main part of cellular respiration.
    The electron transport chain uses NADH and FADH2 to make ATP.
    high-energy electrons enter electron transport chain
    energy is used to transport hydrogen ions across the inner membrane
    hydrogen ionsflow through achannel in themembrane
  • 53. The electron transport chain is the second main part of cellular respiration.
    • The electron transport chain uses NADH and FADH2 to make ATP.
    The breakdown of one glucose molecule produces up to38 molecules of ATP.
    • ATP synthase produces ATP
    • 54. oxygen picks up electrons and hydrogen ions
    • 55. water is released as a waste product
  • KEY CONCEPT Fermentation allows the production of a small amount of ATP without oxygen.
  • 56. Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue.
    • Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue making ATP when oxygen is unavailable.
    Fermentation is an anaerobic process.
    occurs when oxygen is not available for cellular respiration
    does not produce ATP
  • 57. Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue making ATP when oxygen is unavailable.
    • NAD+ is recycled to glycolysis
    • 58. Lactic acid fermentation occurs in muscle cells.
    • 59. glycolysis splits glucose into two pyruvate molecules
    • 60. pyruvate and NADH enter fermentation
    • 61. energy from NADH converts pyruvate into lactic acid
    • 62. NADH is changed back into NAD+
  • Fermentation and its products are important in several ways.
    Alcoholic fermentation is similar to lactic acid fermentation.
    glycolysis splits glucose and the products enter fermentation
    • energy from NADH is used to split pyruvate into an alcohol and carbon dioxide
    • 63. NADH is changed back into NAD+
    • 64. NAD+ is recycled to glycolysis
  • Fermentation is used in food production.