Germ theory states that microscopic particles cause certain diseases.
Germ theory proposes that microorganisms cause diseases.
proposed by Louis Pasteur
led to rapid advances in understanding disease
Disease-causing agents are called pathogens.
Koch’s postulates support the theory.
There are different types of pathogens.
Bacteria are single-celled organisms.
cause illness by destroying cells
release toxic chemicals
Viruses are genetic material surrounded by a protein coat.
force host cells to make more viruses
Fungi can be multicellular or single-celled.
take nutrients from host cells
occur in warm and damp places
Protozoa are single-celled organisms.
use host cells to complete their life cycles
take nutrients from host cell
Parasites are multicellular organisms.
grow and feed on a host
possibly kill the host
Different pathogen cause common infectious diseases.
Pathogens can enter the body in different ways.
Pathogens can be transferred by direct or indirect contact.
Indirect contact does not require touching an infected individual.
touching an infected surface
breathing in infected air
Direct contact requires touching an infected individual. Includes:
Vectors carry a pathogen and transmit it into healthy cells.
KEY CONCEPT The immune systems consists of organs, cells, and molecules that fight infections.
Many body systems protect you from pathogens.
The immune system is the body system that fights off infection and pathogens.
Many other tissues and systems help the immune system.
Skin is a physical barrier to infection.
Mucous membranes trap pathogens entering the body.
The circulatory system transports immune cells.
Cells and proteins fight the body’s infections.
White blood cells attack infections inside the body.
Phagocytes engulf and destroy pathogens.
T cells destroy infected cells.
B cells produce antibodies.
Three types of proteins fight off invading pathogens.
Complement proteins weaken pathogen membranes.
Antibodies make pathogens ineffective.
Interferons prevent viruses from infecting healthy cells.
Immunity prevents a person from getting sick from a pathogen.
In all immunity, pathogens are destroyed before you get sick.
Passive immunity occurs without an immune response.
Active immunity occurs after a specific immune response
KEY CONCEPT The immune system has many responses to pathogens and foreign cells.
Many body systems work to produce nonspecific responses.
Nonspecific responses are the same for every pathogen.
In inflammation, blood vessels become leaky.
white blood cells move toward infection and damaged tissue
characterized by swelling, redness, and pain
capillary wall extracellular space white blood cell
In fever, body temperature increases.
High fevers can cause seizure, brain damage, and even death.
Low fevers stimulate white blood cells to mature.
Cells of the immune system produce specific responses.
Specific immune responses begin with the detection of antigens.
Antigens are surface proteins on pathogens.
Each pathogen has a different antigen.
There are two specific immune responses.
Cellular immunity uses T cells to destroy infected body cells.
pathogen antigens T cell receptors activated T cells antigens memory T cells
There are two specific immune responses.
Humoral immunity uses B cells to produce antibodies.
memory B cells activated B cells antibodies B cell T cell pathogen
Both responses produce memory cells.
specialized T and B cells
provide acquired (active) immunity
B cell T cell
The immune system rejects foreign tissues.
Tissue rejection occurs in organ or tissue transplants.
Tissue rejection is the result of an immune response.
immune system detects protein markers on the donor tissue
makes antibodies against the donor’s tissue
KEY CONCEPT Living in a clean environment and building immunity help keep a person healthy.
Many methods are used to control pathogens.
Antibiotics and antiseptics cause pathogens to burst.
Antiseptics kill pathogens outside of the body.
do not target specific pathogens
examples include vinegar and soap
Antibiotics kill pathogens inside the body.
target one specific bacterium or fungus
not effective against viruses
Antibiotic resistance can cause medicines to become ineffective.
Some bacteria in a population have genes that make them immune to antibiotics.
These bacteria spread the gene, making the antibiotics useless.
A bacterium carries genes for antibiotic resistance on a plasmid. A copy of the plasmid is transferred through conjugation. Resistance is quickly spread through many bacteria.
Vaccines artificially produce acquired immunity.
Vaccines also control pathogens and disease.
given to prevent illness
contain the antigen of a weakened pathogen
Vaccination provides immunity.
stimulates a specific immune response
allows immune system to respond quickly to infection
causes memory cells to be produced
has such a fast response, a person will not get sick
A memory B cell is stimulated when the real pathogen binds to it. 2 The B cell quickly activates and makes antibodies that fight the pathogens before you get sick. 3 Antigens in a vaccine trigger an immune response, and memory B cells are made. 1 memory B cells
KEY CONCEPT An overactive immune system can make the body very unhealthy.
Allergies occur when the immune system responds to harmless antigens.
An allergy is an response to a harmless antigen.
Allergies are caused by allergens.
Allergens are antigens that cause an allergic reaction.
Allergens cause inflammation responses.
There are many different allergens.
food, e.g. peanuts, milk, wheat, etc.
airborne, e.g. pollen, dust mite feces, mold, etc.
chemical, e.g. nickel, medicine, bee stings, etc.
Allergens can cause anaphylaxis.
Anaphylaxis is an extreme inflammation response.
Blood vessels and airways become too porous.
If not treated immediately, anaphylaxis can cause death.
In autoimmune diseases, white blood cells attack the body’s healthy cells.
Autoimmune diseases are failures of the immune system.
White blood cells cannot recognize healthy cells.
White blood cells attack healthy body cells.
Tissues fail because of attack.
There are over 60 autoimmune diseases.
KEY CONCEPT When the immune system is weakened, the body cannot fight off disease.
Leukemia is characterized by abnormal white blood cells.
characterized by immature white blood cells
causes weakened immune system
Leukemia is cancer of the bone marrow.
Leukemia leads to opportunistic infections.
occur because white blood cells cannot fight infections
if immune system were healthy, would fight these infections
HIV targets the immune system.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus.
attacks and weakens the immune system
is transmitted by mixing infected blood with a bodily fluid