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- 1. Wave Properties<br />Unit 30<br />
- 2. Mechanical Waves<br />Waves are a disturbance that transfers energy from one molecule to another across space.<br />A medium is the matter that waves travel through.<br />It can be water, air, or even solids.<br />
- 3. Types of Mechanical Waves<br />There are three types of mechanical waves:<br />Surface Waves<br />Longitudinal Waves<br />Transverse Waves<br />
- 4. Types of Waves<br />Surface Waves<br />Surface waves travel along the surface of two separating mediums.<br />Particles at the surface of a surface wave will rotate in a clockwise manner.<br />See the blue particle below.<br />
- 5. Types of Waves<br />Surface Waves<br />If you are swimming in the ocean and a large wave comes by, it does not push you forward, you simply rise up and down as it passes!<br />
- 6. Types of Waves Con’t<br />Longitudinal Waves<br />Waves that move in the same direction as the disturbance in the medium<br />2 main parts<br />Compression<br />Rarefaction<br />
- 7. Tsunamis <br />Tsunamis show the effects of longitudinal waves when they retract and then advance.<br />Often a tsunami is preceeded by a retraction of the water before the wall arrives<br />Now the crest arrives, sending a wall of water onto the shore.<br />Here you can see the water drawback (trough) exposing these rocks, with the incoming tsunami in the distance<br />
- 8. Types of Waves con’t<br />Transverse Waves<br />Any wave in which the medium moves at right angles to the direction of the wave.<br />2 main parts<br />Crest (the highest point of the wave)<br />Trough (the lowest point of the wave)<br />
- 9. Wave Properties<br />
- 10. Frequency<br />Frequency<br />The number of waves that pass a point in a given amount of time.<br />Hertz<br />The unit used to measure the frequency.<br />1 Hz = 1 cycle/sec<br />Frequency is the reciprocal of the period.<br />Freq. = 1 / Period<br />
- 11. Period<br />Period<br />The period of a wave represents the time it takes one wave to pass.<br />The period is the opposite of the frequency.<br />Period = 1 / Freq.<br />
- 12. Wavelength<br />Wavelength<br />Wavelength is measured from two identical points on wave.<br />Usually measured from crest to crest or trough to trough<br />
- 13. Wave Speed<br />Speed <br />How fast or slow the wave is moving.<br />Formula:<br /> Speed = Frequency x Wavelength<br />*If the speed of a wave is held constant, then as the frequency goes up, the wavelength goes down.<br />
- 14. Wave Speed Continued<br />Wave speed is affected by the medium<br />Waves can travel 770 mph in air (Speed of Sound)<br />But, 2-4 miles per second in solids (10000 mph speed of earthquake)<br />
- 15. Earthquakes<br />An earthquake is very similar to sound waves or waves in water.<br />It is a disturbance in the Earth that causes a wave to travel through the solids.<br />They are known as seismic waves.<br />
- 16. Amplitude<br />Amplitude<br />The vertical distance between the line of origin and the crest or trough.<br />The more energy a wave has then the greater the amplitude (think of an amplifier in a stereo).<br />
- 17. Wave Behavior<br />
- 18. Reflection<br />Reflection<br />When a wave bounces off of a surface.<br />The angle the wave comes in at is equal to the angle the wave goes out at.<br />
- 19. Refraction<br />Refraction<br />The bending of light as a result of a change in speed.<br />The wave will slow down when going from a less dense medium to a more dense medium.<br />
- 20. Interference<br />Interference<br />Constructive <br />Produces one larger wave<br />Destructive<br />Produces a smaller wave or no wave at all.<br />The green wave in the diagram above and to the left has combined the read and blue waves.<br />
- 21. Diffraction<br />Diffraction is the bending of a wave as it passes through an opening or around an object. <br />

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