Unit 24 - Bernoulli Principal And Flight

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The Bernoulli Principal and the History of Flight

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Unit 24 - Bernoulli Principal And Flight

  1. 1. Unit 24<br />History of Flight and Bernoulli’s Principal<br />
  2. 2. Bernoulli&apos;s Principle<br />
  3. 3. Bernoulli&apos;s Principle<br />The pressure exerted by a moving stream of fluid is less than its surrounding fluid.<br />
  4. 4. Bernoulli&apos;s Principle<br />Therefore, as the speed of the fluid increases its pressure decreases.<br />
  5. 5. Feather and Flaps<br />They both act to change the angle of air over the wing to control lift <br />
  6. 6. There are many forces acting on an aircraft. <br />The thrust must be sufficient to overcome drag to give enough lift to overcome gravity <br />
  7. 7. How Do Birds Do It?<br />They have hollow bones to be very light weight and their strongest muscles are their breast muscles to generate thrust.<br />
  8. 8.
  9. 9. Use of Lift by Animals<br />Riding “thermals” condors and hawks can soar for hours without flapping their wings.<br />
  10. 10. Use of Lift by Animals<br />Riding “ocean breezes” albatrosses can literally fly for days between wing flaps just feet above the water.<br />
  11. 11. Use of Lift by Animals<br />Flying fish use their fins as wings to fly above the water. This reduces drag, allowing them to go faster and to avoid predators.<br />Penguins use their wings to “fly” underwater at high velocity<br />
  12. 12. Variations on the ThemeOther Examples of Bernoulli’s Principal<br />Paper airplanes, frisbees, and boomerangs are all examples of using Bernoulli’s Principal to get lift.<br />
  13. 13. Variations on the ThemeOther Examples of Bernoulli’s Principal<br />Hydroplanes use lift to reduce the boat’s drag in the water, allowed them to hit speeds in excess of 150 mph<br />
  14. 14. Variations on the ThemeOther Examples of Bernoulli’s Principal<br />Hydroplanes use lift to reduce the boat’s drag in the water, allowed them to hit speeds in excess of 150 mph<br />However, if they get too far out of the water, it can be bad news.<br />
  15. 15. Hydrofoils<br />Hydrofoils use “wings” underwater to create lift, to reduce drag, for high speed ferries.<br />
  16. 16. Variations on the ThemeOther Examples of Bernoulli’s Principal<br />The Stealth Fighter and Stealth Bomber are so unstable to fly, that pilots do not actually control them.<br />They are controlled almost completely by computers<br />
  17. 17. Variations on Flight Today<br />Helicopters push air downward to rise<br />The osprey is half-helicopter half-airplane<br />The Harrier can rotate its jets downward to take off or land vertically, or can flight like a normal plane<br />
  18. 18. History of Flight<br />1000 BC to Present<br />
  19. 19. 1000 BC<br />Chinese Invent Kites<br />
  20. 20. 15th Century<br />Leonardo Da Vinci, using the basic principals of flight, draws and explains various possible aircraft types.<br />He never built or attempted to fly them himself.<br />
  21. 21. 1670’s<br />Giovanni Borelli, a mathematician calculates human muscles are not strong enough for flight.<br />Many attempted before and some still try afterwards.<br />
  22. 22. 1783<br />Jean François Pilâtre de Rozier and Marquis d&apos;Arlandes make first successful flight in hot air balloon in France. <br />Theyused the concept of bouyancy of gases and density changes withtemperature.<br />
  23. 23. 1797<br />André Jacques Garnerinis first to successfully descend to the ground on a parachute.<br />
  24. 24. 1852<br />Henri Giffard makes first steam powered airship that can be propelled and controlled.<br />
  25. 25. 1891<br />Otto Lilienthal starts flying first successful gliders<br />
  26. 26. 1902<br />Orville and Wilbur Wright begin flying gliders in preparation for their powered flight attempts.<br />
  27. 27. 1903<br />The Wright Brothers make first successful powered flights at Kittyhawk, NC<br />First flight only lasted 12 seconds and went 120 feet. The longest was 893 feet.<br />
  28. 28. So Much More Has Occurred Since<br />It took many years before flying was common.<br />In doing your assignment, look up advances in flight technology that occurred after the Wright Brothers.<br />

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