Astronomical telescopes are placed on mountain tops because the thinner air means less interference with the stars
Mauna Kea at 13,700 feet Is above 40% of the atmosphere
Extreme Elevations Commercial flights fly higher than you can breathe. So, they must pressurize the cabin Mount Everest at 29,600 feet Is above 70% of the atmosphere 35,000 feet
Extreme Elevations Astronauts have no actually left the atmosphere. The microscopically thin atmosphere results in drag on spacecraft and satellites. Nonetheless, it is far too thin to breathe and cold to survive without spacesuits 100 km
Highest Pressure Very Low pressure Higher Pressure The whole system is a low pressure, but it is extremely low in the eye.
Highest Pressure Very Low pressure Higher Pressure Pressure always flows from high to low, which creates the high velocity winds toward the eye.
Storm Surge Very Low pressure Higher Pressure The Low Pressure creates a vacuum that pulls water up into a dome. The high winds push this dome on shore.
Storm surges are the leading cause of damage Very Low pressure Higher Pressure The force of the air moving toward the eye causes extreme winds in excess of 100 mph.
When a force is applied to a confined fluid, the increase in pressure is transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid.
These styroform cups were crushed outside of submarines.
Transmitting Pressure in a Fluid When force is applied to a confined fluid, the change in pressure is transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid.
Hydraulic Devices In a hydraulic device, a force applied to one piston increases the fluid pressure equally throughout the fluid.
Hydraulic Devices By changing the size of the pistons, the force can be multiplied.
Hydraulic Brakes The hydraulic brake system of a car multiplies the force exerted on the brake pedal.
Buoyancy The tendency or ability of an object to float.
Buoyancy The pressure on the bottom of a submerged object is greater than the pressure on the top. The result is a net force in the upward direction.
Buoyant Force The upward force exerted by a fluid on a submerged or floating object.
Buoyancy The buoyant force works opposite the weight of an object.
Archimedes’ principle: Buoyant Force on an object immersed in a liquid equals the weight of the liquid displaced.
Density and buoyancy: An object that has a greater density than the fluid it is in, will sink. If its density is less than the fluid it will float. Density
It does not matter that Mercury is a liquid. It is so dense, most things float on it
Buoyancy of gases in liquids Buoyancy of gases in gases Gases have less density than water, so they rise up to the surface Some gases, like Helium, are lighter than air and rise. Some gases, like carbon dioxide, are heavier than air and sink.