Unit 21 Diversity Of Plants


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Unit 21 Diversity Of Plants

  1. 1. Unit 21<br />Plants<br />
  2. 2. KEY CONCEPTPlant life began in the water and became adapted to land. <br />
  3. 3. Land plants evolved from green algae.<br /><ul><li>Plants and green algae have many common traits.
  4. 4. both are photosynthetic eukaryotes
  5. 5. both have the same types of chlorophyll
  6. 6. both use starch as a storage product
  7. 7. both have cell walls with cellulose</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>True plants evolved through natural selection. </li></li></ul><li>Plants have adaptations that allow them to live on land.<br />Challenges of living on land have selected for certain plant adaptations.<br />A cuticle allows plants to retain moisture.<br />waxy, waterproof layer<br /><ul><li> holds moisture in</li></li></ul><li>stoma<br />Stomata are tiny holes in the cuticle. <br /><ul><li>can open and close
  8. 8. allow air to move in and out </li></li></ul><li>water and mineral nutrients<br />sugars<br />A vascular system allows resources to move to different parts of the plant.<br /><ul><li>collection of specialized tissues
  9. 9. brings water and mineral nutrients up from roots
  10. 10. disperses sugars from the leaves
  11. 11. allows plants to grow higher off the ground </li></li></ul><li>Pollen grains allow for reproduction without free-standing water. <br /><ul><li>pollen grains contain a cell that divides to form sperm
  12. 12. pollen can be carried by wind or animals to female structures </li></li></ul><li>A seed is a storage device for a plant embryo. <br /><ul><li>seed coats protect embryos from drying wind and sunlight
  13. 13. embryo develops when environment is favorable </li></li></ul><li>Plants have adaptations that prevent animals from eating them. <br /><ul><li>spines and thorns
  14. 14. defensive chemicals </li></li></ul><li>What category of plants evolved directly from ferns?<br /> A. Flowering plants <br />B. Mosses <br />C. Charophyceans <br />D. Cone-bearing plants <br />
  15. 15. KEY CONCEPTPlants can be classified into nine phyla. <br />
  16. 16. Mosses belong to phylum Bryophyta. <br /><ul><li>most common seedless nonvascular plants
  17. 17. sphagnum moss commonly used by humans as “peat” </li></li></ul><li>frond<br />fiddlehead<br />Ferns and their relatives belong to phylum Pterophyta. <br /><ul><li>whisk ferns and horsetails are close relatives of ferns
  18. 18. ferns have large leaves called fronds</li></li></ul><li>Cycads are gymnosperms in phylum Cycadophyta.<br /><ul><li>look like palm trees with large cones
  19. 19. grow in tropical areas</li></li></ul><li>Ginkgos are gymnosperms in phylum Ginkgophyta.<br /><ul><li>only one species alive today, Ginkgo biloba
  20. 20. grown in gardens and used in urban landscaping </li></li></ul><li>Conifers are gymnosperms in phylum Coniferophyta.<br /><ul><li>most common gymnosperms alive today
  21. 21. includes pines, spruce, cedar, fir, and juniper</li></li></ul><li>Angiosperms have seeds enclosed in some type of fruit. <br /><ul><li>A flower is the reproductive structure of angiosperms.
  22. 22. A fruit is a mature ovary of a flower.
  23. 23. Angiosperms, or flowering plants, belong in phylum Anthophyta.</li></li></ul><li>Which plants do not depend on free-standing water to carry sperm to eggs?<br />A. Mosses <br />B. Ferns <br />C. Club mosses<br />D. Seed plants<br />
  24. 24. D. Seed plants<br />
  25. 25. KEY CONCEPTThe largest phylum in the plant kingdom is the flowering plants. <br />
  26. 26. Fruit allows for efficient seed dispersal. <br /><ul><li> Fruit is flower’s ripened ovary
  27. 27. Surrounds and protects seed(s)
  28. 28. Many forms, each function in seed dispersal</li></li></ul><li>There are three types of plant life spans. <br /><ul><li>Annuals mature from seed, flower, and die in one year.</li></ul>Wheat<br />
  29. 29. <ul><li>There are three types of plant life spans.
  30. 30. Annuals mature from seed, flower, and die in one year.</li></ul>Biennials take two years to compete life cycle.<br />Foxglove<br />
  31. 31. <ul><li>There are three types of plant life spans. </li></ul>Annuals mature from seed, flower, and die in one year.<br /><ul><li> Biennials take two years to compete life cycle.
  32. 32. Perennials live more than two years.</li></ul>Big bluestem<br />
  33. 33. KEY CONCEPT Humans rely on plants in many ways. <br />
  34. 34. Agriculture provides stable food supplies for people in permanent settlements.<br />Botany is the study of plants.<br />Ethnobotany explores how people in different cultures use plants.<br />
  35. 35. Teosinte<br />People started planting for harvest about 10,000 years ago.<br /><ul><li>wild species “tamed” through artificial selection
  36. 36. farming requires people to stay in one place
  37. 37. farming helped more socially complex centers develop</li></li></ul><li>Plant products are important economic resources.<br />Plant products have been traded for thousands of years. <br />spices commonly used as currency in Middle Ages <br /><ul><li>spurred seafaring expeditions in 1400s and 1500s </li></li></ul><li>Plant products contribute to economy on a global scale today. <br /><ul><li>grains, coffee, sugar, cotton, forest products
  38. 38. billions of dollars of plant products traded each year</li>