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Unit 21 Diversity Of Plants
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Unit 21 Diversity Of Plants


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  • 1. Unit 21
  • 2. KEY CONCEPTPlant life began in the water and became adapted to land.
  • 3. Land plants evolved from green algae.
    • Plants and green algae have many common traits.
    • 4. both are photosynthetic eukaryotes
    • 5. both have the same types of chlorophyll
    • 6. both use starch as a storage product
    • 7. both have cell walls with cellulose
    • True plants evolved through natural selection.
  • Plants have adaptations that allow them to live on land.
    Challenges of living on land have selected for certain plant adaptations.
    A cuticle allows plants to retain moisture.
    waxy, waterproof layer
    • holds moisture in
  • stoma
    Stomata are tiny holes in the cuticle.
    • can open and close
    • 8. allow air to move in and out
  • water and mineral nutrients
    A vascular system allows resources to move to different parts of the plant.
    • collection of specialized tissues
    • 9. brings water and mineral nutrients up from roots
    • 10. disperses sugars from the leaves
    • 11. allows plants to grow higher off the ground
  • Pollen grains allow for reproduction without free-standing water.
    • pollen grains contain a cell that divides to form sperm
    • 12. pollen can be carried by wind or animals to female structures
  • A seed is a storage device for a plant embryo.
    • seed coats protect embryos from drying wind and sunlight
    • 13. embryo develops when environment is favorable
  • Plants have adaptations that prevent animals from eating them.
    • spines and thorns
    • 14. defensive chemicals
  • What category of plants evolved directly from ferns?
    A. Flowering plants
    B. Mosses
    C. Charophyceans
    D. Cone-bearing plants
  • 15. KEY CONCEPTPlants can be classified into nine phyla.
  • 16. Mosses belong to phylum Bryophyta.
    • most common seedless nonvascular plants
    • 17. sphagnum moss commonly used by humans as “peat”
  • frond
    Ferns and their relatives belong to phylum Pterophyta.
    • whisk ferns and horsetails are close relatives of ferns
    • 18. ferns have large leaves called fronds
  • Cycads are gymnosperms in phylum Cycadophyta.
    • look like palm trees with large cones
    • 19. grow in tropical areas
  • Ginkgos are gymnosperms in phylum Ginkgophyta.
    • only one species alive today, Ginkgo biloba
    • 20. grown in gardens and used in urban landscaping
  • Conifers are gymnosperms in phylum Coniferophyta.
    • most common gymnosperms alive today
    • 21. includes pines, spruce, cedar, fir, and juniper
  • Angiosperms have seeds enclosed in some type of fruit.
    • A flower is the reproductive structure of angiosperms.
    • 22. A fruit is a mature ovary of a flower.
    • 23. Angiosperms, or flowering plants, belong in phylum Anthophyta.
  • Which plants do not depend on free-standing water to carry sperm to eggs?
    A. Mosses
    B. Ferns
    C. Club mosses
    D. Seed plants
  • 24. D. Seed plants
  • 25. KEY CONCEPTThe largest phylum in the plant kingdom is the flowering plants.
  • 26. Fruit allows for efficient seed dispersal.
    • Fruit is flower’s ripened ovary
    • 27. Surrounds and protects seed(s)
    • 28. Many forms, each function in seed dispersal
  • There are three types of plant life spans.
    • Annuals mature from seed, flower, and die in one year.
  • 29.
    • There are three types of plant life spans.
    • 30. Annuals mature from seed, flower, and die in one year.
    Biennials take two years to compete life cycle.
  • 31.
    • There are three types of plant life spans.
    Annuals mature from seed, flower, and die in one year.
    • Biennials take two years to compete life cycle.
    • 32. Perennials live more than two years.
    Big bluestem
  • 33. KEY CONCEPT Humans rely on plants in many ways.
  • 34. Agriculture provides stable food supplies for people in permanent settlements.
    Botany is the study of plants.
    Ethnobotany explores how people in different cultures use plants.
  • 35. Teosinte
    People started planting for harvest about 10,000 years ago.
    • wild species “tamed” through artificial selection
    • 36. farming requires people to stay in one place
    • 37. farming helped more socially complex centers develop
  • Plant products are important economic resources.
    Plant products have been traded for thousands of years.
    spices commonly used as currency in Middle Ages
    • spurred seafaring expeditions in 1400s and 1500s
  • Plant products contribute to economy on a global scale today.
    • grains, coffee, sugar, cotton, forest products
    • 38. billions of dollars of plant products traded each year