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Unit 20 Protists And Fungi

Unit 20 Protists And Fungi






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    Unit 20 Protists And Fungi Unit 20 Protists And Fungi Presentation Transcript

    • KEY CONCEPT Kingdom Protista is the most diverse of all the kingdoms.
    • Protists can be animal-like, plantlike, or funguslike.
      Protists are eukaryotes (meaning they have a nucleus and other organelles) that are not animals, plants, or fungi.
    • Animal-like protists consume other organisms.
      • They are called heterotrophs
      • They are often predators.
    • Plantlike protists are photosynthetic.
      • single-celled, colonial, or multicellular
      • no roots, stems, or leaves
    • Funguslike protists decompose dead organisms.
      • heterotrophs
      • can move, whereas fungi cannot
    • Protists are difficult to classify.
      Protista is often called one kingdom
      But it may be broken down into more than one after scientists learn more about them.
    • Protist classification will likely change.
      • Some protists are not closely related.
      • Molecular evidence supports reclassification.
      Know this!!
    • KEY CONCEPTAnimal-like protists are single-celled heterotrophs that can move.
    • Animal-like protists move in various ways.
      contractile vacuole
      food vacuole
      oral groove
      Animal-like protists are often called protozoa.
    • Protozoa with flagella are zooflagellates.
      • flagella help zooflagellates swim
      • more than 2000 zooflagellates
    • Some protists move with pseudopods.
      • change shape as they move
      • amoebas
      • Some protists move with pseudopods.
      • change shape as they move
      • amoebas and…
    • macronucleus
      contractile vacuole
      food vacuole
      oral groove
      Some protozoa move with cilia.
      • cilia help protists swim and capture food
      • more than 8000 ciliates
    • Some animal-like protists cause disease.
      human liver
      liver cells
      red blood
      Protists cause some well-known infectious diseases.
      • Malaria is caused by Plasmodium and spread by mosquitoes.
      • Sleeping sickness is caused by Trypanosomaand spread by flies.
      • A giardia infection is caused by Giardia and spread through water.
      Malaria Infection
    • KEY CONCEPTAlgae are plantlike protists.
    • Plantlike protists can be single-celled or multicellular.
      daughter colony
      Photosynthetic plantlike protists are called algae.
    • Protists
      Do photosynthesis, but are protected by a silica (glass) shell
    • pellicle
      eye spot
      Euglenoids are a large group of plantlike protists.
      • mostly photosynthetic
      • some heterotrophic
      • single-celled
      • one or two flagella
    • Dinoflagellates are mostly marine plantlike protists.
      • have two flagella
      • may be bioluminescent
      • have stiff protective plates
      • can cause red tide
    • Multicellular algae are classified by their pigments.
      • Green algae contain chlorophyll a and b.
      • Brown algae contain chlorophyll c.
      • Red algae contain chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin.
      thickening agents used in ice cream like agar and carrageen come from
      Red Algae!
    • Many plantlike protists can reproduce both sexually and asexually.
      • All algae can reproduce asexually.
      • Multicellular algae can fragment.
      • Chlamydomonas divides into zoospores.
    • Some algae produce sexually.
      • Some species alternate generations.
      • Sexual reproduction can be triggered by environmental stress.
    • KEY CONCEPTFunguslike protists decompose organic matter.
    • Slime molds and water molds are funguslike protists.
      • Slime molds have both funguslike and animallike traits.
      • decomposers, like fungi
      • can move, like animals
    • Slime molds can be plasmodial or cellular.
      • Plasmodial slime molds are giant cells with many nuclei.
      • Cellular slime molds contain independent cells.
      Watch ‘em move:
    • Water molds are freshwater, funguslike protists.
      • one type of water mold caused Great Potato Famine of Ireland in the 1800’s
      • made of branching strands of cells
      • can be parasites of plants or fish
      • If you see a dead-fish with filiments on it, that’s a watermold
    • Fungi are adapted to absorb their food from the environment.
      • Plants and fungi have different traits.
      • Fungal cell walls are made of chitin.
      • Plant cell walls are made of cellulose.
      • Plants have chlorophyll and photosynthesize.
      • Fungi absorb food through hyphae.
    • Fungi are multicellular organisms, with the exception of yeasts.
      • hyphae
      • mycellium
      • fruiting body
    • Fungi come in many shapes and sizes.
      • Primitive fungi are aquatic and have flagellated spores.
      • Sac fungi form a reproductive sac, or ascus.
      • Yeasts are single-celled sac fungi.
      • Morels and truffles are multicellular sac fungi.
    • Bread molds are often found on spoiled food.
      • form zygospores during reproduction
      • mycorrhizae belong to this group
    • Club fungi have fruiting bodies which are club-shaped.
      • reproductive structures called basidia
      • include mushrooms, puffballs, and shelf fungi
    • Fungi reproduce sexually and asexually.
      • Most fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually.
      • Yeasts reproduce asexually through budding.
      • Yeasts form asci during sexual reproduction.
    • Multicellular fungi have complex reproductive cycles.
      • distinctive reproductive structures
      • Multicellular fungi have complex reproductive cycles.
      life cycles may include either sexual or asexual reproduction or both
    • KEY CONCEPTFungi recycle nutrients in the environment.
    • Fungi may be decomposers, pathogens, or mutualists.
      • Fungi and bacteria are the main decomposers
      in any ecosystem.
      • decompose dead leaves, twigs, logs, and animals
      • return nutrients to the soil
      • can damage fruit trees and wooden structures
    • Fungi can act as pathogens.
      • human diseases include ringworm and athlete’s foot
      • plant diseases include Dutch elm disease
    • Fungi can act as mutualists.
      • lichens form between fungi and algae
      • mycorrhizae form between fungi and plants
      • Fungi can act as mutualists.
      relationships form between fungi and some insects
    • Fungi are studied for many purposes.
      • Fungi are useful in several ways.
      • as food
      • as antibiotics
      Because Yeasts have many of the same genes and proteins found in plants AND animals, yeasts (and other fungi) are used as model systems for molecular biology