Unit 18a DNA fingerprinting and genetic engineering

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Unit 18a DNA fingerprinting and genetic engineering

  1. 1. KEY CONCEPT DNA fingerprints identify people at the molecular level.<br />
  2. 2. A DNA fingerprint is a type of restriction map.<br />DNA fingerprints are based on parts of an individual’s DNA that can by used for identification.<br />based on noncoding regions of DNA<br />noncoding regions have repeating DNA sequences<br />number of repeats differs between people<br />Gel electrophoresis separates the sequences into “bands”<br />
  3. 3. (mother) (child 1) (child 2) (father)<br />DNA fingerprinting is used for identification. <br />DNA fingerprinting depends on the probability of a match.<br />Many people have thesame number ofrepeats in a certainregion of DNA.<br />The probability that two people share identicalnumbers of repeats inseveral locations isvery small.<br />
  4. 4. <ul><li>DNA fingerprinting is used in several ways.
  5. 5. evidence in criminal cases
  6. 6. paternity tests
  7. 7. immigration requests
  8. 8. studying biodiversity
  9. 9. tracking genetically modified crops</li></li></ul><li>KEY CONCEPT DNA sequences of organisms can be changed.<br />
  10. 10. Entire organisms can be cloned.<br />A clone is a genetically identical copy of a gene or of an organism. If you could clone your favorite pet, would you? Why or why not?<br />
  11. 11. <ul><li>Cloning occurs in nature.
  12. 12. bacteria (binary fission)
  13. 13. some plants (from roots)
  14. 14. some simple animals (budding, regeneration)</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Mammals can be cloned through a process called nuclear transfer.
  15. 15. nucleus is removed from a fertilized egg cell
  16. 16. nucleus of a somatic cell from the animal to be cloned is implanted in the egg</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Cloning has potential benefits. Like what?
  17. 17. organs for transplant into humans
  18. 18. save endangered species
  19. 19. Cloning raises concerns. Like what?
  20. 20. low success rate
  21. 21. clones “imperfect” and less healthy than original animal
  22. 22. decreased biodiversity</li></li></ul><li>Thinking About It…<br />Would you be in favor of continuing cloning research? <br />What restrictions would you think are necessary?<br />
  23. 23. (bacterial DNA)<br />New genes can be added to an organism’s DNA. <br />Genetic engineering involves changing an organism’s DNA to give it new traits. What genes would you like to incorporate into your favorite pet?<br />Genetic engineering is based on the use of recombinant DNA. <br />Recombinant DNA contains genes from more than one organism.<br />
  24. 24. <ul><li>Bacterial plasmids are often used to make recombinant DNA.
  25. 25. plasmids are loops of DNA in bacteria
  26. 26. restriction enzymes cut plasmid and foreign DNA
  27. 27. foreign gene inserted into plasmid</li></li></ul><li>Genetic engineering produces organisms with new traits. Have scientists successfully made any transgenic plants or animals? <br />A transgenic organism has one or more genes from another organism inserted into its genome. <br />
  28. 28. <ul><li>Transgenic bacteria can be used to produce human proteins. Why would this be useful?
  29. 29. gene inserted into plasmid
  30. 30. plasmid inserted into bacteria
  31. 31. bacteria express the gene
  32. 32. Transgenic plants are common in agriculture.
  33. 33. transgenic bacteriainfect a plant
  34. 34. plant expressesforeign gene
  35. 35. many crops are nowgenetically modified(GM)</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Transgenic animals are used to study diseases and gene functions.
  36. 36. transgenic mice used to study development and disease
  37. 37. gene knockout mice used to study gene function</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Scientists have concerns about some uses of genetic engineering. What concerns would you have?
  38. 38. possible long-term health effects of eating GM foods
  39. 39. possible effects of GM plants on ecosystems and biodiversity</li></li></ul><li>True or False? Sometimes, scientific knowledge leads to ethical dilemmas. <br />Correct Answer =<br />
  40. 40. True or False? Sometimes, scientific knowledge leads to ethical dilemmas. <br />Correct Answer = True<br />A deontologist would likely believe lying is always wrong. <br />Correct Answer =<br />
  41. 41. True or False? Sometimes, scientific knowledge leads to ethical dilemmas. <br />Correct Answer = True<br />A deontologist would likely believe lying is always wrong. <br />Correct Answer = True<br />In an ethical debate, if consensus is reached, the majority win as in a vote. <br />Correct Answer =<br />
  42. 42. True or False? Sometimes, scientific knowledge leads to ethical dilemmas. <br />Correct Answer = True<br />A deontologist would likely believe lying is always wrong. <br />Correct Answer = True<br />In an ethical debate, if consensus is reached, the majority win as in a vote. <br />Correct Answer = False<br />Bias is not an issue on the World Wide Web. <br />Correct Answer =<br />
  43. 43. True or False? Sometimes, scientific knowledge leads to ethical dilemmas. <br />Correct Answer = True<br />A deontologist would likely believe lying is always wrong. <br />Correct Answer = True<br />In an ethical debate, if consensus is reached, the majority win as in a vote. <br />Correct Answer = False<br />Bias is not an issue on the World Wide Web. <br />Correct Answer = False<br />A consequentialist would be likely to use a cost-benefit analysis. <br />Correct Answer = <br />
  44. 44. True or False? Sometimes, scientific knowledge leads to ethical dilemmas. <br />Correct Answer = True<br />A deontologist would likely believe lying is always wrong. <br />Correct Answer = True<br />In an ethical debate, if consensus is reached, the majority win as in a vote. <br />Correct Answer = False<br />Bias is not an issue on the World Wide Web. <br />Correct Answer = False<br />A consequentialist would be likely to use a cost-benefit analysis. <br />Correct Answer = True<br />
  45. 45. Review<br />DNA fingerprinting is used for identification and determining relationship<br />A clone is a genetically identical copy of a gene or of an organism – cloning occurs in nature<br />Cloning has potential benefits and raises concerns<br />Genetic engineering involves changing an organism’s DNA to give it new traits. <br />A transgenic organism has one or more genes from another organism inserted into its genome<br />Transgenic organisms are already being used both in agriculture and scientific studies<br />Transgenics has potential benefits and raises concerns<br />

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