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Unit 14b Food webs and cycling of matter
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Unit 14b Food webs and cycling of matter

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  • 1. KEY CONCEPT Life in an ecosystem requires a source of energy.
  • 2. Prefixes
    Auto- ?
    Hetero- ?
    Homo- ?
    Photo- ?
    Chemo- ?
    Herbi- ?
    Carni- ?
    Omni- ?
    Hydro- ?
  • 3. Prefixes
    Auto- Self
    Hetero- Different
    Homo- Same
    Photo- Light
    Chemo- Chemical
    Herbi- Plants
    Carni- Meat
    Omni- All
    Hydro- Water
  • 4. Producers provide energy for other organisms in an ecosystem. Name three producers.
    Producers get their energy from non-living resources.
    Producers are also called autotrophs because they make their own food.
  • 5. Producers provide energy for other organisms in an ecosystem.
    Consumers are organisms that get their energy by eating other living or once-living resources. Name 3 consumers.
    • Consumers are also called heterotrophs because they feed off of different things.
  • carbon dioxide + water +
    hydrogen sulfide + oxygen
    sugar + sulfuric acid
    Almost all producers obtain energy from sunlight. If the producer doesn’t use sunlight, what might they use?
    Photosynthesis in most producers uses sunlight as an energy source.
    Chemosynthesis in prokaryote producers uses chemicals as an energy source.
  • 6. KEY CONCEPT Food chains and food webs model the flow of energy in an ecosystem.
  • 7. DESERT COTTONTAIL
    GRAMA GRASS
    HARRIS’S HAWK
    A food chain is a model that shows a sequence of feeding relationships. Why does “chain” fit this idea?
    A food chain links species by their feeding relationships.
    A food chain follows the connection between one producer and a single chain of consumers within an ecosystem.
  • 8. Create your own food chain
    Beginning with a producer and including at least three organisms, give an example of a food chain.
  • 9. carnivore
    decomposer
    Consumers are not all alike.
    • Herbivores eat only plants.
    • 10. Carnivores eat only animals.
    • 11. Omnivores eat both plants and animals.
    • 12. Detritivores eat dead organic matter.
    • 13. Decomposers are detritivores that break down organic matter into simpler compounds.
  • Specialists are consumers that primarily eat one specific organism or a very small number of organisms. What other kinds of “specialists” do you know?
    • Generalists are consumers that have a varying diet.
  • Trophic levels are the nourishment levels in a food chain.
    • Primary consumers are herbivores that eat producers.
    • 14. Secondary consumers are carnivores that eat herbivores. Name one example.
    • 15. Tertiary consumers are carnivores that eat secondary consumers. Name one example.
    • 16. Omnivores, such as humans that eat both plants and animals, may be listed at different trophic levels in different food chains.
  • A food web shows a complex network of feeding relationships.
    An organism may have multiple feeding relationships in an ecosystem. Give an example.
    A food web emphasizes complicated feeding relationships and energy flow in an ecosystem.
  • 17. A food web shows a complex network of feeding relationships.
  • 18. KEY CONCEPT Matter cycles in and out of an ecosystem.
  • 19. precipitation
    condensation
    transpiration
    evaporation
    surface
    runoff
    lake
    water storage
    in ocean
    groundwater
    seepage
    Water cycles through the environment. Explain how.
    The hydrologic, or water, cycle is the circular pathway of water on Earth.
    Organisms all have bodies made mostly of water.
  • 20. Elements essential for life also cycle through ecosystems. Name one.
    A biogeochemical cycle is the movement of a particular chemical through the biological and geological parts of an ecosystem.
  • 21. carbon
    dioxide
    in air
    respiration
    combustion
    photosynthesis
    respiration
    photosynthesis
    decomposition
    of organisms
    carbon dioxide
    dissolved in water
    fossil fuels
    Carbon is the building block of life. Why do we call it that?
    • The carbon cycle moves carbon from the atmosphere, through the food web, and returns to the atmosphere.
    • 22. Carbon is emitted by the burning of fossil fuels.
    • 23. Some carbon is stored for long periods of time in areas called carbon sinks.
  • oxygen
    photosynthesis
    respiration
    carbon
    dioxide
    Oxygen cycles indirectly through an ecosystem by the cycling of other nutrients.
  • 24. rain
    geologic uplifting
    weathering of
    phosphate from rocks
    runoff
    plants
    animals
    phosphate
    in soil
    phosphate in solution
    leaching
    sedimentation
    forms new rocks
    decomposers
    The phosphorus cycle takes place at and below ground level.
    • Phosphate is released by the weathering of rocks.
    • 25. Phosphorus moves through the food web and returns to the soil duringdecomposition.
    • 26. Phosphorus leaches into groundwater from the soil and is locked in sediments.
    • 27. Both mining and agriculture add phosphorus into the environment.
  • nitrogen in
    atmosphere
    animals
    plant
    nitrates
    nitrogen-fixing
    bacteria in roots
    nitrifying
    bacteria
    decomposers
    ammonification
    nitrites
    nitrogen-fixing
    bacteria in soil
    ammonium
    nitrifying
    bacteria
    denitrifying
    bacteria
    The nitrogen cycle mostly takes place underground.
    • Some bacteria convert gaseous nitrogen into ammonia through a process called nitrogen fixation.
    • 28. Some nitrogen-fixing bacteria live innodules on theroots of plants;others livefreely inthe soil.
  • nitrogen in
    atmosphere
    animals
    plant
    nitrates
    nitrogen-fixing
    bacteria in roots
    nitrifying
    bacteria
    decomposers
    ammonification
    nitrites
    nitrogen-fixing
    bacteria in soil
    ammonium
    nitrifying
    bacteria
    denitrifying
    bacteria
    • Nitrogen moves through the foodweb and returnsto the soil duringdecomposition.
  • How do the activities of a keystone species affect the biodiversity of an ecosystem?
    A. They increase biodiversity.
    B. They decrease biodiversity.
    C. They have no effect on biodiversity.
    D. Biodiversity remains the same but the species change.
  • 29. How do the activities of a keystone species affect the biodiversity of an ecosystem?
    A. They increase biodiversity.
    B. They decrease biodiversity.
    C. They have no effect on biodiversity.
    D. Biodiversity remains the same but the species change.
    Correct Answer = A
    Which is a characteristic of an ecosystem in approximate equilibrium?
    A. The kinds of organisms do not change.
    B. Biotic factors do not change.
    C.Abiotic factors do not change.
    D. The total number of organisms do not change.
  • 30. How do the activities of a keystone species affect the biodiversity of an ecosystem?
    A. They increase biodiversity.
    B. They decrease biodiversity.
    C. They have no effect on biodiversity.
    D. Biodiversity remains the same but the species change.
    Correct Answer = A
    Which is a characteristic of an ecosystem in approximate equilibrium?
    A. The kinds of organisms do not change.
    B. Biotic factors do not change.
    C.Abiotic factors do not change.
    D. The total number of organisms do not change.
    Correct Answer = D
  • 31. Review
    • Producers are organisms that can make their own energy from abiotic sources
    • 32. Consumers are organisms that must consume other organisms for energy.
    • 33. A food chain links organisms by their feeding relationships connecting a producer to a single line of consumers.
    • 34. A food web shows complicated feeding relationships
    • 35. Water, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, and carbon all cycle through ecosystems.

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