Unit 12 Chemical Naming and Formulas
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Unit 12 Chemical Naming and Formulas

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Unit 12 Chemical Naming and Formulas Unit 12 Chemical Naming and Formulas Presentation Transcript

  • Unit 12: Writing and Naming Chemical Formulas
    Physical Science
  • Chemical Symbols
  • How to writing chemical formulas
    Use the chemical symbol for each element
    Usually, the element abbreviations come from the word
    (He for Helium or Ti for Titanium)
    Some elements have just one letter, such as H for Hydrogen or N for Nitrogen
  • How to writing chemical formulas
    Sometimes the abbreviation does not look like the element such as:
    K for Potassium
    Na for Sodium
    Pbfor Lead
    Cu for Copper
    Ag for Silver
    Au for Gold
  • How to writing chemical formulas
    That is because their name came from Latin or other languages
    K for Potassium (Kalium)
    Na for Sodium (Natrium)
    Pb for Lead (Plumbum)
    Cu for Copper (Cuprum)
    Ag for Silver (Argentum)
    Au for Gold (Aurum)
  • The 11 Odd Elements to Memorize
  • How to writing chemical formulas
    Most elements have two letters
    Always capitalize the first letter and use lower case on the second one.
    Example: Cobalt is Co
    If you used two capitals (CO), it would be mistaken for Carbon Monoxide which has one Carbon (C) and one Oxygen (O)
  • Subscript Numbers
    The subscript number specifies how many atoms of that element you have
    N2 is a nitrogen molecule with two atoms
    C2H4 has two carbons and four hydrogens.
    CO2 is carbon dioxide and contains one carbon and two oxygens
    If no number is listed, it means there is only one
  • More Examples
    C2H3Cl
    what elements and how many of each?
  • More Examples
    C2H3Cl
    what elements and how many of each?
  • More Examples
    H2SiCl2
    what elements and how many of each?
  • More Examples
    H2SiCl2
    what elements and how many of each?
  • Numbers in Front Versus Behind
    What should this molecule look like?
    For example CH4=
  • Numbers in Front Versus Behind
    What should this molecule look like?
    It is called Methane
    For example CH4=
  • Numbers in Front
    When there are large numbers in front, that tells you how many molecules there are.
    For example 3CH4 =
  • Numbers in Front
    When there are large numbers in front, that tells you how many molecules there are.
    For example 3CH4 = 3 methane molecules
    12NaOH = ?
  • Numbers in Front
    When there are large numbers in front, that tells you how many molecules there are.
    For example 3CH4 = 3 methane molecules
    12NaOH =
    12 different
    Sodium Hydroxide molecules.
  • Part One: Ionic Formulas
    Part One: Writing Ionic Formulas
    Always say the metal name first and then the
    non-metal with an -ide
  • Part One: Ionic Formulas
    Part One: Writing Ionic Formulas
    Example: CaCl2 would be called calcium chloride
  • Part One: Ionic Formulas
    Part One: Writing Ionic Formulas
    Example: What if you saw the name
    Magnesium chloride …What is the formula?
  • Part One: Ionic Formulas
    Magnesium Chloride =
    Mg+2
    Cl-1
  • Part One: Ionic Formulas
    Magnesium Chloride = MgCl2
    Mg+2
    Cl-1
  • Part One: Ionic Formulas
    OK, here is one for you Magnesium Phosphate
    Magnesium= Mg2+
    Phosphate = PO43-
    Remember, the charges have to balance
  • Part One: Ionic Formulas
    OK, here is one for you Magnesium Phosphate
    Magnesium= Mg2+
    Phosphate = PO43-
    Remember, the charges have to balance
    2 X 3 = 6
  • Part One: Ionic Formulas
    OK, here is one for you Magnesium Phosphate
    Magnesium= Mg2+
    Phosphate = PO43-
    Remember, the charges have to balance
    Mgx(PO4)y
    2 X 3 = 6
    +6
    -6
  • Part One: Ionic Formulas
    OK, here is one for you Magnesium Phosphate
    Magnesium= Mg2+
    Phosphate = PO43-
    Remember, the charges have to balance
    Mg3(PO4)2
  • Examples of naming for metals with multiple charges
  • Examples of naming for metals with multiple charges
  • Part One: Ionic Formulas
    What about Iron (II) Oxide
    Step One: Determine the charges
    Iron (II) = Fe2+ and Oxide = O2-
  • Part One: Ionic Formulas
    What about Iron (II) Oxide
    Step One: Determine the charges
    Iron (II) = Fe2+ and Oxide = O2-
    Step Two: See how to balance the charges
    Step Three: Find the combination that balances
  • Part One: Ionic Formulas
    What about Iron (II) Oxide
    Step One: Determine the charges
    Iron (II) = Fe2+ and Oxide = O2-
    Step Two: See how to balance the charges
    Step Three: Find the combination that balances
    Iron (II) Oxide = FeO
  • How do you know if you use Roman numerals?
    Do not use Roman Numerals for groups 1 or 2 as they are always (+1) and (+2) accordingly.
    K = +1 and Ca = +2
    +1
    +2
  • How do you know if you use Roman numerals?
    Do not use Roman numerals for anything in the P-block since they tend to form covalent bonds.
    The exceptions are Tin (Sb) and Lead (Pb)
  • How do you know if you use Roman numerals?
    Do not use Roman numerals for Zn or Ag because they have dominant oxidation states that rarely change:
    Ag = +1 and Zn = +2.
  • Prefixes for Covalent Bonds
    Example
    1 = Mono Carbon Monoxide (CO)
  • Prefixes for Covalent Bonds
    Example
    1 = Mono Carbon Monoxide (CO)
    2 = Di Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
  • Prefixes for Covalent Bonds
    Example
    1 = Mono Carbon Monoxide (CO)
    2 = Di Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
    3 = Tri Nitrogen Triiodide (NI3)
    As you can see, you don’t label the first with a prefix unless it is more than one
  • Prefixes for Covalent Bonds
    Example
    1 = Mono Carbon Monoxide (CO)
    2 = Di Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
    3 = Tri Nitrogen Triiodide (NI3)
    4 =Tetra DinitrogenTetroxide (N2O4)
    As you can see, you don’t label the first with a prefix unless it is more than one
  • Prefixes for Covalent Bonds
    Example
    1 = Mono Carbon Monoxide (CO)
    2 = Di Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
    3 = Tri Nitrogen Triiodide (NI3)
    4 =Tetra DinitrogenTetroxide (N2O4)
    5 = Penta Phosphorus Pentachloride (PCl5)
    As you can see, you don’t label the first with a prefix unless it is more than one
  • Prefixes for Covalent Bonds
    Example
    1 = Mono Carbon Monoxide (CO)
    2 = Di Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
    3 = Tri Nitrogen Triiodide (NI3)
    4 =Tetra DinitrogenTetroxide (N2O4)
    5 = Penta Phosphorus Pentachloride (PCl5)
    6 = Hexa Sulfur Hexaflouride (SF6)
    As you can see, you don’t label the first with a prefix unless it is more than one
  • Drawing Covalent Compounds
    In general, the first named compound is the central compound.
    Sulfur dioxide
    Nitrogen Triiodide
    Carbon Tetrachloride