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Lymphatic System

Lymphatic System

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  • 1. KEY CONCEPT The respiratory and circulatory systems bring oxygen and nutrients to the cells.
  • 2.
    • The respiratory and circulatory systems work together to maintain homeostasis.
    • The circulatory system transports blood and other materials.
      • brings supplies to cells
      • carries away wastes
      • separates oxygen-poor and oxygen-rich blood
    Oxygen-poor blood Oxygen-rich blood
  • 3.
    • The respiratory system is where gas exchange occurs.
      • picks up oxygen from inhaled air
      • expels carbon dioxide and water
    nose sinus mouth epiglottis trachea lungs
  • 4.
    • The respiratory system moves gases into and out of the blood.
    • The lungs contain the bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli.
    • Millions of alveoli give the lungs a huge surface area.
    • The alveoli absorb oxygen from the air you inhale.
    alveoli bronchiole
  • 5.
    • Breathing involves the diaphragm and muscles of the rib cage.
    • Air flows from areas of high pressure to low pressure.
    Air inhaled. Muscles contract and rib cage expands. Diaphragm flattens and moves downward. Air exhaled. Muscles and rib cage relax. Diaphragm relaxes and rises.
  • 6.
    • The circulatory system moves blood to all parts of the body.
    • The system includes the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries.
      • heart pumps blood throughout body
      • arteries move blood away from heart
      • veins move blood back to heart
      • capillaries get blood to and from cells
    veins arteries
  • 7.
    • There are three major functions of the circulatory system.
      • collecting waste materials
      • maintaining body temperature
      • transporting blood, gases, nutrients
  • 8. KEY CONCEPT The respiratory system exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  • 9.
    • Gas exchange occurs in the alveoli of the lungs.
    • Oxygen and carbon dioxide are carried by the blood to and from the alveoli.
      • oxygen diffuses from alveoli into capillary
      • oxygen binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells
      • carbon dioxide difuses from capillary into alveoli
    ALVEOLI GAS EXCHANGES capillaries alveolus capillary co 2 o 2 Co 2 diffuses into alveolus. O 2 diffuses into blood.
  • 10.
    • Gas exchange occurs in the alveoli of the lungs.
    • Breathing is regulated by the brain stem.
    midbrain pons medulla oblongata spinal chord
  • 11.
    • Respiratory diseases interfere with gas exchange.
    • Lung diseases reduce airflow and oxygen absorption.
      • Emphysema destroys alveoli.
      • Asthma constricts airways.
      • Cystic fibrosis produces sticky mucus.
  • 12.
    • Smoking is the leading cause of lung diseases.
  • 13. KEY CONCEPT The heart is a muscular pump that moves the blood through two pathways.
  • 14.
    • The tissues and structures of the heart make it an efficient pump.
    • Cardiac muscle tissue works continuously without tiring.
    NORMAL HUMAN HEART
  • 15.
    • The heart has four chambers: two atria, two ventricles.
    • Valves in each chamber prevent backflow of blood.
    • Muscles squeeze the chambers in a powerful pumping action.
    aortic valve left atrium mitral valve left ventricle septum pulmonary valve right atrium tricuspid right ventricle
  • 16.
      • SA node, or pacemaker, stimulates atria to contract
      • AV node stimulates ventricles to contract
    • The heartbeat consists of two contractions.
    SA node VA node
  • 17.
    • Blood flows through the heart in a specific pathway.
    1 2 4 3
  • 18.
    • Blood flows through the heart in a specific pathway.
      • oxygen-poor blood enters right atrium, then right ventricle
      • right ventricle pumps blood to lungs
      • oxygen-rich blood from lungs enters left atrium, then left ventricle
      • left ventricle pumps blood to body
  • 19.
    • The heart pumps blood through two main pathways.
    • Pulmonary circulation occurs between the heart and the lungs.
      • oxygen-poor blood enters lungs
      • excess carbon dioxide and water expelled
      • blood picks up oxygen
      • oxygen-rich blood returns to heart
  • 20.
    • Systemic circulation occurs between the heart and the rest of the body.
      • oxygen-rich blood goes to organs, extremities
      • oxygen-poor blood returns to heart
    • The two pathways help maintain a stable body temperature.
  • 21. KEY CONCEPT The circulatory system transports materials throughout the body.
  • 22.
    • Arteries, veins, and capillaries transport blood to all parts of the body.
    • Arteries carry blood away from the heart.
      • blood under great pressure
      • thicker, more muscular walls
    ARTERY VEIN CAPILLARIES arteriole venule endothelium connective tissue smooth muscle valve
  • 23.
    • Veins carry blood back to the heart.
      • blood under less pressure
      • thinner walls, larger diameter
      • valves prevent backflow
    ARTERY VEIN CAPILLARIES arteriole venule endothelium connective tissue smooth muscle valve
  • 24.
    • Capillaries move blood between veins, arteries, and cells.
    ARTERY VEIN CAPILLARIES arteriole endothelium connective tissue smooth muscle venule valve
  • 25.
    • Blood pressure is a measure of the force of blood pushing against artery walls.
      • systolic pressure: left ventricle contracts
      • diastolic pressure: left ventricle relaxes
    • High blood pressure can precede a heart attack or stroke.
  • 26.
    • Lifestyle plays a key role in circulatory diseases.
    • Some choices lead to an increased risk of circulatory diseases.
      • smoking
      • long-term stress
      • excessive weight
      • lack of exercise
      • diet low in fruits and vegetables, high in saturated fats
  • 27.
    • Circulatory diseases affect mainly the heart and the arteries.
      • artery walls become thick and inflexible
      • plaque blocks blood flow in arteries
  • 28. KEY CONCEPT Blood is a complex tissue that transports materials.
  • 29.
    • Blood is composed mainly of cells, cell fragments, and plasma.
    • Whole blood is made up of different materials.
      • plasma
      • red blood cells
      • white blood cells
      • platelets
    red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets plasma
  • 30.
    • Plasma is a key factor in maintaining homeostasis.
      • molecules diffuse into and out of plasma
      • contains proteins that stabilize blood volume
      • contains clotting factors
      • contains immune proteins
  • 31.
    • Platelets and different types of blood cells have different functions.
    • The bone marrow manufactures most of the blood components.
    red blood cell platelet white blood cell
  • 32.
    • Red blood cells make up 40-45 % of all blood cells.
      • transport oxygen to cells and carry away carbon dioxide
      • have no nuclei and contain hemoglobin
  • 33.
    • White blood cells fight pathogens and destroy foreign matter.
    red blood cell platelet white blood cell
  • 34.
    • Protein markers define blood types and Rh factors.
      • ABO blood group the most common
      • Rh factor can be negative or positive
      • blood types must be compatible for transfusions
  • 35.
    • Platelets help form clots that control bleeding.
    platelets fibrin red blood cell white blood cell
  • 36. KEY CONCEPT The lymphatic system provides another type of circulation in the body.
  • 37.
    • Lymph is collected from tissues and returned to the circulatory system.
    • The lymphatic system collects fluid that leaks out of the capillaries.
      • Lymph vessels have valves to prevent backflow.
      • Lymph nodes filter the lymph and destroy foreign matter.
      • Lymph vessels return cleaned fluid to the circulatory system.
    • If lymph vessels or nodes are damaged, lymph collects in an area.
    heart lymph nodes lymph vessels
  • 38.
    • The lymphatic system is a major part of the immune system.
    • Structures in the lymphatic system help fight disease.
      • tonsils filter bacteria and viruses
      • thymus develops white blood cells
      • spleen filters lymph, contains immune cells
    • Lymphocytes help destroy pathogens, parasites, and foreign matter.
    tonsils thymus spleen