White Pine Blister Rust


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White Pine Blister Rust

  1. 1. White Pine Blister Rust <ul><li>Prepared by Ryan Burkum </li></ul><ul><li>Plant Health Care Coordinator </li></ul><ul><li>Olympic Tree and Land Management Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Revised November 2008 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Brief Introduction <ul><li>Scientific name Cronartium Ribicola </li></ul><ul><li>Fungal disease </li></ul><ul><li>Requires two plant hosts to complete it’s lifecycle </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern White Pine </li></ul><ul><li>Ribes species (Gooseberries and Currants) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction Continued <ul><li>Introduced from Europe in the 1890’s </li></ul><ul><li>Most likely introduced on European grown seedlings planted for reforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Can cause defoliation on Ribes </li></ul><ul><li>Serious disease of White Pines </li></ul>
  4. 4. Often Leads to Death of White Pines Two White Pines Removed due to Blister Rust Infection
  5. 5. State of Michigan White Pine Blister Rust Act 313 of 1929 <ul><li>Declared the fungus known as white pine blister rust to be a dangerous forest pest </li></ul><ul><li>Any pines or currants found infected where declared a nuisance </li></ul><ul><li>Declared black currant a public nuisance </li></ul><ul><li>Outlawed the sale, possession, and growing of black currant </li></ul><ul><li>Punishable by $100 fine or 90 days in jail </li></ul>
  6. 6. New York State Consolidated Laws: Environmental Conservation <ul><li>Title 13, section 9-1301 </li></ul><ul><li>Declared Black Currant a nuisance </li></ul><ul><li>Agents of the DEC had the right to remove black currant </li></ul><ul><li>Provided Fruiting districts that allowed for currant to be planted as an agricultural crop </li></ul>
  7. 7. Current state of Currant Production <ul><li>August of 2003 governor Pataki signed a law allowing Black currant to be planted in New York, reversing a 100 year old law </li></ul><ul><li>One law maker called the decision “ a major agricultural achievement” </li></ul><ul><li>Additionally several species of currants are available from Canadian nurseries </li></ul><ul><li>Aside from what's planted and imported ribes also occurs naturally in our region </li></ul><ul><li>The bottom line is that Ribes are here ! </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Hosts <ul><li>Eastern White Pine </li></ul><ul><li>Pinus strobus </li></ul><ul><li>Five needles per fascicle </li></ul><ul><li>Grows to 150 feet tall </li></ul><ul><li>Can live for 500 plus years </li></ul><ul><li>Wood used for lumber, cabin logs, pulpwood for paper </li></ul>
  9. 9. More White Pine
  10. 10. Ribes <ul><li>Small dense, low growing shrubs </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple stems </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive root systems </li></ul><ul><li>Some species have spines </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves are alternate and lobed, look like small maple leaves </li></ul>
  11. 11. More Ribes <ul><li>Grows on a variety of sites </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit varies with species </li></ul><ul><li>Several species act as the alternate host for White Pine Blister Rust </li></ul><ul><li>Species such as skunk currant, wild red currant, and prickly gooseberry are found in our region </li></ul>
  12. 12. More Ribes
  13. 13. More Ribes
  14. 14. Life Cycle of White Pine Blister Rust
  15. 15. White Pine Blister Rust Life Cycle II
  16. 16. White Pine Blister Rust Life Cycle Simplified !! <ul><li>Beginning in early to mid summer hair like projections emerge from the bottom of ribes leaf </li></ul><ul><li>Spores that grow on the hair like projections and are released to infect White Pines </li></ul><ul><li>The spores are blown around by the wind and land on and infect Pine Needles </li></ul>
  17. 17. Simple Life Cycle Continued <ul><li>In 4 to 10 weeks spots are visible on needles </li></ul><ul><li>2 to 4 years after initial infection the Pine produces Aecial Blisters (yellow/orange) </li></ul><ul><li>These blisters produce spores which infect the Ribes. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Identification <ul><li>In spring (around May) look for Aecial Blister rupturing the bark of White Pine </li></ul><ul><li>They are yellow or orange in color and produce the spores that infect the Ribes Plant. </li></ul>
  19. 22. Identification <ul><li>Also in the Spring and Summer look for Chlorotic or Slightly Yellow Needles </li></ul><ul><li>This stage of infection may difficult to ID </li></ul><ul><li>As the infection progresses the needles will turn brown or reddish in color, this is known as a “flagging” branch </li></ul>
  20. 23. Slightly Yellowing Needles in the Spring
  21. 24. Canker Associated with Yellowing Needles
  22. 25. Canker Associated with Yellowing Needles
  23. 26. More ID <ul><li>All year long look for </li></ul><ul><li>Branch flagging </li></ul><ul><li>Trunk cankers </li></ul><ul><li>Resin flow </li></ul>
  24. 27. Branch Flagging
  25. 28. Branch Flagging and Associated Canker
  26. 29. Small Tree Infected with Blister Rust Margin of the canker is orange
  27. 30. Trunk Cankers
  28. 33. Trunk Cankers and Resin Flow
  29. 34. Sunken Trunk from Old Infection
  30. 35. Trunk Cankers Greatly Affect the Strength of the Tree
  31. 36. Extensive Decay & Strength Loss Small amount of Sound Wood Outline of Healthy Tree
  32. 37. Trees With Trunk Cankers are Hazardous <ul><li>Trees with trunk cankers can fail </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the loss of sound wood trees with trunk cankers pose a threat to structures and people </li></ul>
  33. 38. Tree Failure due to Trunk Canker
  34. 39. Resin Flow Associated with Canker
  35. 40. Branch Canker from Fallen Tree
  36. 41. What to do??? <ul><li>Monitoring and early detection </li></ul><ul><li>Improving Plant/Stand Health </li></ul><ul><li>Removing Ribes </li></ul><ul><li>Bark tracing </li></ul>
  37. 42. Monitoring and early detection <ul><li>Early detection is essential </li></ul><ul><li>Once the Blister Rust has progressed down a branch and is within 6 inches of the trunk the tree has little chance of survival </li></ul><ul><li>If caught early the infected branch can be pruned off and the tree saved </li></ul><ul><li>Small trees can be monitored from the ground while larger trees should be climbed and inspected </li></ul>
  38. 43. Improving Tree and Stand Health <ul><li>Maintain adequate water and fertilizer </li></ul><ul><li>Prune the lower portions of small trees and the crowns of large trees. </li></ul><ul><li>Thin stands of trees to promote airflow </li></ul><ul><li>By promoting airflow the spores have less of a chance to settle and become established, other pest are also deterred </li></ul>
  39. 44. Increasing air flow around smaller trees <ul><li>Lightly prune small trees by removing a few lower branches and any crossing limbs </li></ul><ul><li>Raising and lightly cleaning the crown increases air flow </li></ul><ul><li>When done properly plant health is increased while maintaining screening and tree character </li></ul>
  40. 45. Increasing Air Circulation for Larger Trees <ul><li>Prune to Clean and Thin the crowns. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove any dead wood and crossing limbs. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to helping prevent Blister Rust pruning the crowns of larger trees makes them less susceptible to damage from wind and snow loads. </li></ul><ul><li>This type of activity requires an arborist to access the crown of the tree either by climbing or using an aerial lift device. </li></ul>
  41. 46. Un-Thinned VS. Thinned Pines
  42. 47. More un-thinned Pines
  43. 48. Thinned Pines, increased air flow
  44. 49. Poor Air Flow
  45. 50. Increased Air Flow around a single Tree
  46. 51. Removing Ribes <ul><li>Monitoring to seek out Ribes </li></ul><ul><li>Manually pull out or dig up the plant and remove from site </li></ul><ul><li>Spray with herbicide </li></ul><ul><li>Must be diligent, the Ribes will re-grow, continued monitoring is necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Spores from far away ribes can infect Pine </li></ul>
  47. 52. Bark Tracing <ul><li>A last resort once the Blister Rust has reached the trunk </li></ul><ul><li>Remove the bark from the infected area and 2 to 4 inches beyond, leaving an elliptical shaped scar </li></ul><ul><li>An elliptical shape scar will heal sooner than a round or rectangular scar </li></ul><ul><li>The flow of nutrients is better around an elliptical shape scar </li></ul>
  48. 53. Bark Tracing
  49. 54. Conclusion <ul><li>Blister Rust is a serious/lethal disease of White Pine </li></ul><ul><li>Ribes and their spores are present in the environment and total eradication seems unlikely </li></ul><ul><li>Diligence in terms of monitoring and proactive treatments such as promoting air flow and circulation will sustain White Pine on the Landscape </li></ul>