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 Photography text Photography text Presentation Transcript

  • SENI OR SECONDAR Y SCHOOL TR ADE CURRI CULUM PHOTOGRAPHY NIGERIAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL (NERDC) SHEDA, ABUJA
  • Nigerian Educational Research And Development Council (NERDC) 2009 First Published 2009 Reprinted 2012 ISBN: 978-054-179-9 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC). ii
  • NIGERIAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL Headquarters: Phone: Email: Lokoja - Kaduna Road, Sheda, PMB 91, Abuja Nigeria (09) 8822202, 8822204, Fax: (09) 8821047 nerdcabuja@yahoo.com nerdcinfo@yahoo.com Website: www.nerdcnigeria.org Zonal Offices South-East Old SUBEB Building Waterworks Road Abakaliki Ebonyi State. South-South 2nd Floor, Federal Secretariat Complex, Muritala Muhammed High Way, Calabar, Cross-River. North-East Commissioners’ Quarters Road, Off Maiduguri Road, Damaturu, Yobe State. North-West GP 109, State Road, Opposite Kano State High Court, Kano, Kano State. South-West 3, Jibowu Street, Yaba, Lagos. North-Central 3rd Floor, Rm 313-315, Federal Secretariat Complex, Minna, Niger State. iii
  • FOREWORD I am delighted to have unique opportunity to commend this volume of Senior Secondary School (SSS) Trades Curriculum to all Schools in the Federation. This is one of the Thirty-Four (34) Senior Secondary School Trade Curricula being published by my Ministry for the successful implementation of the National Policy on Education as it affects the Senior Secondary Component. I am also pleased to note that the completion of some of the pre-requisites, such as Secondary School Trades Curricula in printed form, is taking place during my tenure as Federal Minister of Education. I must congratulate all those who participated in developing these curricula for the new Senior Secondary Education Structure. I wish to thank most especially the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) and their resource personnel for a job well done. It is my fervent hope that the Teacher and Students for who these curricula are produced would demonstrate the required devotion and unfailing assiduity in using these curricula to lay a solid foundation for a pragmatic approach to secondary education so that in later years we can all look back with the pride that we left for posterity a proud legacy in education. I gladly commend these curricula to all for the purposes of producing the best in text material and the best in students, since education has been recognized as a key factor in achieving Mr. President's seven point agenda. Thank you. DR. SAM EGWU Honorable Minister of Education, Abuja January, 2009 iv
  • PREFACE The new trades curriculum was designed to meet the targets of the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS), which are expressed as:- value re-orientation, poverty eradication, job creation, wealth generation and using education to empower the citizenry. The overall goal of the curriculum is to prepare the students to face the challenges of the new millennium. The major aim is that students having successfully passed through the Senior Secondary Education, should have acquired the skills in a specific trade to enable them create jobs and generate wealth. The process of the development of the trades curriculum which included a series of planning, writing, critique and editorial workshops entailed wide consultations with stakeholders, experienced secondary and technology teachers, teacher educators, school inspectors, technicians and entrepreneurs. Others include policy makers, and examination bodies. The implementation of this trade curriculum is to commence at the Senior Secondary One (SS1) in year 2011. It is my pleasure to express our gratitude to the Federal Government of Nigeria for supporting this project. Our special thanks go to all resource persons that were involved in one way or the other in the development of the trades curriculum. It is our belief that when this curriculum is properly implemented, the future generations of this country will be better for it. PROF. GODSWILL OBIOMA fman, fiica, fcon, mnae Executive Secretary NERDC v
  • INTRODUCTION Photography is one of the vocational subjects offered in Senior Secondary Schools in the Country. The introduction of the subject is informed by the continually changing world in which we live today and the unprecedented rate in technological advancement that is shrinking the world into a global village. Photography enables a person to record visual images through photographs to be kept for posterity. It also enables one to transmit events happening around the globe in a matter of seconds thereby enriching ones experiences in terms of activities that have bearing on politics, economics, educational, social, cultural and other institutions. It is therefore a truism that a picture is worth a thousand words. This curriculum covers the following nineteen (19) themes:             Introduction to photography (1) Theory of light The camera The film Shooting of photographs (1) The darkroom Film development Printing History and appreciation of photography (II) Introduction to lighting Lenses Shooting of photographs (II) Care and preservation of photographs vi
  •        Introduction of digital photography (I) Field trips (I) History and appreciation of photography (III) Darkroom printing techniques Digital photography (II) Field trips (II) Exhibition The topics and contents under each theme are made to reflect the basic nature of technology, i.e. knowledge, skill, creativity and attitude. The digital photography themes are meant to usher the trainees into the world of computer, information and communication technology (ICT). The curriculum is designed for use with basic and fairly inexpensive equipment. Teaching and learning can be facilitated and enhanced by the use of real life experiences through industrial visits. The curriculum has also been designed for a minimum number of 4 periods of 40 minutes per week. The success of the curriculum implementation will largely depend on some key factors viz: availability of qualified teachers, equipment, teaching materials and opportunities for excursions. It is hoped that both teachers and students will find this revised curriculum a useful guide to the teaching and learning of photography. vii
  • TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- iv PREFACE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- v INTRODUCTION ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- vi TABLE OF CONTENTS --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- viii SS 1 THEME: INTRODUCTION TO PHOTOGRAPHY (I) Essence of Photography ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Importance of photography --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------History of photography (I) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Area of photography -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Photography terminologies --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------THEME: 1 1 1 2 2 THEORY OF LIGHT Sources of light Properties of light ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- viii 3 3
  • THEME: THE CAMERA Basic principle of camera -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Basic parts of a camera --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Types of Camera -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Care of camera -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------THEME: THE FILM The nature of film Types of film Film speeds THEME: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7 7 THE DARKROOM The Darkroom --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Darkroom tools and equipment ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------Darkroom safety -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------THEME: 6 6 6 SHOOTING OF PHOTOGRAPHS (I) Shooting preparation ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Shooting of Photographs ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------THEME: 4 4 5 5 8 8 8 FILM DEVELOPMENT Materials and equipment for film development --------------------------------------------------------------9 Film Development ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 9 Drying and storage of negatives --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10 ix
  • THEME: PRINTING Materials and equipment for printing of photographs -------------------------------------------------------- 11 Printing process --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11 Drying and storage of photographs ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12 SS II THEME: HISTORY AND APPRECIATION OF PHOTOGRAPHY (II) Historical development of Photography ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 13 Photography in Nigeria ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 13 THEME: INTRODUCTION TO LIGHTING Natural light ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14 Artificial light -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14 THEME: LENSES Basic principle of lenses ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15 Lens and aperture ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 15 Types of Camera lenses ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15 x
  • THEME: SHOOTING OF PHOTOGRAPHS (II) Composition -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Nature Study -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Still life ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Portraiture ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------THEME: 16 16 16 16 CARE AND PRESERVATION OF PHOTOGRAPHS Mounting and framing of photographs -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17 THEME: INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY (1) Digital Photography equipment --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18 Digital photography software ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18 THEME: FIELD TRIP (I) Excursion to a photography studio ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19 SS III THEME: HISTORY AND APPRECIATION OF PHOTOGRAPHY (III) Contemporary Nigerian Photographers ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 20 Emergence of digital photography --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 20 xi
  • THEME: DARKROOM PRINTING TECHNIQUES Creative printing THEME: ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21 DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY (II) Input methods in digital photography --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 22 Output methods in digital photography ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 22 THEME: FIELD TRIP (II) Excursion to a photographic colour laboratory ----------------------------------------------------------------- 23 THEME: EXHIBITION Exhibition of Students’ work ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 24 xii
  • SS I THEME: INTRODUCTION TO PHOTOGRAPHY (I) TOPIC PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES CONTENTS 1. The essence of photography Students should be i. able to : ii. 1. define photography as a means of visual communication 2. relate photography with universal needs 2. Importance of photography Students should be able to: enumerate the importance of photography. Visual communication. Record keeping ii. used in advertising Scientific use. iv. TEACHING AND LEARNING MATERIALS Photographs 1. Discusses photography in relation to universal needs. List the different aspect of life in which photography is used. Explains each of the important areas identified with the aid of suitable examples. Enumerate the areas of importance of photography identified. Sample of photographs showing the identified areas of importance of photography. Discusses the development of the camera obscura. Construct a pin hole camera using a carton. Carton Pin EVALUATION GUIDE Students to: discuss photography in relation to universal needs. News reporting v. Students should be able to: discuss the development of camera obscura. Record of events. iii. 3. History of photography i. ACTIVITIES TEACHER STUDENTS 5. Artistic expression The Camera obscura 1 Students to: explain the importance of photography. Students to: explain camera obscura
  • SS I THEME: INTRODUCTION TO PHOTOGRAPHY (I) TOPIC 4. Areas of photography PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES Students should be able to: CONTENTS Areas of photography:  Fashion list and define terms used in photography. Defines and explains terms used in photography. List the terms used in photography. Students to: mention seven areas of photography. Underwater War Documentary  EVALUATION GUIDE Sports  List the various areas of photography TEACHING AND LEARNING MATERIALS Sample photographs showing the different areas of photography. Nature  Students should be able to:  Discusses the different areas of photography Forensic  5. Photography terminologies   identify and discuss the areas of photography. ACTIVITIES TEACHER STUDENTS Architectural, etc. Photography terminologies • Exposure • Develop • Print • Enlarge • Focus • Aperture • F-number • Perspective • Image • intensity, etc. 2 Chart Students to: define terms used in photography
  • SS I THEME: THEORY OF LIGHT TOPIC 1. Sources of light PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES CONTENTS TEACHER Students should be able to: i. 1. identify sources of light discuss each identified source of light in relation to photography. ii. Students should be able to: identify and discusses properties of light. i. ii. iii. iv. v. 2. 2. Properties of light ACTIVITIES STUDENTS Natural light (e.g. sun and moon). Artificial light (electric light, flash, etc.) Identifies and discusses the different sources of light in relation to photography. Experiment with different artificial light. Absorption Reflection Transmission Refraction Dispersion 1. Explains the various properties of light. 2. Experiments the effect of light on different surfaces. TEACHING AND LEARNING MATERIALS Torchlight Bulb Flash, etc. EVALUATION GUIDE Students to: 1. 2. 3 Experiment the effect of artificial light on different surfaces. Torchlight Mirror Black sand White surfaces Glass Prism Diagrams mention different sources of light. list various source of light that are useful in photography. Students to identify and explain properties of light.
  • SS I THEME: THE CAMERA TOPIC 1. Basic principle of camera PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES Students should be able to: explain the principle upon which the camera is designed. CONTENTS i. Basic principles : • • • • 2. Basic parts of a camera Students should be able to : 1. identify the basic parts of a camera. 2. mention the function of each part. • ii. • • • • • • • • Light tights registration surface. Light inlet (aperture). Image formation (lens) Image captures (Shutter). Viewing system. Basic parts : Light tight box Lens Lens opening Shutter Shutter release View finder Film advance mechanism Function of each part of a camera. ACTIVITIES TEACHER STUDENTS Explains with the aid of a camera the basic principles upon which camera is designed. Identify the principles upon which the camera is designed. 1. Lists and discusses the parts of a camera. 1. Identify the basic parts of a camera using manual camera. 2. Explains the functions of each part of a camera. 2. List the function of the identified parts of a camera. 4 TEACHING AND LEARNING MATERIALS Camera Diagrams Camera Diagram EVALUATION GUIDE Students to: explain five principles upon which the camera is designed. Students to: 1. lists five basic parts of a camera. 2. explain five functions of five basic part of a camera.
  • SS I THEME: THE CAMERA TOPIC PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES 3. Types of Camera Students should be able to: identify different types of camera. 4. Care of the Camera Students should be able to: discuss different methods of taking care of a camera. CONTENTS Types of camera: • Twin lens reflex • Single lens reflex • Direct vision • View through technical • Miniature • Polaroid • Digital Care of the camera: • • • • Keep away from dirt and oil. Keep duster away from it. Regular servicing by competent technician. Careful handling at all times. ACTIVITIES TEACHER STUDENTS 1. Discuses the system of each of the cameras. Identify the different types of camera. 2. Identifies the differences between the cameras. 1. Explains the need to take good care of a camera. 2. Explains and demonstrates (where necessary) various methods of taking care of a camera. 1. Demonstrate how to: • • Clean the lens Handle the camera when loading the film. 2. Keep camera in camera bag when not in use. 5 TEACHING AND LEARNING MATERIALS Samples of different types of camera. Diagram of different camera Pictures of different cameras. Camera Camera bag Muslin cloth. EVALUATION GUIDE Student to: detect the differences between the cameras. Students to: mention four ways of caring for a camera.
  • SS I THEME: THE FILM TOPIC PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES 1. The nature of film Students should be able to: describe film and state its composition. CONTENTS i. Light sensitive material. ii. Chemical composition. 2. Types of film Students should be able to: identify different types of film in relation to format and type. i. Film format (sizes) • 110 • 135 (35 mm) • 120/220 • Sheet film etc. ACTIVITIES TEACHER STUDENTS 1. Describes the sensitive nature of film. 2. States the chemical composition of film (silver and potassium salts, held to cellulose – acetate by gelatin emulsion. 1. Describes the various film formats. 2. Discusses the two film types. ii. Film types • Black and white • Coloured film. 3. Film Speed Students should be able to: 1. define film speed. 2. relate film speed with ASA (American Standard Association) number. Film speed: i. ASA 32- slow speed film. ii. ASA 40 – 200 medium speed film iii. ASA 400 and above – fast high speed film. Discusses each category of film in relation to their speed. 6 Observe the nature of an undeveloped film pulled out of the cartridge. TEACHING AND LEARNING MATERIALS Undeveloped film. EVALUATION GUIDE Students to: list the chemical composition of a film. 1. Identify the various film formats. 2. Differentiate between black/white and coloured film. Samples of the various film formats Samples of the two film types (black/white and coloured) Students to: Identify ASA number inscribed on various film cartridges. Cartridges of film with different ASA inscription. Students to: relate ASA number to film speed. 1. mention three different film formats. 2. identify black/ white and coloured films
  • SS I THEME: SHOOTING OF PHOTOGRAPHS (1) TOPIC 1. Shooting preparation 2. Shooting of photographs PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES Student should be able to: identify various forms of preparation prior to shooting photographs. Student should be able to: focus and shoot photographs (both indoor and outdoor). CONTENTS i. Loading the film into the camera. ii. Get subject prepared. iii. Set up studio lighting equipment. iv. Study outdoor weather condition. 1. Focusing with the camera. 2. Shooting indoor photographs. 3. Shooting outdoor photographs. ACTIVITIES TEACHER STUDENTS Discusses the need and importance of making adequate preparation before shooting photograph. Load film into camera and make other preparations as determined by the type of photograph to be taken. 1. Explains ways of handling camera for shooting. Experiment with shooting of photographs both (indoor and outdoor). - hand held using tripod 2. Demonstrates how to focus and shoot photographs (both indoor and outdoor). 7 TEACHING AND LEARNING MATERIALS Camera Film Lighting equipment Camera Tripod Flash Lighting equipment. EVALUATION GUIDE Students to: explain the three preparatory steps to be taken in taking in door or outdoor photographs. Students to: write their indoor and outdoor experiences in taking photographs.
  • SS I THEME: THE DARKROOM TOPIC 1. The darkroom 2. Darkroom tools and equipment 3. Darkroom Safety PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES CONTENTS Students should be able to: 1. describe the layout of a dark room. 2. mention darkroom requirement. i. Darkroom layout:  dry area  wet area ii. Darkroom requirements  light tights  good ventilation  adequate electricity supply  adequate water supply.  Waste outlet  Flat working surfaces. Tools and equipment.  Measures  Containers  Funnels  Timers  Thermometers  Developing tanks  Safe light  Enlarger  Dryer Trays/dishes, etc.   Safety measures:  Wear darkroom apron/lab coat  Wear rubber gloves.  Avoid sudden movements  Apply first aid in treating chemical burns  Properly store chemical when not in use. Students should be able to: 1. identify tools and equipment used in the darkroom. 2. mention the function of each of the tools and equipment. Students should be able to: mention various safety measures required in the darkroom. ACTIVITIES TEACHER STUDENTS 1. Discusses the dry and wet areas of a darkroom. Visit the dark room and acquaint themselves with the layout (dry and wet areas) 2. Explains each darkroom requirement. Discusses the functions of each tools and equipment in the darkroom. 1. Identify the various tools and equipment in the dark room. TEACHING AND LEARNING MATERIALS Darkroom EVALUATION GUIDE Students to: write a report of their experience in the darkroom All darkroom tools and equipment Students to: list seven tools and equipment in the darkroom. Rubber gloves Laboratory coats First aid box Fire extinguisher. Student to: list darkroom safety measures. 2. State the functions of each tool and equipment. Discusses: 1. importance of safety in the darkroom. Demonstrate: 2. the various safety measures required while in the darkroom. 3. darkroom first aid measures. 2. apron/ laboratory coat. 8 1. wearing of rubber gloves.
  • SS I THEME: FILM DEVELOPMENT TOPIC 1. Materials and equipment for film development PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES Students should be able to: 1. identify materials and equipment required for film development 2. explain the functions of the equipment (developing tank and dishes). 2. Film development Students should be able to: develop exposed film into negative. CONTENTS Materials for film development.     Developer Developing tank Developing trays/dishes Fixer i. Dilution of:   Developer Fixer ii. Loading the film into the tank or using the see-saw method. ACTIVITIES TEACHER STUDENTS 1. Discusses the use of the developing materials/ developer and fixer Identify the materials and equipment used for film development. 2. Explains the functions of the equipment (developing tank and dishes) Explains and demonstrates the processes of film development using both the developing tank and the see-saw methods. iii. Pouring and timing the action of developer on the film in the tank. iv. Rinsing and fixing the negative. 9 Experiment with developing tank and the seesaw method.            TEACHING AND LEARNING MATERIALS Developer Developing tank Developing trays/dishes Fixer. Developing tank Developer Fixer Developing trays/dishes. Timer Water Rubber gloves. EVALUATION GUIDE Students to: List three materials and equipment used in film development. Students to: Explain the two methods of film development.
  • SS I THEME: TOPIC 3. Drying and storage of negatives FILM DEVELOPMENT PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES Students should be able to: 1. dry negatives 2. store negatives. CONTENTS i. ii. Methods of drying negatives. Methods of storing negatives ACTIVITIES TEACHER STUDENTS 1. Explains and demonstrates the two methods of drying negatives.   Dryer Open air. 2. Explains and demonstrates the methods of storing negatives.    Film container Cellophane Jackets Chest of drawers. 10 1. Experiment using dryer and open air methods. 2. Store negatives using different methods. TEACHING AND LEARNING MATERIALS Dryer Rope line Pegs Film container Cellophane jackets Chest of drawers. EVALUATION GUIDE Students to: explain: 1. drying processes 2. storage methods.
  • SS I THEME: PRINTING TOPIC PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES CONTENTS 1. Materials and equipment for printing of photographs Students should be able to: identify materials and equipment required for printing of photographs. 2. Printing process Students should be able to: print photographs from negatives Equipment for printing.  Enlarger  Safelight  Printing paper  Printing frame  Developer fixer  Developing trays/ dishes  Dryer  Guillotine. i. Dilution of   Developer Fixer ii. Contact print. iii. Printing photograph using enlarger. ACTIVITIES TEACHER STUDENTS Discusses the use of each printing material and equipment. Identify the materials and equipment used in printing of photographs. Explains and demonstrates the printing of photographs using: Experiment with: 1. contact method 2. enlarger iv. Developing and fixing of photographs. 11 1. negative and printing paper (contact print) 2. negative and enlarger. TEACHING AND LEARNING MATERIALS Enlarger Safety light Printing paper Printing frame Developer Fixer Water Developing trays/ dishes. Dryer Guillotine Negative Enlarger Printing frame Printing paper Developer Fixer Dryer. EVALUATION GUIDE Students to: list seven materials and equipment used in printing of photographs. Students to: explain the two methods of printing photographs.
  • SS I THEME: TOPIC PRINTING PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES 3. Drying and Students should be i. storage of able to: photographs 1. dry printed ii. photographs. 2. store printed photographs. CONTENTS Methods of drying printed photographs. Methods of storing printed photographs. ACTIVITIES TEACHER STUDENTS 1. Explains and demonstrates the two methods of drying printed photographs 1. Experiment with dryer and open air methods.   2. Store printed photographs using different methods. Dryer Open air 2. Explains and demonstrates the methods of storing printed photographs    Printing paper pack Cellophane jackets Photo albums 12 TEACHING AND EVALUATION LEARNING GUIDE MATERIALS Dryer Students to: Rope line explain Pegs Printing pack 1. drying Cellophane jacket processes Photo album. 2. storage methods.