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Microbial Fuel Cells
 

Microbial Fuel Cells

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A PowerPoint presentation detailing the concept behind Microbial Fuel Cells and analyzing the pros and cons of this technology.

A PowerPoint presentation detailing the concept behind Microbial Fuel Cells and analyzing the pros and cons of this technology.

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    Microbial Fuel Cells Microbial Fuel Cells Presentation Transcript

    • Paul BentzKevin Cao
    • Concept Bacteria convert substrate into electrons. The electrons run through the circuit and to power the load. The byproducts include carbon dioxide, water, and energy.
    • Components Anode Cathode Exchange membrane Electrical circuit
    • Anode The bacteria live in the anode and convert substrate to carbon dioxide, water, and energy. Various things like glucose and acetate can be used. The bacteria are kept in an oxygen- less environment to promote the flow of electrons through the anode.
    • Electrical Circuit After leaving the anode, the electrons travel through the circuit. These electrons power the load. The voltage multiplied by the current shows the power.
    • Exchange Membrane The protons that the bacteria separated from the electrons flows through the exchange membrane. They recombine on the other side. Can be a proton or cation exchange membrane.
    • Cathode The electrons and protons recombine at the cathode. Oxygen is reduced to water. A platinum catalyst is used so the oxygen is sufficiently reduced.
    • Video
    • Reactions BEAMR Hydrogen evolution reaction
    • BEAMR Utilizes electrohydrogenesis, which uses an anaerobic environment to produce pure hydrogen. It uses about one ninth of the energy required by normal electrolysis. It has many different names:  Bioelectrochemically assisted microbial reactor  Biocatalyzed electrolysis cells  Microbial electrolysis cells
    • Hydrogen Evolution Reaction The bacteria in the anode separate the protons and electrons. This reaction occurs at the cathode, where they recombine to form hydrogen gas.
    • History M.C. Potter first performed work on the concept in 1911 with E. coli at the University of Durham In 1976 the current design was came into existence by the work of Suzuki
    • Operating Conditions Function well in mild conditions Operate at 70-100°F
    • Uses Beer breweries produce biodegradable wastewater, which MFCs clean. Desalinating water Creating fertilizer
    • Environmental Impact If the variety of substrates is increased, waste can be used to create more energy. Instead of big factory manufacturing, fertilizer for farmers can be created with MFCs and common materials. MFCs can be used to desalinate seawater without burning fossil fuels, although not very efficiently yet.
    • Efficiency The efficiency varies based on the substrate used, but it can reach very high efficiencies. 91% efficiency has been reached.
    • Cost Power density = 150 mW/m2 Volume (MFC): 28 x 10^-6 m3 A/V-ratio: 25 m2/m3 Anode surface area (single chamber) = 7 x 10^-4 m2 Power = 0.165 mW Cost of single-chamber fuel cell: (lab-scale) Toray paper (10x10 cm): $ 11 XC-72 (10x10 cm): $65 Others (perspex, glue, wire): $ 25 Total = $ 100 Cost per Watt = $ 600/mW
    • Future More types of substrate Ammonia-treated anodes
    • Substrate Currently there is a limit to what can be used as a substrate for the bacteria. Scientists hope to increase these fuel types to include things like sewage and manure.
    • Ammonia-Treated Anodes Anodes of MFCs are naturally negative in charge. The anodes can be changed to a positive charge by being treated with ammonia. This will make the anode more receptive to the electron transfer from the bacteria. The energy trade-off to produce this might not be worth the increase in production.
    • Bibliography http://www.microbialfuelcell.org/ http://www.engr.psu.edu http://microbialfuelcell.wordpress.com/ http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/01/08010310113 7.htm http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Penn_State_Micr obial_Fuel_Cells_Produce_Hydrogen_from_Waste_Water www.popsci.com/scitech/article/2009-08/microbial-fuel- cell-cleans-wastewater-desalinates-seawater-and- generates-power http://www.fuelcells.org/info/summer2007.pdf