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Yeahhhh the final requirement!!!
 

Yeahhhh the final requirement!!!

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    Yeahhhh the final requirement!!! Yeahhhh the final requirement!!! Presentation Transcript

    • SWITCH CASE AND LOOPING A final requirement for programming http://eglobiotraining.com
    • PROGRAMMING We first define the word “programming”, it is a computer language programmers use to develop applications, scripts, or other set of instructions for a computer to execute. programming is instructing a computer to do something for you with the help of a programming language. The role of a programming language can be described in two ways: Technical: It is a means for instructing a Computer to perform Tasks Conceptual: It is a framework within which we organize our ideas about things and processes.http://eglobiotraining.com
    • As an individual, I have learned that programming is a very broad because it composes manyscripts, applications and can be used to run a program that has been part of the programming language. A programming language should both provide means to describe primitive data and proceduresand means to combine and abstract those into more complex ones. The distinction between data and procedures is not that clear cut. In many programminglanguages, procedures can be passed as data (to be applied to ``real data) and sometimes processed like``ordinary data. Conversely ``ordinary data can be turned into procedures by an evaluation mechanism. http://eglobiotraining.com
    • At first, programming is confusing because you have so much to understandabout codes that will enable to run a program. Programming has applications andprogram development, the best example for this is the Internet bowser… Programming is a creative process done by programmers to instruct acomputer on how to do a task. Fundamentally programs manipulate numbers and text.These are the building blocks of all programs. Programming languages let you use themin different ways, e.g adding numbers, etc… or storing data on disk for later retrieval. http://eglobiotraining.com
    • You have to consider languages to run or write your own program, mostdemanded language in programming is the DEV C++ (a full-featured Integrated DevelopmentEnvironment (IDE)). C++ is one of the most used programming languages in the world. Also known as"C with Classes".New to programming or thinking about it? It might surprise you to know that there are manyprogrammers who program just for fun and it can lead to a job. http://eglobiotraining.com
    • SWITCH CASE Switch case statements are a substitute forlong if statements that compare a variable to several "integral" values("integral" values are simply values that can be expressed as aninteger, such as the value of a char). http://eglobiotraining.com
    • basic format for using switch case:switch ( <variable> ) {case this-value: Code to execute if <variable> == this-value break;case that-value: Code to execute if <variable> == that-value break;...default: Code to execute if <variable> does not equal the value following any of the cases break;}The value of the variable given into switch is compared to the value following each ofthe cases, and when one value matches the value of the variable, the computercontinues executing the program from that point. http://eglobiotraining.com
    • The condition of a switchstatement is a value. The case says that if ithas the value of whatever is after that casethen do whatever follows the colon. Thebreak is used to break out of the case http://eglobiotraining.com
    • “Break” is a keyword that breaks out ofthe code block, usually surrounded by braces, which it is in. Inthis case, break prevents the program from falling through andexecuting the code in all the other case statements. http://eglobiotraining.com
    • The default case is optional, but it is wise toinclude it as it handles any unexpected cases. Switch statementsserves as a simple way to write long if statements when therequirements are met. Often it can be used to process inputfrom a user. http://eglobiotraining.com
    • This shows how would you use a Switch in a Program#include <iostream>using namespace std;void playgame(){ cout << "Play game called";}void loadgame()} cout << "Load game called";void playmultiplayer(){ cout << "Play multiplayer game called";}int main(){ int input; cout<<"1. Play gamen"; cout<<"2. Load gamen"; cout<<"3. Play multiplayern"; cout<<"4. Exitn"; cout<<"Selection: "; cin>> input; switch ( input ) { case 1: // Note the colon, not a semicolon playgame(); break; case 2: // Note the colon, not a semicolon loadgame(); break; case 3: // Note the colon, not a semicolon playmultiplayer(); break; case 4: // Note the colon, not a semicolon cout<<"Thank you for playing!n"; break; default: // Note the colon, not a semicolon cout<<"Error, bad input, quittingn"; break; } cin.get();} http://eglobiotraining.com
    • That program will compile, but cannot be run untilthe undefined functions are given bodies, but it serves as a model(albeit simple) for processing input. If you do not understand thisthen try mentally putting in if statements for the case statements. Defaultsimply skips out of the switch case construction and allows the program to terminatenaturally. If you do not like that, then you can make a loop around thewhole thing to have it wait for valid input. You could easily make a fewsmall functions if you wish to test the code. http://eglobiotraining.com
    • LOOPING Loops are used to repeat a block of code. Beingable to have your program repeatedly execute a block of code is one ofthe most basic but useful tasks in programming -- many programs orwebsites that produce extremely complex output (such as a messageboard) are really only executing a single task many times. http://eglobiotraining.com
    • (They may be executing a small numberof tasks, but in principle, to produce a list of messages onlyrequires repeating the operation of reading in some dataand displaying it.) Now, think about what this means: a looplets you write a very simple statement to produce a significantly greaterresult simply by repetition. http://eglobiotraining.com
    • One Caveat: before going further, youshould understand the concept of C++s true andfalse, because it will be necessary when working with loops(the conditions are the same as with if statements). Three types of Loops: for, while, and do.. http://eglobiotraining.com
    • FORFor ( variable initialization; condition; variable update ) { Code to execute while the condition is true} http://eglobiotraining.com
    • The variable initialization allows you to either declare a variable and give it avalue or give a value to an already existing variable. Second, the condition tells the program that whilethe conditional expression is true the loop should continue to repeat itself. The variable update sectionis the easiest way for a for loop to handle changing of the variable. It is possible to do things like x++,x = x + 10, or even x = random ( 5 ), and if you really wanted to, you could call other functions thatdo nothing to the variable but still have a useful effect on the code. Notice that a semicolon separates each of these sections, that is important. Also notethat every single one of the sections may be empty, though the semicolons still have to be there. Ifthe condition is empty, it is evaluated as true and the loop will repeat until something elsestops it. http://eglobiotraining.com
    • Example:#include <iostream>using namespace std; // So the program can see cout and endlint main(){ // The loop goes while x < 10, and x increases by one every loop for ( int x = 0; x < 10; x++ ) { // Keep in mind that the loop condition checks // the conditional statement before it loops again. // consequently, when x equals 10 the loop breaks. // x is updated before the condition is checked. cout<< x <<endl; } cin.get();}This program is a very simple example of a for loop. x is set to zero, while xis less than 10 it calls cout<< x <<endl; and it adds 1 to x until thecondition is met. Keep in mind also that the variable is incremented afterthe code in the loop is run for the first time. http://eglobiotraining.com
    • The basic structure: WHILE While ( condition ) { Code to execute while the condition is true } The true represents a boolean expression which could be x == 1 or while ( x != 7 ) (x does not equal 7). It can be any combination of boolean statements that are legal. Even, (while x ==5 || v == 7) which says execute the code while x equals five or while v equals 7. Notice that a while loop is the same as a for loop without the initialization and update sections. However, an empty condition is not legal for a while loop as it is with a for loop. http://eglobiotraining.com
    • Example:#include <iostream>using namespace std; // So we can see cout and endlint main(){ int x = 0; // Dont forget to declare variables while ( x < 10 ) { // While x is less than 10 cout<< x <<endl; x++; // Update x so the condition can be met eventually } cin.get();}The easiest way to think of the loop is that when it reaches the brace at the end itjumps back up to the beginning of the loop, which checks the condition again anddecides whether to repeat the block another time, or stop and move to the nextstatement after the block. http://eglobiotraining.com
    • DO..WHILE are useful for things that want to loop at least once.The Structure: do { } while ( condition ) ; http://eglobiotraining.com
    • Notice that the condition is tested at the end of theblock instead of the beginning, so the block will be executed at leastonce. If the condition is true, we jump back to the beginning of theblock and execute it again. A do..while loop is basically a reversedwhile loop. A while loop says "Loop while the condition is true, andexecute this block of code", a do..while loop says "Execute this block ofcode, and loop while the condition is true". http://eglobiotraining.com
    • Example:#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){ int x; x = 0; do { // "Hello, world!" is printed at least one time // even though the condition is false cout<<"Hello, world!n"; } while ( x != 0 ); cin.get();}Keep in mind that you must include a trailing semi-colon after the while in theabove example. A common error is to forget that a do..while loop must beterminated with a semicolon (the other loops should not be terminated with asemicolon, adding to the confusion). Notice that this loop will execute once,because it automatically executes before checking the condition. http://eglobiotraining.com
    • CODES AND EXPLANATIONS OF THE PROGRAMS HAVE BEEN TESTED http://eglobiotraining.com
    • LOOPING STATEMENT 1#include <iostream>int main(){ using namespace std; // nSelection must be declared outside do/while loop int nSelection; do { cout << "Please make a selection: " << endl; cout << "1) Addition" << endl; cout << "2) Subtraction" << endl; cout << "3) Multiplication" << endl; cout << "4) Division" << endl; cin >> nSelection; } while (nSelection != 1 && nSelection != 2 && nSelection != 3 && nSelection != 4); // do something with nSelection here // such as a switch statement return 0;} http://eglobiotraining.com
    • LOOPING STAEMENT 2#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){ int nSelection; double var1, var2; do { cout << "Please make a selection: " << endl; cout << "1) Addition" << endl; cout << "2) Subtraction" << endl; cout << "3) Multiplication" << endl; cout << "4) Division" << endl; cin >> nSelection; } while (nSelection != 1 && nSelection != 2 && nSelection != 3 && nSelection != 4); if (nSelection == 1) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1+var2) << endl; } http://eglobiotraining.com
    • LOOPING STATEMENT 3 if (nSelection == 2) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1-var2) << endl; } if (nSelection == 3) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1*var2) << endl; } if (nSelection == 4) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1/var2) << endl; } return 0; } http://eglobiotraining.com
    • LOOPING STATEMENT 3#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){ int nSelection; double var1, var2; while (1) { do { cout << "Please make a selection: " << endl; cout << "1) Addition" << endl; cout << "2) Subtraction" << endl; cout << "3) Multiplication" << endl; cout << "4) Division" << endl; cout << "5) Exit" << endl; cin >> nSelection; } while (nSelection != 1 && nSelection != 2 && nSelection != 3 && nSelection != 4 && nSelection != 5); if (nSelection == 1) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1+var2) << endl; } http://eglobiotraining.com
    • LOOPING STATEMENT 4 else if (nSelection == 2) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1-var2) << endl; } else if (nSelection == 3) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1*var2) << endl; } else if (nSelection == 4) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1/var2) << endl; }else { return 0; } }} http://eglobiotraining.com
    • LOOPING STATEMENT 5 #include <iostream> using namespace std; // So the program can see cout and endl int main() { // The loop goes while x < 10, and x increases by one every loop for ( int x = 0; x < 10; x++ ) { // Keep in mind that the loop condition checks // the conditional statement before it loops again. // consequently, when x equals 10 the loop breaks. // x is updated before the condition is checked. cout<< x <<endl; } cin.get(); } http://eglobiotraining.com
    • LOOPING STATEMENT 6#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){ int x; x = 0; do { // "Hello, world!" is printed at least one time // even though the condition is false cout<<"Hello, world!n"; } while ( x != 0 ); cin.get();} http://eglobiotraining.com
    • LOOPING STATEMENT 7#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main (){int n;cout << "Enter the starting number > ";cin >> n;while (n>0) {cout << n << ", ";--n;}cout << "FIRE!n";return 0;} http://eglobiotraining.com
    • SWITCH CASE 1SWITCH CASE#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main (){ int score; cout << "What was your score?"; cin >> score; if (score <= 25) { cout << "nOuch, less than 25...!"; } http://eglobiotraining.com
    • SWITCH CASE 2else if (score <= 50) { cout << "nYou score aint great mate.."; } else if (score <= 75) { cout << "nYour pretty good, wel done man!"; } else if (score <= 100) { cout << "nYou got to the top!!!"; } http://eglobiotraining.com
    • SWITCH CASE 3 else { cout << "nYou cant score higher than 100!!! Cheater!!!!"; } cin.ignore(); cin.get(); return 0;} http://eglobiotraining.com
    • SWITCH CASE 4#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){cout << "Enter a number between 1 and 5!" << endl;int number;cin >> number;if(number == 1){cout << "one";}else if(number == 2){cout << "two";}else if(number == 3){cout << "three";}else if(number == 4){cout << "four";}else if(number == 5){cout << "five";}else{cout << number << " is not between 1 and 5!";}cout << endl;system("pause");} http://eglobiotraining.com
    • SWITCH CASE 5#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){int price_before_discount, RM, dozen, total_price;cout<< "How much is the price before discount for 1 dozen boxes of tissue?n";cout<<"RM ";cin>>price_before_discount;cout<<"nn";cout<< "How many dozen boxes of tissue you buy?n";cin>>dozen;cout<<"nn";switch (dozen){total_price = ((price_before_discount*dozen) * (95/100));case 1: cout<< "Total price is RM ";cout<<RM;cout<<"nn";break;total_price = ((price_before_discount*dozen) * (88/100));case 2: cout<< "Total price is RM ";cout<<RM;cout<<"nn";break;total_price = ((price_before_discount*dozen) * (75/100));case 3: cout<< "Total price is RM ";cout<<RM;cout<<"nn";break;total_price = ((price_before_discount*dozen) * (60/100));case 4 : cout<< "Total price is RM ";cout<<RM;cout<<"nn";break;total_price = ((price_before_discount*dozen) * (40/100));default : cout<< "Total price is RM ";cout<<RM;cout<<"nn";}return 0;} http://eglobiotraining.com
    • SWITCH CASE 6#include <stdlib.h>#include <stdio.h>int main(void) { int n; printf("Please enter a number: "); scanf("%d", &n); switch (n) { case 1: { printf("n is equal to 1!n"); break; } case 2: { printf("n is equal to 2!n"); break; } case 3: { printf("n is equal to 3!n"); break; } default: { printf("n isnt equal to 1, 2, or 3.n"); break; } } system("PAUSE"); return 0;} http://eglobiotraining.com
    • SWITCH CASE 7#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(void){ char grade; cout << "Enter your grade: "; cin >> grade; switch (grade) { case A: cout << "Your average must be between 90 - 100" << endl; break; case B: cout << "Your average must be between 80 - 89" << endl; break; case C: cout << "Your average must be between 70 - 79" << endl; break; case D: cout << "Your average must be between 60 - 69" << endl; break; default: cout << "Your average must be below 60" << endl; } return 0;} http://eglobiotraining.com
    • AN OUTPUTPROGRAM USING DEV C++ http://eglobiotraining.com
    • In this looping statement, I used “while” looping, and I choose to show MDASjust as an example for the program to run. If logical Expression evaluatesto true, the statement executes. The logical Expression is reevaluated. Thebody of the loop continues to execute until the logicalExpression is false http://eglobiotraining.com
    • I have came up with this by just starting to write this code: #include<iostream> and then enter the succeeding codes, compiled and run. http://eglobiotraining.com
    • I noticed that sometimes if the program does not run, it is because somebraces are not included and I accidentally put braces on the same line and itcauses the program not to read its contents. Programming issensitive, when there is missing variable or braces or some words it does notrun. http://eglobiotraining.com
    • When I learned that programming is very sensitive and at the sametime very detailed when it comes to entering codes, I make sure that itis clear means that I put everything important codes in it so that theprogram would run. http://eglobiotraining.com
    • . So much codes that should be entered that even the spaces are neededprogramming is very specific that whatever you have entered in to it youshould specify because when the statement is false it wouldn’t let you run theprogram, I have experienced it before I arrived at this result http://eglobiotraining.com
    • Because of so many experiences I had before this program run, Ifound programming is also interesting for the more you are practicing tomake a program run, the more questions that came up in my mind and trysomething that will fit to this or entering new codes to make matrix etc…that I know is possible. http://eglobiotraining.com
    • In this switch case missing out a break statement causes control tofall through to the next case label. Switches can always be replaced bynested if-else statements, but in some cases this may be more clumsy.Each break statement terminates the enclosing switch statement. Control flowcontinues with the first statement http://eglobiotraining.com
    • Unlike if-then and if-then-else statements, the switch statement canhave a number of possible execution paths, A switch works withthe byte, short, char, and int primitive data types. http://eglobiotraining.com
    • The switch statement evaluates its expression, then executes allstatements that follow the matching case label. http://eglobiotraining.com
    • The switch statement can include any numberof case instances, but no two case constants within the same switch statementcan have the same value. Execution of the statement body begins at theselected statement and proceeds until the jump-statement transfers controlout of the case body. http://eglobiotraining.com
    • THE SLIDE SHARE PAGE http://eglobiotraining.com
    • SUBMITTED TO: P RO F. E R W I N G L O B I OH T T P : / / E G L O B I O T R A I N I N G. COM/ Submitted by: Bulatao, Carlo June D. BM10203 http://eglobiotraining.com