IVANO-FRANKIVSK NATIONAL TECHNICALUNIVERSITY OF OIL AND GAS
Definition, Function and Purpose of an AbstractQualities, Types and Components of an AbstractWriting an Abstract: Dos and Don`ts, Style andVoiceExamples of a Mediocre Abstract and a GoodAbstractAnalyzing of Humanities and Science Abstracts
Abstracts: DefinitionAn is a self-containedoutline/brief summary of: a paper, a larger document, a study, a presentation.
when submitting articles to journals,especially online journalswhen applying for research grantswhen writing a book proposalwhen completing the Ph.D. dissertation orM.A. thesiswhen writing a proposal for a conferencepaperwhen writing a proposal for a book chapter
Purpose Help reader decide whether to readthe text or not Summarize the findings of the text Help scholars find your article
Qualities of an AbstractOne or more well-developed paragraphsShort (50-300 words; 3-5%)Stands aloneIncludes all the major elements of the larger text(in order)No new information
Reason for writing:What is the importance of the research? Why would a reader be interested in thelarger work?Problem:What problem does this work attempt to solve? What is the scope of the project?What is the main argument/thesis/claim?Methodology:An abstract of a scientific work may include specific models or approaches used inthe larger study. Other abstracts may describe the types of evidence used in theresearch.Results:Again, an abstract of a scientific work may include specific data that indicates theresults of the project. Other abstracts may discuss the findings in a more generalway.Implications:What changes should be implemented as a result of the findings of the work? Howdoes this work add to the body of knowledge on the topic?
Descriptive Informative• Used for humanities and • Used for sciences social science papers or engineering or psychology essays. psychology reports.• Describes the major • Informs the audience of points of the project to a all essential points of the reader. paper.• 50-100 words • About 200 words
Structure of an Abstract Descriptive Informative• Topic (background) • Topic (background)• Research Question • Research Question (aim (purpose) or purpose of research)• Particular interest/ • Methods used focus of paper • Results/findings• Overview of contents • Conclusion
Writing an Abstract over your paper and identify the keypoints for each section each section and shrink theinformation in each down to 1-2 sentences you have written one to twosentences for each of the key points outlinedabove the ideas with appropriatetransitions
Writing an Abstract and text as needed the word length and further reduce yourwords if necessary by cutting out unnecessarywords or rewriting some of the sentences intoa single , and edit for flow and expression
• Uses only that is , and is able to stand alone as a unit of information• Covers all the of the full-length paper• Contains• Usually does not include• In publications such as journals, it is found , but in academic assignments it is placed .
DOs: repeating information from the title• If many results, only the most important juts the major implications to your purpose and researchquestion
Good Abstracts: Writing Style• Use a clear and concise writing style• Remove or shorten any unnecessary words or phrases• Write in plain English understandable to a wider audience, as well as your discipline-specific audience• Use the language of the original paper, often in a more simplified form for the general reader• Use key words from the document.• Introduce specific terminology• If necessary, define unfamiliar terms, introduce acronyms• Avoid trade names, acronyms, abbreviations, symbols, and jargon
Voice• Modern scientific style prefers the active voice.Iron bauxites sweetened gasoline in air.• Abstracts are often an exception, but only if the passive voice reduces the total number of letters and words. Use passive structures in order to report on findings, focusing on the issues for the more general reader.• Avoid using I or we, but choose active verbs instead of passive when possible .
Mediocre Abstracts abstracts read like a table of contents in a sentence formExample: The behavior of editors is discussed. What should be covered by an abstract is considered. The importance of the abstract is described. Dictionary definitions of “abstract” are quoted. At the conclusion a revised abstract is presented.
Mediocre Abstracts• An improved example: The abstract is of utmost importance, for it is read by 10 to 500 times more people than hear the presentation or read the entire article. It should not be a mere recital of the subjects covered, replete with such expressions as “is discussed” and “is described.” It should be a condensation and concentration of the essential qualities of the Paper.
Example 1Here is an abstract from a published paper. It is 220 words long. ) Major problems of the arid region are transportation of agricultural products and losses due to spoilage of the products, especially in summer. This work presents the performance of a solar drying system consisting of an air heater and a dryer chamber connected to a greenhouse. The drying system is designed to dry a variety of agricultural products. The effect of air mass flow rate on the drying process is studied. Composite pebbles, which are constructed from cement and sand, are used to store energy for night operation. The pebbles are placed at the bottom of the drying chamber and are charged during the drying process itself. A separate test is done using a simulator, a packed bed storage unit, to find the thermal characteristics of the pebbles during charging and discharging modes with time. Accordingly, the packed bed is analyzed using a heat transfer model with finite difference technique described before and during the charging and discharging processes. Graphs are presented that depict the thermal characteristics and performance of the pebble beds and the drying patterns of different agricultural products. The results show that the amount of energy stored in the pebbles depends on the air mass flow rate, the inlet air temperature, and the properties of the storage materials. The composite pebbles can be used efficiently as storing media. Helwa, N. H. and Abdel Rehim, Z. S. (1997). Experimental Study of the Performance of Solar Dryers with Pebble Beds. Energy Sources, 19, 579-591.
Example 2(Here is an abstract from a published paper. It is 162 words long. ) The long-term performance of various systems was determined and the economic aspects of solar hot water production were investigated in this work. The effect of the collector inclination angle, collector area and storage volume was examined for all systems, and various climatic conditions and their payback period was calculated. It was found that the collector inclination angle does not have a significant effect on system performance. Large collector areas have a diminishing effect on the system’s overall efficiency. The increase in storage volume has a detrimental effect for small daily load volumes, but a beneficial one when there is a large daily consumption. Solar energy was found to be truly competitive when the conventional fuel being substituted is electricity, and it should not replace diesel oil on pure economic grounds. Large daily load volumes and large collector areas are in general associated with shorter payback periods. Overall, the systems are oversized and are economically suitable for large daily hot water load volumes. Haralambopoulos, D., Paparsenost, G. F., and Kovras, H. (1997) Assessing the Economic Aspects of Solar Hot Water Production in Greece. Renewable Energy, 11, 153-167.
• Do not Don’ts"this commence with paper…”, "this report…" or similar. It is better to write about the research than about the paper. Avoid use of "in this paper“, what other paper would you be talking about here?• Do not contain references• Do not use sentences that end in "…is described", "…is reported", "…is analyzed" or similar.• Do not begin sentences with "it is suggested that…” "it is believed that…", "it is felt that…"or similar. In every case, the four words can be omitted without damaging the essential message.• Do not repeat or rephrase the title.
• Do not enumerate a list of topics covered; instead, convey the essential information found in your paper.• Do not give equations and math. Exceptions: Your paper proposes E = m c 2.• Do not refer in the abstract to information that is not in the document.• If possible, do not use trade names, acronyms, abbreviations, or symbols. You would need to explain them, and that takes too much room.The abstract should be about the research, not about the act of writing.
This study (dissertation, research) es The findings from the research... aims to illuminate illustrate how... examines the role of... show that the impact of [insert text] on [insert text] is explores why... more complex than previously thought/assumed. investigates the effects of... address a controversial belief among practitioners that... assesses the impact of...on... developed and tested the idea that... illustrate the antecedents and consequences of [insert text] and [insert text] in... suggest that the effect of [variable X] on [variable Y] wasThis study (dissertation, research)... moderated over time when... is motivated by two research questions: (1) [Insert research question one] ?(2) [Insert research question two]? To examine these questions, the study … "[Insert a research question]?" is a fundamental question in The results, implications for managers, and future research are discussed. [the name of your area of interest]. Theoretical contributions and managerial implications of the findings are discussed.This study (dissertation, research)... has three goals: (1) [insert goal one], (2) [insert goal two], provide and (3) [insert goal three]. support for the key arguments. support the prediction that...This study advances our understanding of... support the model: offer insights into...Using comparative case analysis, this research explored the role prompt a re-thinking of [insert your area of interest] of...
There are some tricks that you could use to condense a piece of writing that you have agonizedover for weeks (or months, or even years) into a 250-word statement. – Write down the main idea of each paragraph on a separate piece of paper. – Try grouping the main ideas of each section of the paper into a single sentence. – For a scientific paper, you may have sections titled Purpose, Methods, Results, and Discussion grouped around a central idea. – Use reverse outlining to discover the central idea in each section and then distill these ideas into one statement. – To create a first draft of an abstract of your own work, you can read through the entire paper and cut and paste sentences that capture key passages. – A well-written humanities draft will have a clear and direct thesis statement and informative topic sentences for paragraphs or sections. – Isolate these sentences in a separate document and work on revising them into a unified paragraph.
You cannot summarize key ideas just by cutting and pasting. There are a few techniques that will helpyou determine what a prospective reader would want to know about the work. – Search through the entire document for key terms that identify the purpose, scope, and methods of the work. – Pay close attention to the Introduction (or Purpose) and the Conclusion (or Discussion). These sections should contain all the main ideas and key terms in the paper. – Be sure to incorporate the key terms. – Instead of cutting and pasting the actual words, try highlighting sentences or phrases that appear to be central to the work. – Rewrite the sentences and phrases in your own words. – After reading the entire work, put it aside and write a paragraph about the work without referring to it. – In the first draft, you may not remember all the key terms or the results, but you will remember what the main point of the work was. – Remember not to include any information you did not get from the work being abstracted.
Revise, revise, revise No matter what type of abstract you are writing, or whether you are abstracting your own work or someone else’s, When revising:• Delete all extraneous words and incorporate meaningful and powerful words.• The idea is to be as clear and complete as possible in the shortest possible amount of space.• The Word Count feature of Microsoft Word can help you keep track of how long your abstract is and help you hit your target length.
3 of social movements through a This dissertation examines the impactsmulti-layered study of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement from its peakin the early 1960s through the early 1980s. By examining this historicallyimportant case, I clarify the process by which movements transform socialstructures and the constraints movements face when they try to do so. Thetime period studied includes the expansion of voting rights and gains inblack political power, the desegregation of public schools and theemergence of white-flight academies, and the rise and fall of federal anti-poverty programs. I use two major research strategies: (1) a quantitativeanalysis of county-level data and (2) three case studies. Data have beencollected from archives, interviews, newspapers, and published reports.This dissertation challenges the argument that movements areinconsequential. Some view federal agencies, courts, political parties, oreconomic elites as the agents driving institutional change, but typicallythese groups acted in response to the leverage brought to bear by the civilrights movement. The Mississippi movement attempted to forgeindependent structures for sustaining challenges to local inequities andinjustices. By propelling change in an array of local institutions, movementinfrastructures had an enduring legacy in Mississippi.Kenneth Tait Andrews, “‘Freedom is a constant struggle’: The dynamics and consequences of theMississippi Civil Rights Movement, 1960-1984″ Ph.D. State University of New York at Stony Brook, 1997DAI-A 59/02, p. 620, Aug 1998
• Now let’s break down this abstract into its component parts to see how the author has distilled his entire dissertation into a ~200 word abstract. This dissertation examines the impacts of social movements through a multi-layered study of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement from its peak in the early 1960s through the early 1980s. By examining this historically important case, I clarify the process by which movements transform social structures and the constraints movements face when they try to do so. The time period studied in this dissertation includes the expansion of voting rights and gains in black political power, the desegregation of public schools and the emergence of white-flight academies, and the rise and fall of federal anti-poverty programs. I use two major research strategies: (1) a quantitative analysis of county-level data and (2) three case studies. Data have been collected from archives, interviews, newspapers, and published reports. This dissertation challenges the argument that movements are inconsequential. Some view federal agencies, courts, political parties, or economic elites as the agents driving institutional change, but typically these groups acted in response to movement demands and the leverage brought to bear by the civil rights movement. The Mississippi movement attempted to forge independent structures for sustaining challenges to local inequities and injustices. By propelling change in an array of local institutions, movement infrastructures had an enduring legacy in Mississippi. social movements, Civil Rights Movement, Mississippi, voting rights, desegregation
The problem of detecting 4gravitational radiation is receivingconsiderable attention with the construction of new detectors in the UnitedStates, Europe, and Japan. The theoretical modeling of the wave forms thatwould be produced in particular systems will expedite the search for andanalysis of detected signals. The characteristic formulation of GR isimplemented to obtain an algorithm capable of evolving black holes in 3Dasymptotically flat spacetimes. Using compactification techniques, futurenull infinity is included in the evolved region, which enables theunambiguous calculation of the radiation produced by some compactsource. A module to calculate the waveforms is constructed and included inthe evolution algorithm. This code is shown to be second-order convergentand to handle highly non-linear spacetimes. In particular, we have shownthat the code can handle spacetimes whose radiation is equivalent to agalaxy converting its whole mass into gravitational radiation in one second.We further use the characteristic formulation to treat the region close tothe singularity in black hole spacetimes. The code carefully excises a regionsurrounding the singularity and accurately evolves generic black holespacetimes with apparently unlimited stability.Luis Lehner, “Gravitational radiation from black hole spacetimes” Ph.D.University of Pittsburgh, 1998 DAI-B 59/06, p. 2797, Dec 1998
• This science abstract covers much of the same ground as the humanities one, but it asks slightly different questions. The problem of detecting gravitational radiation is receiving considerable attention with the construction of new detectors in the United States, Europe, and Japan. The theoretical modeling of the wave forms that would be produced in particular systems will expedite the search and analysis of the detected signals. The characteristic formulation of GR is implemented to obtain an algorithm capable of evolving black holes in 3D asymptotically flat spacetimes. Using compactification techniques, future null infinity is included in the evolved region, which enables the unambiguous calculation of the radiation produced by some compact source. A module to calculate the waveforms is constructed and included in the evolution algorithm. This code is shown to be second-order convergent and to handle highly non-linear spacetimes. In particular, we have shown that the code can handle spacetimes whose radiation is equivalent to a galaxy converting its whole mass into gravitational radiation in one second. We further use the characteristic formulation to treat the region close to the singularity in black hole spacetimes. The code carefully excises a region surrounding the singularity and accurately evolves generic black hole spacetimes with apparently unlimited stability. gravitational radiation (GR), spacetimes, black holes