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Application of water evaluation and planning (WEAP)
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  • 1. Application of Water Evaluationand Planning (WEAP) tool forWater Resource ManagementFrancis Oloo & Jigme Thinley
  • 2. Outline Introduction Objectives Modeling process in WEAP Creating Scenarios in WEAP Impact of population growth Impact of climate change Results Conclusion
  • 3. Introduction Water is an essential resource upon which alllife depends. Even though water constitutes three quartersof the earth surface, not all this is available forhuman consumption. There is a great difference in availability ofwater from region to region, with extremecases in deserts Scarcity in the amount of water calls forefficient water resource management.
  • 4. Water resource management Aims at optimizing the available naturalwater flows to satisfy competing needswhile ensuring that quality is notcompromised. Key principles of Water ResourceManagement Water and sanitation sector is affected by wateruse in other sectors There are potential positive and negative impactsof all water uses There is need for a holistic view to ensure
  • 5. Water Evaluation and Planning(WEAP) Is a microcomputer tool for water resourceplanning Implements an integrated approach, placingsupply projects in the context of demand-sideissues, quality and ecosystem preservation. WEAP allows users to implement “what if”analysis WEAP tool is developed by Stockholm
  • 6. Objectives Create a simple water management system withsupply and demand nodes Analyse optimal water use within the watermanagement system as a result of changingdemand and supply scenarios Analyse the impact of population growth andclimate change on demand and supply equilibrium
  • 7. Area of Study/DemonstrationSite Weap River Basin This is a hypothetical data set associated withWEAP system. Designed to aide the user in exploring variouscomponents of WEAP
  • 8. Modeling Process in WEAPDefining the study area andtime steps for analysisEvaluation of resultsCreation of future scenariosCreation of the currentAccounts
  • 9. Schematic view:• consists of GIS tools that can be used to configure thesystem• Icons for drainage components are used to drag and dropcomponents at the appropriate positionNotes:Documentation of data specifications and assumptionsScenario Explorer:Allows the user to design and display unique outputs from variousmodel aspects, gives a “bird’s eye” view of the modelResults view:• Allows for presentation of model outputs both in graphical andtabular formatData view:• This is where the system data is modeled•Allows for assumptions to be made and can be dynamically linkedto Excel
  • 10. WEAP System Elements Demand sites: A set of users sharing physicaldistribution system (geographical) Catchments: Points created to account forprecipitation, ET, runoff, irrigation and yield fromagricultural and non-agricultural fields Reservoirs: Reservoir sites on the river Stream flow gauges: points where actual flowmeasurements are acquired, can be comparedwith simulated values Ground water nodes: represent ground watersources and aquifers Waste Water treatment plants
  • 11. Creating system elements• GIS layers (shapefiles and topographic maps) than can be used asgeographic references for the various elements
  • 12. Defining time steps
  • 13. Creating Current Accounts
  • 14.  Key aspects to be defined include: Key assumptions in the system Demand sites in the system and the currentstatus of water demand Hydrology, defining the current inflows into thesystem and the expected variations Supply and resources, supply nodes andtransmission links and the associated costs inrunning and maintaining Water treatment plants and associated cost oftreatmentCreating Current Accounts
  • 15. Creating Scenarios in WEAP• The scenario explorer can be used to createnew (rename) scenarios and to define thevariables associated with them•Previously defined scenarios can also bedeleted
  • 16. Impact of population growth onwater demand In the study an assumption is made that thepopulation will grow uniformly at a rate of 3.3%per annum, for the period 2010-2020 Expression builder within WEAP can be usedto calculate the interpolated population of eachyear if the population of the start year isknown.
  • 17. Impact of climate change on waterresources Two methods can be used to account forimpact of climate change on the hydrology ofthe system ReadFromFile method: Used when detailedforecasts are available and can simply be readinto the system Water Year Method: Each year is defined eitheras “normal”, “wet”, “very wet”, “dry”, “very dry”.The inflows of wet, very wet, dry and very dryyears relative to a normal year can be defined.E.g if a wet year averagely has 25% more inflowthan a normal year then a value of 1.25 will be setto the wet year relative to the normal year.
  • 18. Impact of climate change on waterresources2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020Normalwet verywetwet normal dry dry verydryverydrydry normal
  • 19. Results
  • 20. Unmet demands
  • 21. Unmet demands
  • 22. Ground Water Storage
  • 23. Exporting the system to GoogleEarth
  • 24. Conclusion WEAP is a valuable tool for water resourceplanning and evaluation, easy to learn anduse. Very useful for policy decision in waterresource management. It is possible to use GIS layers for referencingand visualization, the integration needs to beenhanced to allow for analysis and mapcreation The tool has additional inbuilt modules likeMODFLOW and MODPATH which should beexplored