Tv drama 3 representation of masculinity


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Tv drama 3 representation of masculinity

  1. 1. Representation task Get into 4 groups. You can pick your own groups, but the only stipulation is that you must be with people who you haven’t worked with in the preliminary task or the camera angle presentations.... GO! Read what it says on your sheet. Do not share the information with the other groups. GET ON WITH THE TASK!
  2. 2. What do we know about representation? • The term representation refers to “the way the media constructs aspects of real life” • Point of view, messages and values often underlie media representations. • Representations often reveal the dominant ideology of the culture which created them • Representations change over time
  3. 3. When analysing television and film, it is vital to understand how narrative is used to construct meaning NARRATIVE is the media terminology for story telling. Narrative is the way different elements are organised to create an entertaining, meaningful story.
  4. 4. Narrative structure NARRATIVE STRUCTURE is the way a story or plot unfolds It could be open or closed For example, a film will usually (but not always) have a closed narrative Whereas a soap will have an open ended narrative- there is no final conclusion
  5. 5. Multi-stranded narratives This is very common in soaps and on-going television dramas. This means that there is more than one narrative happening at the same time
  6. 6. Linear and non-linear Linear narratives are organised in chronological order: hours, days, months, years. Non-linear narratives are organised out of chronological order. Often used to simulate human skills of memory and recall For example, Pulp Fiction & The Dark Knight Rises
  7. 7. When analysing television drama, it is often useful to consider narrative theories. These can give us an insight into HOW MEANING IS CREATED (representation) and the CODES and CONVENTIONS of the genre or sub-genre
  8. 8. Tzvetan Todorov Todorov suggests there are five stages to how the narrative progresses: 1. The equilibrium has to be carefully shown (otherwise the disruption may not be dramatic enough to create a strong plot) 2. There is a disruption 3. There is a recognition that a disruption has happened. 4. There is an attempt to repair the damage done by the disruption. 5. A new equilibrium is achieved.
  9. 9. The narrative is driven by the characters’ attempts to restore the equilibrium, although the end result is not quite the same as the beginning. Todorov argues that a good narrative involves transformation When a new equilibrium is achieved, the characters may have changed for the better in their behaviours or their outlook on life
  10. 10. Casualty Watch the clip and analyse how narrative is constructed Think about: • The correct media terminology that can be applied. • How the characters and events drive the narrative? • The narrative conventions of the genre? Can you apply the theory?
  11. 11. Casualty w
  13. 13. What is representation? A RE PRESENTATION The way in which the media constructs aspects of society, including: •Age •Gender •Ethnicity •Events/ issues •Ability/disability •Identity (national/regional/sexuality) •Class and status
  14. 14. What is the difference between sex and gender? Sex: Biological grouping What makes us male and female
  15. 15. Gender: ‘Masculinity’ and ‘Femininity’ What it means to be masculine and feminine Created by social and cultural influence Redefined over time
  16. 16. So, what does it mean to be masculine?
  17. 17. Gender Stereotypes Consider: Why might the media utilize a ‘stereotypical’ representation of men? Who constructs these stereotypes? The media? Or society? How might different groups of people interpret stereotypes?
  18. 18. Gender stereotypes Consider these two Total Film covers Ask yourselves: How is Mark Wahlberg presented? How is Angelina Jolie presented?
  19. 19. Audience response Who do you think this magazine is aimed at? Are these representations dominant or preferred representations? Would males/females interpret this text differently?
  20. 20. Vladamir Propp (1895- 1970). He studied folk tales and found fairy tales shared basic narrative elements. He proposed ways of grouping characters and their actions into eight broad character types or ‘spheres of action’. You can see how these work by their title
  21. 21. • 1. the VILLAIN – known to scriptwriters as the antagonist because he seeks to stop what the HERO wants to do. • 2. the HERO – known as the protagonist who has to fulfil his destiny in the story. This may be a quest for fame and fortune, or true love or the search for a lost parent or a quest to put right a former injustice or save the planet. • 3. the DONOR is the character who provides a special device so that the hero can fulfil his or her mission. James Bond has gadgets. A donor can give a magical device such as a sword – Excalibur in King Arthur or be a fairy godmother providing the means for the heroine to reach the prince.
  22. 22. • 4. the HELPER – the hero has to have a side-kick who helps the hero in the quest. • 5. the PRINCESS – remember that Propp had studied fairy tales so he uses terms that are familiar in traditional stories. The princess is the reward for the hero and often the desire of the antagonist who seeks to involve her in his schemes to out wit the hero. • 6. Her FATHER – the person who rewards the hero for his achievements and also can provide a moral safeguard for the hero to be measured against. Think of the importance of the king in Shrek.
  23. 23. • 7. the DISPATCHER – the character who sees that something needs to be done and sets up the hero’s quest and sends him out into the world to fulfil his task. • 8. the FALSE HERO – the character who also lays claim to the princess but is unsuitable and causes complications. These character types can be shared by one or more characters. The dispatcher may also be the donor who gives the magical ring or sword. M dispatches James Bond and allows him to have the gadgets he needs to achieve the mission
  24. 24. With the person sitting next to you, note down different ways camera angles/shots can be used to represent a traditional Proppian hero and the effects they might have on the audience. Use the correct media terminology. You have 5 minutes
  25. 25. Sherlock BBC One Watch the clip and consider how masculinity is represented. Think about: Does this representation confirm or challenge traditional notions of gender? Then, can you draw on the theory?
  26. 26. Sherlock
  27. 27. Now watch it again Note down the ways in which the extract constructs representations of masculinity using camera shots, angles and movements.
  28. 28. Sherlock
  29. 29. Binary opposition It is 'a theory of meaning‘ Claude Levi-Strauss In the mid-20th century Claude Levi Strauss had the important insight that the way we understand certain words depends not so much on any meaning they themselves directly contain, but much more by our understanding of the difference between the word and its 'opposite' or, as he called it 'binary opposite'. He realised that words merely act as symbols for society's ideas and that the meaning of words, therefore, was a relationship rather than a fixed thing: a relationship between opposing ideas.
  30. 30. Examples: Good vs. Evil- there can only be good when there is evil Hero vs. Villain Light vs. Dark Masculine vs. Feminine
  31. 31. Masculinity V Femininity Masculinity is ALWAYS connected with, opposed to, and in relation to femininity. ‘Crisis of masculinity’ (?)
  32. 32. ‘The male gaze’ Laura Mulvey wrote a book called “ Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema” in 1975 and coined the phrase ‘the male gaze’ What is the gaze? The concept of gaze is one that deals with how an audience views the people presented. For feminists it can be thought of in 3 ways: How men look at women How women look at themselves How women look at other women.
  33. 33. Mulvey believes that in film, audiences have to ‘view’ characters from the perspective of a heterosexual male. Features of the Male Gaze The camera lingers on the curves of the female body, and events which occur to women are presented largely in the context of a man's reaction to these events. Relegates women to the status of objects. The female viewer must experience the narrative secondarily, by identification with the male.
  34. 34. U
  35. 35. Watch the following video carefully
  36. 36. Answer the questions • What colour top were the male and female wearing? • What bowling lane did they use? • What colour belt were each of the characters wearing? • What colour shoes? • What colour eyes?
  37. 37. The male gaze and narrative Feminist theories also suggest that narrative is also determined by the male. They have the power to change the direction of the plot, save the day, and restore the equilibrium
  38. 38. The Tudors Watch the following clip and answer the following question: How is gender represented in this sequence? Comment on: Narrative conventions Camera angles Apply theories where relevant.
  39. 39. The Tudors rM s
  40. 40. Warrior (2011) Watch the trailer How does this clip confirm and/or challenge the masculine stereotype?
  41. 41. Key terms for analysis Denotation Connotation Editing Mise-en-scene Encoding Decoding Audio codes Technical codes Symbols
  42. 42. Next session: