A condition, episode, person or group of persons
emerges to become defined as a threat to
societal values and interests; its nature is
presented in a stylized and stereotypical
fashion by the mass media
Stanley Cohen (1972)
QUESTIONS WE WILL ANSWER IN
• How is youth represented in the
• How does media language work to
• How are some representations
stereotyped and stylized?
What do we already know about
I want EACH OF YOU to come and write a word
or short phrase on the board which you think
describes or explains representation. When
you are not using the board, copy down what
the others have written.
You have 30 seconds to think of something.
• Everything you see or hear in ALL types of
media has been carefully SELECTED and
CONSTRUCTED in order to create meaning
•Media representations often reflect the
dominant ideologies of the society in which
they are created
“HOODIES AND ALTAR BOYS”
The word most commonly used by newspapers to
describe teenage boys was "yobs" (591
times), followed by "thugs" (254 times), "sick" (119
times) and "feral" (96 times).
Other terms often used
included "hoodie", "louts",
Research showed the best chance a teenager had of
receiving sympathetic coverage was if they died.
Camera Angles/ Shots:
High Camera Angle
Low Camera Angle
Hand Held Camera
Point of View
Diegetic Sound (in the world of the
film)- dialogue, ambient sounds,
Non-Diegetic Sound (not in the
world of the film)- Soundtrack,
voice over, etc.
Eye Line Match
Everything that is on the screenLocation
In pairs, analyse how either technical, audio or
symbolic codes are used to create meaning.
Camera Camera Symbolic Editing
Questions to consider
• How is youth represented in this
• How do technical codes, audio codes and
symbolic codes work to create meaning?
• Can you apply Cohen’s theory that
representations are stylized and
stereotyped (through media language)?
How do technical, audio and symbolic codes
work to construct representations of youths in