Population Higher Geography The Human Core Ollie Bray PT Geography Dunbar Grammar School www.exc-el.org.uk
Population
Things you must know! Case studies More economically developed countries Less economically developed countries Eg: France ...
This talk <ul><li>Demographic Transition Model </li></ul><ul><li>Typical population patterns (LEDCs & MEDCs) </li></ul><ul...
Demographic Transition Model (Demography is the study of population)
Births and Deaths per 1000 people per year HIGH LOW Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Birth Rate Death Rate Total Population...
MEDC Narrow Base Almost constant Width Does not narrow until the age of 70
What are the reasons why? Narrow Base Almost constant Width Does not narrow until the age of 70
Narrow Base Low birth rate Wide spread birth control High standard of living Small family culture High literacy rates Low ...
Almost constant width Low infant mortality rate and very few young deaths Absence of fatal endemic diseases Good living co...
Does not narrow until 70 High life expectancy Geriatric care Advanced medical treatments and facilities Improved  medical ...
LEDC Wide Base Narrows quickly Narrows above the age of 50
Narrows quickly High infant mortality rate and many young deaths Malnutrition & undernutrition Lack of health education Po...
Broad Base High Birth Rate Children can work and help adults Provide security in old age Religion & culture Desire to have...
Narrow above the age of 50 <ul><li>Poor living conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shanty towns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wa...
Births and Deaths per 1000 people per year HIGH LOW Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Birth Rate Death Rate Total Population...
What happens after stage 4? Population decline From Scotsman 1/10/2002
Population Change MEDCs Vs LEDCs
MEDC Falling Birth Rate <ul><li>Fewer maternity hospitals needed (closures). </li></ul><ul><li>Few school children leads t...
LEDC Falling Birth Rate <ul><li>As the number of children falls the government will be able to provide more effective educ...
MEDC Increasing Life Expectancy <ul><li>As the life expectancy increases there will be more, old, retired people who are c...
LEDC Falling Death Rate <ul><li>As the death rate falls, life expectancy will increase with the population able to work mo...
Migration
Some Definitions Rural – Urban Migration Urban – Rural Migration Urban – Urban Migration Voluntary Migration Forced Migrat...
Migration usually involves push factors and pull factors
Pull factors PULL Medical Care Better Housing Better Living Conditions Better Services Education Job Opportunities Family ...
Push factors PUSH Few Opportunities Natural disasters Shortage of Food Political Fears Unhappy Life Poor Infrastructure Wa...
Country of Origin <ul><li>Relieves local unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Returning workers bring back ‘hard currency’ </li>...
Host Country <ul><li>Guest workers do menial tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Solves unemployment shortages in less desirable jobs ...
Your Notes Revision Guides Past Exam Questions Case Studies Don't Forget
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SAGT Higher Student Conference Population Presentation

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SAGT Higher Student Conference Population Presentation

  1. 1. Population Higher Geography The Human Core Ollie Bray PT Geography Dunbar Grammar School www.exc-el.org.uk
  2. 2. Population
  3. 3. Things you must know! Case studies More economically developed countries Less economically developed countries Eg: France Eg: India
  4. 4. This talk <ul><li>Demographic Transition Model </li></ul><ul><li>Typical population patterns (LEDCs & MEDCs) </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of population change. </li></ul><ul><li>Migration </li></ul>
  5. 5. Demographic Transition Model (Demography is the study of population)
  6. 6. Births and Deaths per 1000 people per year HIGH LOW Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Birth Rate Death Rate Total Population Ethiopia Bangladesh India Kenya Chile Uruguay USA Japan eg:
  7. 7. MEDC Narrow Base Almost constant Width Does not narrow until the age of 70
  8. 8. What are the reasons why? Narrow Base Almost constant Width Does not narrow until the age of 70
  9. 9. Narrow Base Low birth rate Wide spread birth control High standard of living Small family culture High literacy rates Low infant mortality People are more career minded
  10. 10. Almost constant width Low infant mortality rate and very few young deaths Absence of fatal endemic diseases Good living conditions (sanitation, clean drinking water) Doctors & Hospitals Widespread medical care Balanced diets
  11. 11. Does not narrow until 70 High life expectancy Geriatric care Advanced medical treatments and facilities Improved medical drugs
  12. 12. LEDC Wide Base Narrows quickly Narrows above the age of 50
  13. 13. Narrows quickly High infant mortality rate and many young deaths Malnutrition & undernutrition Lack of health education Poor sanitation Endemic and epidemic diseases Poverty Lack of medical care & supplies War
  14. 14. Broad Base High Birth Rate Children can work and help adults Provide security in old age Religion & culture Desire to have large families why? High infant mortality rates Lack of effective birth control and availability of advice
  15. 15. Narrow above the age of 50 <ul><li>Poor living conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shanty towns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Droughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Famines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of vaccinations </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Births and Deaths per 1000 people per year HIGH LOW Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Birth Rate Death Rate Total Population Ethiopia Bangladesh India Kenya Chile Uruguay USA Japan eg: Pre-1750 1750 - 1875 1875 - 1940 Post - 1940
  17. 17. What happens after stage 4? Population decline From Scotsman 1/10/2002
  18. 18. Population Change MEDCs Vs LEDCs
  19. 19. MEDC Falling Birth Rate <ul><li>Fewer maternity hospitals needed (closures). </li></ul><ul><li>Few school children leads to school closures and teacher redundancies. </li></ul><ul><li>May be shortage of skilled workforce and a smaller workforce will earn less money for the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Less money will be available for public services. </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer school leavers will help the unemployment situation. </li></ul>
  20. 20. LEDC Falling Birth Rate <ul><li>As the number of children falls the government will be able to provide more effective education and medical services. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher/student ratios will reduce and this should improve literacy rates. </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer mouths to feed should improve malnutrition and undernourishment problems. </li></ul><ul><li>In the future unemployment should fall together with housing shortages etc.. </li></ul>
  21. 21. MEDC Increasing Life Expectancy <ul><li>As the life expectancy increases there will be more, old, retired people who are classified as non-productive. </li></ul><ul><li>The government will need extra finance to support these people (eg: pensions, hospitals, geriatric care etc.) </li></ul>
  22. 22. LEDC Falling Death Rate <ul><li>As the death rate falls, life expectancy will increase with the population able to work more productively. </li></ul><ul><li>The falling death rate together with the healthier population should reduce the need for spending on medical services, hospitals, doctors etc. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Migration
  24. 24. Some Definitions Rural – Urban Migration Urban – Rural Migration Urban – Urban Migration Voluntary Migration Forced Migration Temporary Migration Permanent Migration Internal Migration International Migration
  25. 25. Migration usually involves push factors and pull factors
  26. 26. Pull factors PULL Medical Care Better Housing Better Living Conditions Better Services Education Job Opportunities Family Links Brighter Lights of the City
  27. 27. Push factors PUSH Few Opportunities Natural disasters Shortage of Food Political Fears Unhappy Life Poor Infrastructure Wars Not Enough Jobs
  28. 28. Country of Origin <ul><li>Relieves local unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Returning workers bring back ‘hard currency’ </li></ul><ul><li>Workers learn new skills </li></ul><ul><li>Workers send home money to families </li></ul><ul><li>Less crowding on land </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Brain drain’ of more enterprising workers </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of male workers at home </li></ul><ul><li>Damaged economy </li></ul><ul><li>Social problems because of lack of males </li></ul>Benefits Problems
  29. 29. Host Country <ul><li>Guest workers do menial tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Solves unemployment shortages in less desirable jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Enriches the countries culture </li></ul><ul><li>Language difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination & riots </li></ul><ul><li>Housing shortages </li></ul><ul><li>Local unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of services </li></ul>Benefits Problems
  30. 30. Your Notes Revision Guides Past Exam Questions Case Studies Don't Forget
  31. 31. Questions

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